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Persuasive Technology: Practicing Social Influence Powers to Change People's Behaviors and Attitudes - Twitter Case Studies
 

Persuasive Technology: Practicing Social Influence Powers to Change People's Behaviors and Attitudes - Twitter Case Studies

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Persuasive technology is broadly defined as technology that is designed to change attitudes or behaviors of the users through persuasion and social influence, but not through coercion (Fogg 2002). ...

Persuasive technology is broadly defined as technology that is designed to change attitudes or behaviors of the users through persuasion and social influence, but not through coercion (Fogg 2002). Such technologies are regularly used in sales, diplomacy, politics, religion, military training, public health, and management, and may potentially be used in any area of human-human or human-computer interaction. Most self-identified persuasive technology research focuses on interactive, computational technologies, including desktop computers, Internet services, video games, and mobile devices (Oinas-Kukkonen et al. 2008), but this incorporates and builds on the results, theories, and methods of experimental psychology, rhetoric (Bogost 2007), and human-computer interaction. The design of persuasive technologies can be seen as a particular case of design with intent (Lockton et al. 2010).

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    Persuasive Technology: Practicing Social Influence Powers to Change People's Behaviors and Attitudes - Twitter Case Studies Persuasive Technology: Practicing Social Influence Powers to Change People's Behaviors and Attitudes - Twitter Case Studies Presentation Transcript

    • Persuasive Technology: Practicing Social Influence Powers to Change Peoples Behaviors and Attitudes Twitter Case Studies Agnis Stibe Doctoral Candidate and Project Researcher Department of Information Processing Science agnis.stibe@oulu.fi +358 401490499 @agsti
    • Agnis Stibe “Persuasive Technology: Practicing Social Influence Powers to Change Peoples Behaviors and Attitudes - Twitter Case Studies” Persuasion is: the influence of beliefs, attitudes, intentions, motivations, or behaviors. a process aimed at changing people’ s attitude or behavior, by using written or spoken words to convey information, feelings, or reasoning, or a combination of them. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PersuasionRiga Business SchoolJune 12, 2012 .oulu.fi
    • Agnis Stibe “Persuasive Technology: Practicing Social Influence Powers to Change Peoples Behaviors and Attitudes - Twitter Case Studies” Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/34557143@N07/3283901503/Riga Business SchoolJune 12, 2012 .oulu.fi
    • Agnis Stibe “Persuasive Technology: Practicing Social Influence Powers to Change Peoples Behaviors and Attitudes - Twitter Case Studies”Riga Business SchoolJune 12, 2012 .oulu.fi
    • Agnis Stibe “Persuasive Technology: Practicing Social Influence Powers to Change Peoples Behaviors and Attitudes - Twitter Case Studies”Riga Business SchoolJune 12, 2012 .oulu.fi
    • Agnis Stibe “Persuasive Technology: Practicing Social Influence Powers to Change Peoples Behaviors and Attitudes - Twitter Case Studies” Source: BJ FoggRiga Business SchoolJune 12, 2012 .oulu.fi
    • Agnis Stibe “Persuasive Technology: Practicing Social Influence Powers to Change Peoples Behaviors and Attitudes - Twitter Case Studies” Source: BJ FoggRiga Business SchoolJune 12, 2012 .oulu.fi
    • Agnis Stibe “Persuasive Technology: Practicing Social Influence Powers to Change Peoples Behaviors and Attitudes - Twitter Case Studies” Persuasion postulates IT is never neutral (P1) PSD Model Consistency Incrementality Routes (P2) (P3) (P4) Usefulness and ease Unobtrusiveness Transparency of use (P5) (P6) (P7) Persuasion context The intent The event The strategy Intended Use, user, and Message, route outcome/change technology contexts Persuasive software features Primary task support Computer-human Perceived system Social influence dialogue support credibilityRiga Business SchoolJune 12, 2012 .oulu.fi Source: Oinas-Kukkonen H.
    • Agnis Stibe “Persuasive Technology: Practicing Social Influence Powers to Change Peoples Behaviors and Attitudes - Twitter Case Studies” Outcome/Change Matrix Source: Oinas-Kukkonen H.Riga Business SchoolJune 12, 2012 .oulu.fi
    • inciples in the social influence category describe how to design the system so th Agnis Stibe “Persuasive Technology: Practicing Social Influence Powers to Change Peoples Behaviors and Attitudes - Twitter Case Studies”otivates users by leveraging social influence. Categories of Persuasive Features Social influence User Primary task support Human-computer ! dialogue Perceived system credibility Other users Source: Oinas-Kukkonen H. Riga Business School Fig. 1. Four categories of design principles for BCSSs June 12, 2012 .oulu.fi
    • ng habits while working “Persuasive computer. ChiSocial Influence Powers to Change Peoples Behaviors and Attitudes - Twitter the Studies” Agnis Stibe at the Technology: Practicing et al. [9] studies resulted in achieving Case intended goal. Only a f a smart kitchen application for improving home took advantage of any persuasive techniques, and nonby providing calorie awareness regarding the food interventions were conceptually designed through s used in the meals prepared during the cooking design frameworks. The conclusion of this study Categories of Persuasive FeaturesThis was based on ubiquitous sensors for tracking the designing a new generation of BCSSs should be base f calories in different ingredients, and then providing frameworks. P e r s u a s iv e s y s te m s d e s ig n te c h n iq u e s P r im a r y ta sk su p p o r t D ia lo g u e s u p p o r t S y s te m c r e d ib ility S o c ia l s u p p o r t T a ilo rin g S u g g e s tio n S u r fa c e c re d ib ility S o c ia l c o m p a ris o n T u n n e lin g P ra is e A u th o rity N o rm a tiv e in flu e n c e R e d u c tio n L ik in g T ru s tw o rth in e s s S o c ia l le a rn in g S e lf -m o n ito rin g R e m in d e rs E x p e rtis e R e c o g n itio n S im u la tio n R ew a rd s R e a l-w o r ld fe e l C o o p e ra tio n P e r s o n a liz a tio n S im ila r ity 3 rd p a r ty e n d o r s e m e n ts S o c ia l fa c ilita tio n R e h e arsa l S o c ia l ro le V e r ifia b ility C o m p e titio n Figure 1. Persuasive systems design techniques. Source: Oinas-Kukkonen H. Riga Business School June 12, 2012 .oulu.fi
    • Agnis Stibe “Persuasive Technology: Practicing Social Influence Powers to Change Peoples Behaviors and Attitudes - Twitter Case Studies” Expected Contribution Social Learning Incrementality? Social Comparison Cognitive Dissonance? Normative Influence Behavior Change Social Facilitation Cooperation Competition Participation Recognition FeedbackRiga Business SchoolJune 12, 2012 .oulu.fi
    • Agnis Stibe “Persuasive Technology: Practicing Social Influence Powers to Change Peoples Behaviors and Attitudes - Twitter Case Studies” Socio-Technical Context Social Web Individuals Persuasion Social InfluenceRiga Business SchoolJune 12, 2012 .oulu.fi
    • Agnis Stibe “Persuasive Technology: Practicing Social Influence Powers to Change Peoples Behaviors and Attitudes - Twitter Case Studies” CASE STUDY : 1 Incremental Persuasion through Microblogging: A Survey of Twitter Users in LatviaRiga Business SchoolJune 12, 2012 .oulu.fi
    • Agnis Stibe “Persuasive Technology: Practicing Social Influence Powers to Change Peoples Behaviors and Attitudes - Twitter Case Studies” Research question What kinds of inherent persuasion patterns do exist in Twitter that can change users’ behaviors and/or attitudes?Riga Business SchoolJune 12, 2012 .oulu.fi
    • Agnis Stibe “Persuasive Technology: Practicing Social Influence Powers to Change Peoples Behaviors and Attitudes - Twitter Case Studies” Research settings July 19-28, 2010 Latvia Quantitative survey online: -37 questions -403 valid responses Invitations for users: -7 tweets by authors -1 author’s blog entry in - http://ilzeberzina.wordpress.com/ -Several authors’ messages in other social networks -37 retweets by other Twitter users -1 reference in technology blogger article Source: Stibe A., Oinas-Kukkonen H., Berzina I., Pahnila S. 2011Riga Business SchoolJune 12, 2012 .oulu.fi
    • Agnis Stibe “Persuasive Technology: Practicing Social Influence Powers to Change Peoples Behaviors and Attitudes - Twitter Case Studies” Profile of the respondentsRiga Business SchoolJune 12, 2012 .oulu.fi
    • Agnis Stibe “Persuasive Technology: Practicing Social Influence Powers to Change Peoples Behaviors and Attitudes - Twitter Case Studies” Number of followees and followers you have in Twitter?Riga Business SchoolJune 12, 2012 .oulu.fi
    • Agnis Stibe “Persuasive Technology: Practicing Social Influence Powers to Change Peoples Behaviors and Attitudes - Twitter Case Studies” How often do you tweet? The amount of tweeting increases over time. χ2(6)=18.059, p=0.006Riga Business SchoolJune 12, 2012 .oulu.fi
    • Agnis Stibe “Persuasive Technology: Practicing Social Influence Powers to Change Peoples Behaviors and Attitudes - Twitter Case Studies” Regarding content in Twitter you consider yourself as? Experienced users generate more content than new users. χ2(9)=29.789, p=0.000Riga Business SchoolJune 12, 2012 .oulu.fi
    • Agnis Stibe “Persuasive Technology: Practicing Social Influence Powers to Change Peoples Behaviors and Attitudes - Twitter Case Studies” What is the level of credibility in Twitter? The longer one has used the Twitter the higher trust the user has for it. χ2(9)=21.130, p=0.012Riga Business SchoolJune 12, 2012 .oulu.fi
    • Agnis Stibe “Persuasive Technology: Practicing Social Influence Powers to Change Peoples Behaviors and Attitudes - Twitter Case Studies” Are there unwritten behavioral rules in Twitter? Twitter users learn over time unwritten communication and/or behavioral rules in Twitter. χ2(6)=19.064, p=0.004Riga Business SchoolJune 12, 2012 .oulu.fi
    • Agnis Stibe “Persuasive Technology: Practicing Social Influence Powers to Change Peoples Behaviors and Attitudes - Twitter Case Studies” Is Twitter a powerful tool to call to action outside the virtual world? Twitter is powerful tool to call for action offline, i.e. outside the virtual world, and experienced users are more ready to take action based on their communication via Twitter. χ2(6)=18.551, p=0.005Riga Business SchoolJune 12, 2012 .oulu.fi
    • Agnis Stibe “Persuasive Technology: Practicing Social Influence Powers to Change Peoples Behaviors and Attitudes - Twitter Case Studies” Summary of findings Number of followers and Intensity of followees tweeting Content Trust generators information Powerful tool to Recognize call to action unwritten outside the communication virtual world rulesRiga Business SchoolJune 12, 2012 .oulu.fi
    • Agnis Stibe “Persuasive Technology: Practicing Social Influence Powers to Change Peoples Behaviors and Attitudes - Twitter Case Studies” 4th postulate of Persuasive Systems Design framework CHANG E INCREMENTAL STEPS Source: Stibe A., Oinas-Kukkonen H., Berzina I., Pahnila S. 2011Riga Business SchoolJune 12, 2012 .oulu.fi
    • Agnis Stibe “Persuasive Technology: Practicing Social Influence Powers to Change Peoples Behaviors and Attitudes - Twitter Case Studies” CASE STUDY : 2 Comparative Analysis of Recognition and Competition as Features of Social Influence Using TwitterRiga Business SchoolJune 12, 2012 .oulu.fi
    • Agnis Stibe “Persuasive Technology: Practicing Social Influence Powers to Change Peoples Behaviors and Attitudes - Twitter Case Studies” Research Context Social Cognitive Theory : Self-Regulation PSD model : Social Influence Recognition CompetitionRiga Business SchoolJune 12, 2012 .oulu.fi
    • Agnis Stibe “Persuasive Technology: Practicing Social Influence Powers to Change Peoples Behaviors and Attitudes - Twitter Case Studies” Research Question How and to what extent social influence design principles can persuade people to participate in sharing feedback? Recognition CompetitionRiga Business SchoolJune 12, 2012 .oulu.fi
    • Agnis Stibe “Persuasive Technology: Practicing Social Influence Powers to Change Peoples Behaviors and Attitudes - Twitter Case Studies” Research Framework Social Cognitive PSD Model Theory User Participation Bandura, 1991 Oinas-Kukkonen & Harjumaa, 2009 Source: Stibe A. and Oinas-Kukkonen H. 2012Riga Business SchoolJune 12, 2012 .oulu.fi
    • Agnis Stibe “Persuasive Technology: Practicing Social Influence Powers to Change Peoples Behaviors and Attitudes - Twitter Case Studies” Research Setting • A system developed on top of Twitter • A pilot study conducted in class setting with master students – 37 participants in two computer rooms • 18 in recognition room • 19 in competition room – 30 minutes hands-on use of the system – 6 questions in total displayed to the participants – Participants responded to questions using Twitter • Online questionnaire about perceptions (47 questions, mainly Likert-7)Riga Business SchoolJune 12, 2012 .oulu.fi
    • Agnis Stibe “Persuasive Technology: Practicing Social Influence Powers to Change Peoples Behaviors and Attitudes - Twitter Case Studies”Persuasive 2012Linköping, Sweden: June 7, 2012 .oulu.fi
    • Agnis Stibe “Persuasive Technology: Practicing Social Influence Powers to Change Peoples Behaviors and Attitudes - Twitter Case Studies”Persuasive 2012Linköping, Sweden: June 7, 2012 .oulu.fi
    • Agnis Stibe “Persuasive Technology: Practicing Social Influence Powers to Change Peoples Behaviors and Attitudes - Twitter Case Studies” Findings: Recognition vs. Competition Independent sample t-test Item Recognition Competition t-value df p Twitter is a powerful tool to call for action outside the virtual 5.50 4.32 2.937 35 .006** world. I believe that the system would 5.56 4.47 2.775 35 .009** work well in a real airport. I think that the system is effective for encouraging users to 6.11 5.11 2.570 35 .015* participate. More encouraging to participate Source: Stibe A. and Oinas-Kukkonen H. 2012Riga Business SchoolJune 12, 2012 .oulu.fi
    • Agnis Stibe “Persuasive Technology: Practicing Social Influence Powers to Change Peoples Behaviors and Attitudes - Twitter Case Studies” Findings: Had vs. Had Not (seen themselves on the screen) Item Yes No t-value df pDisplaying public recognition or All 5.44 3.25 4.512 33 .000**the top responders helped me to Recognition 5.54 3.50 3.427 15 .004**monitor my performance. Competition 5.36 3.00 2.977 16 .009**Tweets provided by others on the All Non-significant differencebig display encouraged me to Recognition 5.69 5.00 3.323 12 .006**come up with my tweets. Competition Non-significant differenceDisplaying public recognition or All 5.00 3.75 2.352 33 .025*the top responders motivated me Recognition 5.38 3.50 2.409 15 .029*to produce more tweets. Competition Non-significant difference More encouraging and motivating to tweet Source: Stibe A. and Oinas-Kukkonen H. 2012Riga Business SchoolJune 12, 2012 .oulu.fi
    • Agnis Stibe “Persuasive Technology: Practicing Social Influence Powers to Change Peoples Behaviors and Attitudes - Twitter Case Studies” Conclusions • Contributions: – Scientific: An empirical analysis of persuasive software features from the PSD model; – For business: A persuasive and operational system to engage customers in feedback sharing. • Limitations: – Class setting; – Sample: education and age; – Missing the control group. • Further research: – Field-testing - actual use; – Other social influence features.Riga Business SchoolJune 12, 2012 .oulu.fi
    • Agnis Stibe “Persuasive Technology: Practicing Social Influence Powers to Change Peoples Behaviors and Attitudes - Twitter Case Studies” CASE STUDY : 3 (ongoing) Social Influence on Customer Engagement: The Effects of Social Learning, Social Comparison, and Normative InfluenceRiga Business SchoolJune 12, 2012 .oulu.fi
    • Agnis Stibe “Persuasive Technology: Practicing Social Influence Powers to Change Peoples Behaviors and Attitudes - Twitter Case Studies” Ongoing Studies: Social ComparisonRiga Business SchoolJune 12, 2012 .oulu.fi
    • Agnis Stibe “Persuasive Technology: Practicing Social Influence Powers to Change Peoples Behaviors and Attitudes - Twitter Case Studies” Ongoing Studies: Normative InfluenceRiga Business SchoolJune 12, 2012 .oulu.fi
    • Agnis Stibe “Persuasive Technology: Practicing Social Influence Powers to Change Peoples Behaviors and Attitudes - Twitter Case Studies” Research Model (PLS) SC Social Comparison β=0.59** 34% β=0.20* β=0.47** NI SL Normative Influence Social Learning 36% β=0.21* β=0.53** PP β=0.28* Perceived Persuasiveness 45% β=0.28* BI Behavioral Intention 24%Riga Business SchoolJune 12, 2012 .oulu.fi
    • Agnis.Stibe@oulu.fi @agsti +358 401490499 Thanks to:the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation the Foundation of Nokia Corporation