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The Agricultural R&D Challenges of Small Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa
The Agricultural R&D Challenges of Small Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa
The Agricultural R&D Challenges of Small Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa
The Agricultural R&D Challenges of Small Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa
The Agricultural R&D Challenges of Small Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa
The Agricultural R&D Challenges of Small Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa
The Agricultural R&D Challenges of Small Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa
The Agricultural R&D Challenges of Small Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa
The Agricultural R&D Challenges of Small Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa
The Agricultural R&D Challenges of Small Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa
The Agricultural R&D Challenges of Small Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa
The Agricultural R&D Challenges of Small Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa
The Agricultural R&D Challenges of Small Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa
The Agricultural R&D Challenges of Small Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa
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The Agricultural R&D Challenges of Small Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa

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By Kathleen Flaherty. …

By Kathleen Flaherty.
Presented at the ASTI-FARA conference Agricultural R&D: Investing in Africa's Future: Analyzing Trends, Challenges, and Opportunities - Accra, Ghana on December 5-7, 2011. http://www.asti.cgiar.org/2011conf

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  • 1. THE AGRICULTURAL R&D CHALLENGES OF SMALL COUNTRIES IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA Kathleen Flaherty Prepared for the ASTI/IFPRI–FARA Conference Agricultural R&D: Investing in Africa’s Future Analyzing Trends, Challenges, and Opportunities Accra, Ghana, December 5–7, 2011
  • 2. Agricultural R&D in Sub-Saharan Africa■ Characterized by low research capacity and vulnerability to funding volatility in most countries.■ 8 of the larger countries have driven recent growth in the performance of agricultural research, accounting for two- thirds of investment and capacity during the 2001–08 period.■ For the remaining countries—most invest less than $25 million PPP dollars per year and employ fewer than 300 FTE researchers each. www.asti.cgiar.org
  • 3. Comparison of agricultural research systems Sub- Saharan United Africa Brazil China India StatesIndicators (2008) (2006) (2007) (2003) (2008)Arable and permanent crop area 205 69 122 170 166(million hectares)Agricultural labor force (million) 186 12 505 249 3Agricultural GDP (billion 2005 PPP dollars) 285 73 744 397 152Annual public spending on agricultural R&D 1.7 1.3 3.6 1.4 4.8(billion 2005 PPP dollars)Public agricultural research agencies 353 130 1,105 131 51(number)Public agricultural researchers (FTEs) 12,120 5,376 70,000 13,089 9,965Researchers with a PhD degree (percent) 30 75 <30 55 100 www.asti.cgiar.org
  • 4. Small Country Challenges■ Economies of scale and scope■ Critical capacity issues ■ Lack of in-country degree programs www.asti.cgiar.org
  • 5. Small Country Challenges■ Vulnerability to funding fluctuations■ Institutional and policy environment ■ Regional approaches www.asti.cgiar.org
  • 6. Lessons from a small-country study: Findings from the study■ Small countries have diverse institutional actors■ Consolidation into one organization is often not advisable■ Narrowing the scope of national research is difficult given policy demands and changes in the agricultural and natural resource sectors■ Intelligent use of external knowledge requires a sophisticated scientific research capacity that can relate local needs to available technology■ The smaller the system, the more complex the functions it will perform■ All research is increasingly done in networked and interdependent modes; small countries can take a more active role in managing partnerships with donors and other external agencies Source: Eyzaguirre 1996: 191. www.asti.cgiar.org
  • 7. The Smallest of the Small■ Population: Under 10 million■ Capacity: Under 100 full-time equivalent (FTE) agricultural researchers■ Investment: Under 10 million PPP dollars in agricultural research Burundi, Gabon, Mauritania, Republic of Congo, Sierra Leone, The Gambia, and Togo www.asti.cgiar.org
  • 8. Research agency sizes 9 8Number of agencies 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Burundi Congo, Gabon The Mauritania Sierra Togo Rep of Gambia Leone <5 FTEs 5–10 FTEs 11–20 FTEs 21–50 FTEs 51–75 FTEs www.asti.cgiar.org
  • 9. Sectoral distribution of research 100Shares of FTE researchers (%) 80 60 40 20 0 Burundi Congo, Gabon The Mauritania Sierra Togo Rep of Gambia Leone Crops Livestock Forestry Fisheries Natural resources Other www.asti.cgiar.org
  • 10. Institutional distribution 100Shares of fFTE researchers (%) 80 60 40 20 na na 0 1991 1991 2008 2008 1991 2008 1991 2008 1991 2008 1991 2008 1991 2008 1991 2008 Burundi Congo, Gabon The Mauritania Sierra Togo SSA average Rep of Gambia Leone Government Higher education Nonprofit www.asti.cgiar.org
  • 11. Degree qualification distribution 100Shares of fFTE researchers (%) 80 60 40 20 0 2008 2001 2008 2001 2008 2001 2008 2001 2008 2001 2001 2008 2001 2008 2001 2008 Burundi Congo, Gabon The Mauritania Sierra Togo SSA Rep of Gambia Leone average BSc MSc PhD www.asti.cgiar.org
  • 12. Donor funding distribution 100Shares of funding (%) 80 60 40 20 0 Burundi The Gambia Mauritania Sierra Leone Togo ISABU NARI CNERV&CNRADA SLARI ITRA Government Donors, development banks, and SROs Producer organizations Sales of goods and services www.asti.cgiar.org
  • 13. Conclusions■ The experiences of the “smallest of the small” countries in SSA illustrate the diversity of agricultural research systems■ Investment and capacity levels are low but other constraints must also be addressed■ Despite challenges, small-country research systems in SSA should not be considered unviable. www.asti.cgiar.org
  • 14. Conclusions■ Small research systems must find ways to adapt to the constraints they face through innovative institutional arrangements.■ Areas in need of further research: ■ determinants of the effectiveness of agricultural research agencies in small countries and linkages with performance outcomes ■ strategies for managing institutions, capacity, and funding in small countries www.asti.cgiar.org

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