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Agua y Cambio Climático 1 glacier melt

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  • 1. Glacier melt John M. Reynolds Reynolds International Ltd, Mold, UK2
  • 2. Changes in glaciers over time Andes Patagonia IPCC (2007)3
  • 3. Glacial hazards and climate changeAs climate changes:• The number of glacial lake systems increases• The volume of water stored in lakes increases → The hazard increases Rural development is increasing into the high mountains: • More roads, bridges; • Mining • Hydropower • Communities • Tourist trails/lodges → The vulnerability increases4
  • 4. Residual lake Breach Houses
  • 5. Dig Tsho, Nepal, 1985 (Courtesy of WECS)6
  • 6. The imminent destruction of the Machupicchu HEP scheme, Peru, 1998. Net cost to the Peruvian economy ~$200 million over 3 years7
  • 7. Glacial hazards and mining Debris-covered glaciers Debris Water8 Copper mine in Chile
  • 8. 9 Destruction of mine haul roads through ice flow and wash-out, Chile
  • 9. Glacial hazard management dilemma Drain the potential flood waters from the lake Keep the water reservoir in the lake Maintain water resource? OR Reduce the Hazard? Or can we do both?10
  • 10. Hualcán, Peru © JMR, 1993 1993 © CP, 1988 1988 1988 © JMR, 198811
  • 11. Hualcán case history, 11th April 2010 Photo: C. Portocarrero, April 201012
  • 12. Impact of climate change on glaciers: conclusions • Generally, glaciers are shrinking in response to climate change, with implications for future water supplies and usage • Glacial hazards are growing and changing with time • Communities, hydropower, infrastructure and mining, etc., are being adversely affected with significant economic costs • Hazards can be identified and risks assessed objectively • Risks can be reduced and resource management improved through implementation of an integrated strategy13
  • 13. Thank you for your attention14
  • 14. Independent geological & geophysical consultants Reynolds International Ltd Unit 17, Mold Business Park Wrexham Road, Mold, Flintshire, CH7 1XP Tel: +44-1352-756196; Fax: +44-1352-759353 Email: info@reynolds-international.co.uk Web: www.reynolds-international.co.uk15