• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Measuring the Effectiveness of Agricultural R&D in Sub-Saharan Africa from the Perspectives of Varietal Output and Adoption: Initial Results from the Diffusion of Improved Varieties in Africa Project
 

Measuring the Effectiveness of Agricultural R&D in Sub-Saharan Africa from the Perspectives of Varietal Output and Adoption: Initial Results from the Diffusion of Improved Varieties in Africa Project

on

  • 1,076 views

By Arega Alene, Yigezu Yigezu, Jupiter Ndjeunga, Ricardo Labarta, Robert Andrade, Aliou Diagne, Rachel Muthoni, Franklin Simtowe, and Tom Walker. ...

By Arega Alene, Yigezu Yigezu, Jupiter Ndjeunga, Ricardo Labarta, Robert Andrade, Aliou Diagne, Rachel Muthoni, Franklin Simtowe, and Tom Walker.
Presented at the ASTI-FARA conference Agricultural R&D: Investing in Africa's Future: Analyzing Trends, Challenges, and Opportunities - Accra, Ghana on December 5-7, 2011. http://www.asti.cgiar.org/2011conf

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,076
Views on SlideShare
1,069
Embed Views
7

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
4
Comments
0

1 Embed 7

http://www.linkedin.com 7

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Measuring the Effectiveness of Agricultural R&D in Sub-Saharan Africa from the Perspectives of Varietal Output and Adoption: Initial Results from the Diffusion of Improved Varieties in Africa Project Measuring the Effectiveness of Agricultural R&D in Sub-Saharan Africa from the Perspectives of Varietal Output and Adoption: Initial Results from the Diffusion of Improved Varieties in Africa Project Presentation Transcript

    • Arega Alene (IITA-Malawi); Yigezu Yigezu (ICARDA); Jupiter Ndjeunga (ICRISAT-Niger); Ricardo Labarta (CIP-Nairobi); Robert Andrade (CIAT); Aliou Diagne (AfricaRice); Rachel Muthoni (CIAT-PABRA); Franklin Simtowe (ICRISAT-Nairobi); Tom Walker (DIVA project coordinator) ◆ Antecedent: The 1998 Initiative that resulted in Evenson & Gollin (2003) 20-25%◆
    • Describing the Bill & Melinda Gates’ DIVA Project and this paper by the number 3
      • 3 Years (2010-2012)
      • 3 Broad institutional actors
        • 7 CG Commodity Centers and Their Partners (IRRI & TRIVSA)
        • SPIA
        • Bioversity International
      • 3 Objectives
        • 1. Performance criteria in NARS crop improvement programs for priority commodity by country combinations (104)
        • 2. Nationally representative surveys of diffusion of modern varieties (6 countries)
        • 3. Impact assessment (3 grants)
      • 3 Databases in Objective 1 on performance indicators
        • Strength of human resources in NARS
        • Varietal output (release)
        • Varietal adoption (cultivar-specific for improved varieties)
      • 3 Types of commodity coverage
        • Continuing from 1998: Maize, cassava, groundnuts, sorghum, pearl millet, rice, beans, potato, wheat, barley, and lentil
        • New: cowpea, sweetpotato, soybean, chickpea, and pigeonpea
        • Bonus coverage: Yams (IITA), faba bean & field pea (ICARDA), and expanded coverage in cassava (IITA), rice (AfricaRice), and sorghum (INSTORMIL)
      • 3 Levels of data availability & reliability by September 2011 for the continuing commodities for this paper
        • Partially available but not reliable: Maize & wheat in East and Southern Africa
        • Available & mostly reliable: Groundnuts, sorghum, and pearl millet in West Africa, rice, and beans
        • Available & reliable: Cassava, maize in West & Central Africa, potato, barley, and lentil
    • Findings on Varietal Output from the 1998 data
      • Positive trend in the rate of release over time but release incidence peaked earlier for cassava, maize in West & Central Africa, and rice in the 1980s
      • Political instability in the 1990s adversely affected varietal output
      • Performance in the 1960s had a carry-over effect on releases in the 1970s but not later
    • Findings on Varietal Output from the 1998 data (cont.)
      • Release rate significantly higher in wheat & lower in cassava
      • Release profiles punctuated by bursts of activity sandwiched between long periods of inactivity; Nigeria the main country exception
    • Emerging findings on varietal output in 2009/10
      • Rate of release increased for most crops from 1999 to 2009/10
      • Rate of release significantly lower in sorghum, groundnut, pearl millet, and lentils and higher in barley, cassava, and maize in WCA
      • Muted release estimate for rice unexpected
    • -2 -1 0 1 2 Change in annual release rate (1999 to 2010) 0 .5 1 1.5 2 Annual release rate from 1974 to 1998 Rice Cote d’Ivoire Rice Sierra Leone Maize Nigeria Potato Ethiopia Cassava Kenya Beans Rwanda Cassava Nigeria
    • Findings on Varietal Adoption from the 1998 Data Commodity Improved Cultivars (%) Coverage (%) Improved cultivars: lower bound assumption (%) Wheat 66 85 56 Potato 56 68 44 Rice 45 57 25 Maize WCA 37 94 35 Maize ESA 36 90 34 Cassava 22 83 18 Sorghum 23 54 13 Beans a 15 67 10 Barley 11 90 10 Groundnut 30 6 2 Pearl Millet 19 10 2 Lentils 0 80 0 a IARC only
    •  
      • Steady gains in most crops exceeding 1% per annum in penetration of Modern Varieties
      • Cassava and the TMS cultivars e.g. 30572
      • Substantial gains by several countries in maize in West Africa
      • Incremental, cumulative gains especially of varieties released in the 1990s
      Emerging Findings on Varietal Adoption in 2009/10
      • Few cases of disadoption for MVS as a whole
      • Relatively low adoption of MVS in Ethiopia although recent gains are encouraging
      • Levels of MV adoption in coarse cereals & groundnuts in West Africa were lower than expected given low but stable levels of breeding investments over time
      Emerging Findings on Varietal Adoption in 2009/10 (cont.)
    • -20 0 20 40 60 Change in adoption (%) in 2009/2010 0 20 40 60 80 100 Adoption levels (%) in 1998 Maize Nigeria Cassava Nigeria Maize Cameroon Maize Senegal Potato Rwanda Potato Uganda Maize Ghana Cassava Benin Cassava Malawi Beans Malawi
    • Categorizing Levels of Modern Variety Adoption by Crop
      • High approaching full adoption in most countries of heavy production
        • Spring bread wheat
        • Potatoes
        • Soybeans
        • Emphasis on varietal turnover (mean weighted varietal age 10-20 years; no perceived change since the late 1990s)
    • Categorizing Levels of Modern Variety Adoption by Crop (cont.)
      • Maize
        • High levels of variation in adoption levels across countries
        • Emphasis on varietal turnover in hybrids
      • Moderate; weighted average between 25-55%
        • Rice, cassava, cowpea, pigeonpea, beans,and duram wheat
      • Low; weighted average less than 25%
        • Groundnut, sorghum, pearl millet, lentils, faba bean, chickpea, and sweetpotato
    • Going from Monitoring of Varietal Output, Adoption, and Turnover to Improving Crop Improvement
      • Center crop and synthesis reports early next year
      • Emphasis on cultivar-specific adoption and the reliability of estimates from expert panels
      • Challenge: Identification and consistent treatment of old ‘improved’ land race materials that were released in the country of origin
    • Going from Monitoring of Varietal Output, Adoption, and Turnover to Improving Crop Improvement (cont.)
      • Identification of specific, relevant problems and questions
      • Public release of the Objective 1 datasets is scheduled for August, 2012
      • Investing in an aggregate rate of return study with an emphasis on productivity effects
    •