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Tracking National Agricultural Research Investments in Developing Countries:          ASTI’s experiences                  ...
Outline of presentation■ Introduction to ASTI and “ASTI+”■ ASTI outputs: Focus on Africa■ Dissemination activities■ Main c...
General objectives■ Collects national-level investment and capacity data  on agricultural R&D:   • Focused on developing c...
How data is collected■ Based on internationally accepted definitions and  statistical procedures for compiling S&T statist...
How data is collected (cont’d)■ Typically in close collaboration with the main  agricultural research institutes or, in a ...
Data portfolio at country level■ Agricultural R&D investment and human resource  capacity■ Institutional arrangements and ...
Country coverage■ Sub-Saharan Africa: 2008■ South Asia: 2009 (ongoing)■ Other Asia-Pacific: 2002-03 / GCARD2 activities■ L...
Current ASTI outputs                            ■   Country notes                            ■   Regional and subregional ...
Outline of presentation■ Introduction to ASTI■ Expanded ASTI (“ASTI+”)■ ASTI results: Focus on Africa■ Main challenges & g...
ASTI transformation and                expansion (“ASTI+”)www.asti.cgiar.org
Transformation from adhoc activity to a     sustainable data collection system■ More decentralized and regular data collec...
Outline of presentation■ Introduction to ASTI■ Expanded ASTI (“ASTI+”)■ ASTI results: Focus on Africa■ Main challenges & g...
Longterm investment and capacity          trends in Sub-Saharan Africa Investments (and human capacity) in agricultural R...
Trends in agricultural R&D spending                            in the “Big Eight” since 2008                       30Chang...
Investment challenge: Underinvestment NEPAD target: Allocation of at least 1 % of GDP to R&D In 2008, Africa spent $0.61...
Africa’s investment challenge:                 High donor-dependency■ Many countries are extremely dependent on donor fund...
Africa’s investment challenge:                                                Funding volatility                          ...
Drivers of funding volatility                      in African agricultural R&D                       Government      Sale ...
Outline of presentation■ Introduction to ASTI■ Expanded ASTI (“ASTI+”)■ ASTI results: Focus on Africa■ Main challenges & g...
Overall challenges■ Continued financial support■ Coverage out of date for some regions■ Boundaries of ASTI datasets■ Which...
Data collection challenges■ Lack or slow response by agencies surveyed and  increasing survey fatigue■ Infrastructural iss...
Dissemination challenges■ How to make information available/known?■ How to communicate to a diverse set of  stakeholders?■...
Please visit www.asti.cgiar.orgThank you
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Tracking national ag research investments asti

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  • Although this clip may look like an exaggeration, it is actually not so far off the truth when it comes to long-term AgR&D trends in Africa. Many African countries have had extremely volatile agricultural R&D funding levels over the past decades as these figures show. If Africa were a theme park full of country rollercoasters, true thrill seekers would ride the Burkina Faso or Gabon rollercoasters; the South African roller coaster would be for small children or less adventurous people, and the Niger rollercoaster would really be for the die-hards. All jokes aside, what these figures reveal is a very worrisome trend. Many African countries are characterized by extreme fluctuations in their agricultural R&D spending levels from one year to the next.
  • In order to reduce future volatility, it is important to identify the main drivers of funding volatility in agricultural R&D across countries over the past decade. The volatility coefficient, introduced earlier, is a useful tool for comparing the relative stability of different funding sources over time and across countries. It is important to note, however, that not all volatility is bad per se. A sudden injection of government or donor funding to rehabilitate R&D infrastructure after a civil war, for example, is of course a positive thing. Based on sample of 49 large government agencies from 22 countriesThe fact that donor and development bank funding for agricultural R&D shows a much higher degree of volatility than other funding sources is worrying, given that many national agricultural R&D institutes in SSA, particularly those in low-income countries, derive a significant share of their total funding from donors, development banks, and SROs. In many countries, the bulk of government appropriations is spent on salaries, which leaves the costs of operating research programs and investing in necessary infrastructure largely dependent on volatile funding from donors, competitive grants, or the private sector. Although competitive salaries are crucial to maintaining a critical mass of qualified researchers, it is equally important to provide these scientists with well-funded research programs and well-equipped research laboratories, which requires long-term, sustainable investment in nonsalary expenditures.
  • Transcript of "Tracking national ag research investments asti "

    1. 1. Tracking National Agricultural Research Investments in Developing Countries: ASTI’s experiences Nienke Beintema Head ASTI initiative, IFPRI-Rome office Presentation at the GFAR/EIARD/GDPRD Stakeholder workshop on Tracking Investments for ARD, Berlin, 20 January 2012
    2. 2. Outline of presentation■ Introduction to ASTI and “ASTI+”■ ASTI outputs: Focus on Africa■ Dissemination activities■ Main challenges www.asti.cgiar.org
    3. 3. General objectives■ Collects national-level investment and capacity data on agricultural R&D: • Focused on developing countries • Institutional survey rounds (primary data)■ Aim is to provide: • Trends over time at country and regional levels. • Comparisons across countries and regions■ Collaborative network with large number of national, regional and international partners; led by IFPRI www.asti.cgiar.org
    4. 4. How data is collected■ Based on internationally accepted definitions and statistical procedures for compiling S&T statistics (OECD’s Frascati Manual)■ This facilitates comparisons of ASTI datasets with other relevant S&T datasets■ FAO definition of agriculture: crops, livestock, forestry, fisheries, natural resources, etc.■ Measure who is performing agricultural R&D www.asti.cgiar.org
    5. 5. How data is collected (cont’d)■ Typically in close collaboration with the main agricultural research institutes or, in a few cases, with consultants■ National partners coordinate survey implementation, and coauthor/co-publish country notes■ Three different survey forms: one for government agencies/nonprofit institutions, one for higher education agencies, one for the private sector■ Survey forms are constantly being improved/revised www.asti.cgiar.org
    6. 6. Data portfolio at country level■ Agricultural R&D investment and human resource capacity■ Institutional arrangements and changes affecting agricultural R&D■ Funding sources of agricultural R&D■ Degree qualifications of agricultural researchers■ Female participation in agricultural R&D■ Agricultural R&D focus in terms of crops, livestock, and other commodities, also themes www.asti.cgiar.org
    7. 7. Country coverage■ Sub-Saharan Africa: 2008■ South Asia: 2009 (ongoing)■ Other Asia-Pacific: 2002-03 / GCARD2 activities■ Latin America: 2006 / GCARD2 activities■ Middle East/North Africa: 2002 / GCARD2 activities■ OECD and China: external data www.asti.cgiar.org
    8. 8. Current ASTI outputs ■ Country notes ■ Regional and subregional reports ■ Data in-focus sheets ■ Datasets and country profiles ■ Country/regional/other seminars and presentations ■ Analytical assessments ■ Blog ■ Workshops / Accra conference ■ Press releases/media outreach ■ ASTI websitewww.asti.cgiar.org
    9. 9. Outline of presentation■ Introduction to ASTI■ Expanded ASTI (“ASTI+”)■ ASTI results: Focus on Africa■ Main challenges & gaps www.asti.cgiar.org
    10. 10. ASTI transformation and expansion (“ASTI+”)www.asti.cgiar.org
    11. 11. Transformation from adhoc activity to a sustainable data collection system■ More decentralized and regular data collection system by establishing a set of national and regional focal points (incl. development of an online work space / data management tool)■ Will lead to closer linkages with national stakeholders, but also with specialists at regional organizations, other CGIAR centers, and other partner institutions■ Will increase ownership of data by national partners, stimulate the use of the datasets for further advocacy and analysis, and secure continuity of data collection■ Focus on Sub-Saharan Africa / South Asia, but system can be used for other regions as well www.asti.cgiar.org
    12. 12. Outline of presentation■ Introduction to ASTI■ Expanded ASTI (“ASTI+”)■ ASTI results: Focus on Africa■ Main challenges & gaps www.asti.cgiar.org
    13. 13. Longterm investment and capacity trends in Sub-Saharan Africa Investments (and human capacity) in agricultural R&D increased bymore than 20% during 2000–08. Most of this growth was driven by just a handful of countries (mainlyfollowing boosts in salaries and rehabilitation of infrastructure). In many other countries (particularly in francophone West Africa),investments have declined since 2000. www.asti.cgiar.org
    14. 14. Trends in agricultural R&D spending in the “Big Eight” since 2008 30Change 2008-2010 (%) 20 10 0 -10 -20 -30 www.asti.cgiar.org
    15. 15. Investment challenge: Underinvestment NEPAD target: Allocation of at least 1 % of GDP to R&D In 2008, Africa spent $0.61 for every $100 of AgGDP on agricultural R&D Despite an overall increase in recent years, Africa is widelyunderinvesting in agricultural R&D www.asti.cgiar.org
    16. 16. Africa’s investment challenge: High donor-dependency■ Many countries are extremely dependent on donor funding and development bank loans Guinea (IRAG) Madagascar (FOFIFA) Eritrea (NARI) Mozambique (IIAM, IIP) Mali (IER) Uganda (NARO)Burkina Faso (INERA, IRSAT, CNSF) Rwanda (ISAR) Burundi (ISABU) Benin (INRAB) 0 20 40 60 80 100 Share of total funding Donors, development banks, and SROs Government Other www.asti.cgiar.org
    17. 17. Africa’s investment challenge: Funding volatility Burkina Faso Niger 8 40 8 35Billion 2005 CFA francs Billion 2005 CFA francs Million 2005 PPP dollars Million 2005 PPP dollars 6 30 6 26 4 20 4 18 2 10 2 9 0 0 0 0 1981 1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 1999 2002 2005 2008 1981 1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 1999 2002 2005 2008 1.5 South Africa 415 1.0 Gabon 3.9 Billion 2005 CFA francs Million 2005 PPP dollars Million 2005 PPP dollarsBillion 2005 rand 1.2 332 0.8 3.1 0.9 249 0.6 2.3 0.6 166 0.4 1.5 0.3 83 0.2 0.8 0.0 0 0.0 0.0 1981 1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 1999 2002 2005 2008 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 www.asti.cgiar.org
    18. 18. Drivers of funding volatility in African agricultural R&D Government Sale of goods and servicesDonors and development banks TotalIndicates that in manycases shocks in one 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9funding source are to Volatility coefficientsome extent absorbedby reverse shocks inother funding sources www.asti.cgiar.org
    19. 19. Outline of presentation■ Introduction to ASTI■ Expanded ASTI (“ASTI+”)■ ASTI results: Focus on Africa■ Main challenges & gaps www.asti.cgiar.org
    20. 20. Overall challenges■ Continued financial support■ Coverage out of date for some regions■ Boundaries of ASTI datasets■ Which activities do and do not support R&D■ Institutional diversity■ Private sector coverage■ R&D beyond the national level www.asti.cgiar.org
    21. 21. Data collection challenges■ Lack or slow response by agencies surveyed and increasing survey fatigue■ Infrastructural issues (eg, geographical dispersion)■ Difficulties interpreting and applying ASTI’s standards and definitions■ Difficulties in constructing financial overview due to multiplicity of funding sources■ Poor data quality / data management systems www.asti.cgiar.org
    22. 22. Dissemination challenges■ How to make information available/known?■ How to communicate to a diverse set of stakeholders?■ How to enhance the relevance of ASTI information for national policymakers and R&D managers?■ How to reach policy-makers, directly or indirectly?■ Increase dissemination and use of ASTI outputs at the national levels www.asti.cgiar.org
    23. 23. Please visit www.asti.cgiar.orgThank you
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