Team C Time Management Alexandria Velez, Elizabeth, Patte,  Patricia, & Sam
<ul><li>There is a problem in time management in the doctoral community. Despite attending introductory and orientation co...
PAPES Model Based on the Ladder of Inference Model (Argris, 1990; Senge et al., 1994) and the Attitude Choice Model (Ritte...
<ul><li>Replicable – Remain same size but different application </li></ul><ul><li>Generalizable – Completely away from cur...
<ul><li>Headquarters : Atlanta, GA </li></ul><ul><li>Type of Business:  package delivery  </li></ul><ul><li>Package delive...
<ul><li>Headquarters : New York, NY </li></ul><ul><li>Type of Business : website development and hosting </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>Headquarters : California, U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Type of Business : technology company </li></ul><ul><li>This org...
<ul><li>Headquarters : Phoenix, AZ </li></ul><ul><li>Type of Business : educational </li></ul><ul><li>This organization es...
<ul><li>Situation :  Completing an essay homework assignment </li></ul><ul><li>Influences :  The course requires that the ...
<ul><li>Situation : Trailer from Harrisburg Hub late to Annapolis Delivery Center </li></ul><ul><li>Influences : 100 packa...
<ul><li>Situation :  Create an Operating System security patch within 3 months. </li></ul><ul><li>Influences :   </li></ul...
<ul><li>Situation:  Add website legal policies by the end of the day. </li></ul><ul><li>Influences: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>This is the PAPES model.  This model emphasizes the flow of time management in the doctoral community.  There are ...
<ul><li>Data or experiences are observable.  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We can analyze processes within the organization to det...
PAPES Model Reflects PRAXIS <ul><li>How the model promotes reflective praxis </li></ul><ul><li>Praxis means “theory plus a...
<ul><li>Change is continuous </li></ul><ul><li>Change is our only constant </li></ul><ul><li>Change is progress </li></ul>...
<ul><li>The lives of today's doctoral students are complex.  &quot;Family concerns, employment, finances, community issues...
<ul><li>Decreased stress  (allows leader to have more energy, better attitude) </li></ul><ul><li>Improved organization (le...
<ul><li>Interpersonal relationships suffer under the effects of stress </li></ul><ul><li>Community requires time to be est...
<ul><li>Dean, D., & Webb, C. (2011). Recovering from information overload.  Mckinsey Quarterly , (1), 80-88. </li></ul><ul...
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Part Two to Team Assignment for PHL/700R

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This was a team assignment geared towards the problems with time management in the doctoral community. From the problem statement: Despite attending introductory and orientation courses, time management issues are occurring. This problem has negatively impacted the doctoral students because of stress, poor organization, and productivity challenges. One possible cause of this problem is the rigorous and multiple demands of the doctoral degree. Potential qualitative evidence found through research investigations may produce causes of ineffective time management and strategies to remedy the situation.

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  • Elizabeth This is the PAPES model, based on the Ladder of Inference Model (Argris, 1990; Senge et al., 1994) and the Attitude Choice Model (Ritter-Williams, 2007).
  • Elizabeth Examples that will be present in this presentation: Replicable – Gabriels Technology Solutions will continue to serve current cohort applying the same application to another organization of related industry, such as UoP. Generalizable – Gabriels Technology Solutions (GTS) versus UPS. GTS will continue information technology services and follow the PAPES model. UPS will continue to serve their customers by delivering their packages. Scalable – Apple Inc will be served as well as Gabriels Technology Solutions. Flexible – GTS will make the necessary changes needed to better enhance services for their customers.
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  • Patricia The intervention is a Time Management Program that includes a lecture/instructional component, actual samples that will allow actual manipulation to the recipient to design a system that works for them (folders, day planners, etc), lists of changes that can be implemented…an actual hands on portion, and group work. Results will be obtained through either a survey seeking descriptive responses, or a face to face interview utilizing open ended questions. After compiling those results, a determination will be made as to what changes will be implemented in any phase of the model.
  • Patricia The model allows researchers to obtain success criteria through collection of data or observation of work flow processes. The study should obtain data collected over the long term so that organizational leaders can determine whether or not the intervention effects are sustainable over time. Companies seek greater time management within their organizations. They rank their needs and wants in terms of importance, establish goals, and prioritize tasks. In accordance with the model, they seek intervention when time management policies fail or produce less than desirable results. The model dictates that the situation of time management encounters influences or challenges. These influences or barriers to effective time management create consequences. Possible consequences that could occur may be workflow slowdown, workforce tensions, and higher operational expenses. By intervening, leadership can implement more effective plans to correct negative consequences in time management deficiencies. Leaders seek positive results from time management process improvements; however, implementation of new programs and procedures do not necessarily guarantee positive results. If positive results are observed, then the model has been successful . In the event of no change or negative results, management should seek an alternative intervention . Management should seek continuous practice of the model with differentiating intervention criteria until the desired results are derived. Reference: Macan, T. (1994). Time Management: Test of a Process Model. Journal of Applied Psychology . 79( 3 ), p. 381-391.
  • Patricia The model promotes reflective praxis because the assumptions are validated with action-oriented research. Data is collected from actively observing the process. Reflective praxis involves a commitment to challenging status quo (Kemmis, 2010). Organizations seek time management improvements and industry results can be compared. The model is initiated to observe inefficiencies in time management and offer solutions for improvement. Although research may accumulate data, the ultimate goal is transformation of the action into the end goal which is improved time management. These improvement increase productivity, improve employee efficiencies, and overall profitability is increased.   - Reference:  Kemmis, S. (2010). Research for Praxis. Knowing doing. Pedogogy, Culture &amp; Society. 18(1), p. 9-27.
  • Patricia The PAPSE model of thinking remains relative for present and future interventions. In today’s marketplace, organizations must remain innovative and reinvent themselves in order to stay competitive. Not only can the model be applied to correct inefficiencies but also to track innovation. Organizations can utilize the model to create and track subsequent outcomes (results) triggered by varying influence criteria for future interventions. The model can be used for future interventions in two ways. The most obvious is looping back to the situational event and influence and reworking the model by changing the intervention criteria until desirable results are obtained. Secondly the model can be used in an experimental method for manipulation of influential and intervention criteria to determine possible outcomes.
  • Patte
  • Patte
  • Patte a social, religious, occupational, or other group sharing common characteristics or interests and perceived or perceiving itself as distinct in some respect from the larger society within which  it exists (usually preceded by the ): the business community; the community of scholars.
  • Part Two to Team Assignment for PHL/700R

    1. 1. Team C Time Management Alexandria Velez, Elizabeth, Patte, Patricia, & Sam
    2. 2. <ul><li>There is a problem in time management in the doctoral community. Despite attending introductory and orientation courses, time management issues are occurring. This problem has negatively impacted the doctoral students because of stress, poor organization, and productivity challenges. One possible cause of this problem is the rigorous and multiple demands of the doctoral degree. Potential qualitative evidence found through research investigations may produce causes of ineffective time management and strategies to remedy the situation. </li></ul>Problem Statement
    3. 3. PAPES Model Based on the Ladder of Inference Model (Argris, 1990; Senge et al., 1994) and the Attitude Choice Model (Ritter-Williams, 2007)
    4. 4. <ul><li>Replicable – Remain same size but different application </li></ul><ul><li>Generalizable – Completely away from current field of interest </li></ul><ul><li>Scalable – Same industry but different size of organization </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible – Built into any organization for current interest </li></ul>Responsibilities of the Model
    5. 5. <ul><li>Headquarters : Atlanta, GA </li></ul><ul><li>Type of Business: package delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Package delivery or parcel delivery is the shipping of packages (parcels) or high value mail as single shipments. </li></ul><ul><li>Employees: 398,300 Worldwide (324,000 U.S.; 74,300 International) </li></ul><ul><li>Daily Delivery Volume:  15.6 million packages and documents </li></ul><ul><li>Daily U.S. Air Volume: 2.2 million packages and documents </li></ul><ul><li>Daily International Volume: 2.3 million packages and documents </li></ul><ul><li>Service Area: More than 220 countries and territories; every address in North America and Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Customers: 8.5 million daily (1.1 million pick-up, 7.4 million delivery) </li></ul><ul><li>Facilities:  823 facilities in more than 120 countries </li></ul>United Parcel Service
    6. 6. <ul><li>Headquarters : New York, NY </li></ul><ul><li>Type of Business : website development and hosting </li></ul><ul><li>This organization develops websites for other organizations such as NYTimes, HGTV, Sotheby’s International Real Estate, and Hearst. </li></ul><ul><li>Employees : 107 total (60+ in New York, USA, 20+ in Chennai, India, 20+ in Brasov, Romania) </li></ul><ul><li>Clients : 60+ </li></ul><ul><li>Service area : Global </li></ul>Gabriels Technology Solutions
    7. 7. <ul><li>Headquarters : California, U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Type of Business : technology company </li></ul><ul><li>This organization produces computer hardware, computer software, consumer electronics, and distributes digital media. </li></ul><ul><li>Employees : 60,400 (as of 2011) </li></ul><ul><li>Retail stores: 367 </li></ul><ul><li>Industry: computer hardware, computer software, consumer electronics, digital distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Product lists: Mac, iPod, iPhone, iPad, Apple TV, Mac OS X, iLife, iWork, iOS </li></ul><ul><li>Service list : Apple Store, Apple Store online, App Store, iTunes Store, iBooks, iCloud </li></ul>Apple, Inc.
    8. 8. <ul><li>Headquarters : Phoenix, AZ </li></ul><ul><li>Type of Business : educational </li></ul><ul><li>This organization establishes degrees and certifications for students. </li></ul><ul><li>Students : 600,000 (as of 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Service area : Online and campus in USA </li></ul><ul><li>Doctoral degree program concentration : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Doctor of Management in Organizational Leadership in Information Systems and Technology </li></ul></ul>University of Phoenix: Information Technology Program
    9. 9. <ul><li>Situation : Completing an essay homework assignment </li></ul><ul><li>Influences : The course requires that the homework assignment is to be completed within one week </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Day 1: Review the course requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Day 1: Research course materials </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consequences : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Day 2: Ask professor questions for the assignment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Day 2: Research external materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Day 3: Create an outline and draft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Day 3: Run through Write Point and Plagiarism checker </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intervention : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If the draft is acceptable, finish writing paper. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If draft is not, go back to Consequences #1. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better Time Management: Once the draft is finished, the result is a finished essay. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Situation : Creating a website in 6 months. </li></ul><ul><li>Influences: The client requests a brand new design to be completed within a month </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gabriels negotiates time and costs with clients to three months and $4 million to build a new website design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gabriels communicates with all applicable teams (such as developers, system operations, and data processing) for two weeks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gabriels develops design and prepares any new technology for the hosting servers for one month </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consequences : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teams collaborate with managers for further feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teams produce web product on test server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The clients evaluate the design for quality assurance on a test server </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intervention : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If the product is approved, the test server gets published by appropriate teams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the product is not approved, go back to Consequences #1. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better Time Management: Once the product is approved, the result is a successful completion of the product and the product goes public. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>University of Phoenix: Information Technology Course </li></ul><ul><li>Gabriels Technology Solutions </li></ul>Using the PAPES Model: Replicable
    10. 10. <ul><li>Situation : Trailer from Harrisburg Hub late to Annapolis Delivery Center </li></ul><ul><li>Influences : 100 packages in the trailer, scheduled to arrive at 930am </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Package Car Drivers depart at 9am </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20 package in trailer Guarantee 12noon delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preload shift ends at 9am </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consequences : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hold all drivers, center start late </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hold preload longer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Part Time drivers and how many needed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intervention : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Next Day Air car leaves at 7:00pm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drivers must be in building by cutoff </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better Time Management: The Next Day Air car leaves on time for next day delivery guarantees </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Situation : Creating a website in three months. </li></ul><ul><li>Influences: The client requests a brand new design to be completed within three months </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gabriels negotiates time and costs with clients to three months and $4 million to build a new website design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gabriels communicates with all applicable teams (such as developers, system operations, and data processing) for two weeks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gabriels develops design and prepares any new technology for the hosting servers for one month </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consequences : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teams collaborate with managers for further feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teams produce web product on test server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The clients evaluate the design for quality assurance on a test server </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intervention : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If the product is approved, the test server gets published by appropriate teams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the product is not approved, go back to Consequences #1. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better Time Management: Once the product is approved, the result is a successful completion of the product and the product goes public. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>United Parcel Service </li></ul><ul><li>Gabriels Technology Solutions </li></ul>Using the PAPES Model: Generalizable
    11. 11. <ul><li>Situation : Create an Operating System security patch within 3 months. </li></ul><ul><li>Influences :   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Test for stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test for compatibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test for security  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consequences : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teams collaborate with managers for further feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teams produce beta </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teams derive feedback from quality assurance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intervention : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If the product is approved, the software patch gets published. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the product is not approved, go back to Consequences #1. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Better Time Management: Once the product is approved, the result is a successful completion of the product and the product goes public. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Situation : Creating a website in 6 months. </li></ul><ul><li>Influences: The client requests a brand new design to be completed within a month </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gabriels negotiates time and costs with clients to three months and $4 million to build a new website design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gabriels communicates with all applicable teams (such as developers, system operations, and data processing) for two weeks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gabriels develops design and prepares any new technology for the hosting servers for one month </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consequences : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teams collaborate with managers for further feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teams produce web product on test server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The clients evaluate the design for quality assurance on a test server </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intervention : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If the product is approved, the test server gets published by appropriate teams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the product is not approved, go back to Consequences #1. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better Time Management: Once the product is approved, the result is a successful completion of the product and the product goes public. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Apple, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Gabriels Technology Solutions </li></ul>Using the PAPES Model: Scalable
    12. 12. <ul><li>Situation: Add website legal policies by the end of the day. </li></ul><ul><li>Influences: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Client communicates and provides content. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers assign task to front-end web development member. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consequences: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developer forgets task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developer has higher priorities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developer works on task </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intervention: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If developer is not on task or does not respond, manager checks status of progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If developer is on task, manager submits to client for review </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better Time Management: Once the page is approved, the result is a successful completion of the page and the page goes public. </li></ul></ul>Using the PAPES Model: Flexible <ul><li>Gabriels Technology Solutions </li></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>This is the PAPES model. This model emphasizes the flow of time management in the doctoral community. There are six levels of the PAPES model: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Situation. This is the event situation of this model. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence. This discusses the outside influences that may contribute to the event. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consequences. There can be several consequences to each event and influence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intervention. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The affects of the results. </li></ul></ul>PAPES Model
    14. 14. <ul><li>Data or experiences are observable. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We can analyze processes within the organization to determine time management deficiencies. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Beliefs and assumptions are obtainable. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We can compare time management efficiencies within and outside of our industry. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interventions can be implemented. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Results can be measured for time management improvements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reflective analysis occurs to determine if desirable outcome is reached </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Undesirable results loops back around </li></ul></ul>PAPES Model Concepts
    15. 15. PAPES Model Reflects PRAXIS <ul><li>How the model promotes reflective praxis </li></ul><ul><li>Praxis means “theory plus action” Kemmis, S. (2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Praxis relates the parts to the whole </li></ul><ul><li>It is the purpose of putting theoretical knowledge to practice  </li></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><li>Change is continuous </li></ul><ul><li>Change is our only constant </li></ul><ul><li>Change is progress </li></ul>Change in present and future interventions
    17. 17. <ul><li>The lives of today's doctoral students are complex. &quot;Family concerns, employment, finances, community issues, demands from friends, responsibility as a parent, and responsibility to aging parents are some of the demands on today's doctoral students&quot; (Smith et al., 2006, p.22). </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;The importance of reserving chunks of time for reflection, and the difficulty of doing so, have been themes in time management writing for decades&quot; (Dean & Webb, 2011). </li></ul>Empirical Evidence
    18. 18. <ul><li>Decreased stress (allows leader to have more energy, better attitude) </li></ul><ul><li>Improved organization (leads to increased productivity) </li></ul><ul><li>Less chaotic environment (leadership sets the tone for the company, and it is contagious) </li></ul><ul><li>Allows balance (time available for family or outside interests) </li></ul><ul><li>Allows for a structured but flexible approach to each day (leaders have better control over their day, which encourages calmness and stability, and minimizes reactivity) </li></ul>Benefits of effective time management: Leadership
    19. 19. <ul><li>Interpersonal relationships suffer under the effects of stress </li></ul><ul><li>Community requires time to be established </li></ul><ul><li>Allows community to devote time to issues that need to be addressed </li></ul><ul><li>Allows community to devote time to maintaining and furthering community </li></ul>Benefits of effective time management: Community building
    20. 20. <ul><li>Dean, D., & Webb, C. (2011). Recovering from information overload.  Mckinsey Quarterly , (1), 80-88. </li></ul><ul><li>Smith, R. L., Maroney, K., Nelson, K. W., Abel, A. L., & Abel, H. S. (2006). Doctoral programs: Changing high rates of attrition. Journal Of Humanistic Counseling, Education & Development, 45 (1), 17-31. </li></ul><ul><li>van der Meer, J., Jansen, E., & Torenbeek, M. (2010). It's almost a mindset that teachers need to change:  First year students need to be inducted into time management.  Studies in Higher Education, 35 (7), 777-791. doi:10.1080/03075070903383211 </li></ul><ul><li>Kemmis, S. (2010). Research for Praxis. Knowing doing. Pedogogy, Culture & Society. 18(1), p. 9-27. </li></ul><ul><li>Macan, T. (1994). Time Management: Test of a Process Model. Journal of Applied Psychology . 79( 3 ), p. 381-391. </li></ul>References
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