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Female participation in African agricultural research and higher education

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By ASTI program leader Nienke Beintema at the AWARD Steering Committee meeting and M&E workshop, Rome, 8-12 June 2009.

By ASTI program leader Nienke Beintema at the AWARD Steering Committee meeting and M&E workshop, Rome, 8-12 June 2009.


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  • 1. Female Participation in AfricanAgricultural Research and Higher Education: New Insights Nienke Beintema Head, Agricultural S&T Indicators (ASTI) initiative, IFPRI-Rome officePresentation at the AWARD Steering Committee meeting and M&E workshop, Rome, 8-12 June 2009
  • 2. International efforts to measure female participation in S&T■ Women are still underrepresented in (agricultural) S&T systems in most countries■ Increased participation of women important for gender-balance but also in order to tap substantial additional S&T resources■ Gender-disaggregated information on participation in S&T, over time and across countries, is key for national and international decision-makers■ Information remains scare, and when available, they do not always use common data methodologies and collection approaches www.asti.cgiar.org
  • 3. International efforts to measure female participation in S&T (cont’d)■ Since mid-1990s more attention to benchmarking gender-disaggregated S&T human resources■ To facilitate cohesion, UNESCO developed a toolkit on gender indicators in science, engineering, and technology (published in 2007)■ Number of international efforts have been ongoing: UNESCO, NSF, European Union/Eurostat (She Figures series)■ Focus on agricultural sector: G&D CGIAR surveys, ASTI www.asti.cgiar.org
  • 4. Leaking pipeline of women■ Women’s participation declines as they progress along the career path■ Two levels of segregation ■ horizontal: higher concentration of women in “softer” fields of science (e.g., biology, life and social sciences) rather than “harder” fields (e,g, biology, physics) ■ vertical: overrepresentation of women in lower levels of professional hierarchy and less presented in high-level research and management www.asti.cgiar.org
  • 5. ASTI-AWARD benchmarking study – implementation■ Goal: 155 agencies targeted in 19 sub Saharan African countries (excl. Sudan) – include largest government/nonprofit research and higher education agencies in each country■ Coverage: between 62% of research staff measured in 2000/1 (Nigeria) to more than 90% (Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, and Uganda)■ Outcome: 135 survey returns (87% of targeted) / sufficient coverage in 15 countries (totaling 125 agencies) to prepare country fact sheets www.asti.cgiar.org
  • 6. ASTI-AWARD benchmarking study – implementation (cont’d)■ Methodology and definitions are, in general, similar to the overall ASTI data collection activities■ But: measurements of S&T professionals: in headcounts (stocks and flows) or full-time equivalents (volume of S&T) – following international standards for measuring S&T human resources■ Translated in numbers: the 125 agencies employed 8,258 professional staff, which is 5,899 measured in full-time research equivalents www.asti.cgiar.org
  • 7. Overall growth in professional staff inheadcounts by gender, 2000/1 to 2007/8 700 600 500 Oveall growth in total professional staff 400 2000/1 to 2007/8 (number) 300 200 100 0 -100 -200 -300 BSc MSc PhD Total Female Male www.asti.cgiar.org
  • 8. Annual growth rates of professional staff by gender, 2000/1 to 2007/8 15 12 Annual growth rates in total professional staff, 2000/1 to 2007/8 (percentage) 9 6 3 0 -3 BSc MSc PhD Total Female Male www.asti.cgiar.org
  • 9. Female shares by degree and institutional category, 2000/1 and 2007/8 30 Female share of headcount research staff 25 26% 26% 25% 24% 22% 23% 20 19% (percentage) 19% 18% 18% 15 17% 14% 10 5 0 BSc MSc PhD Total Government Higher education 2000/1 2007/8 www.asti.cgiar.org
  • 10. Female share (headcount) S ou t M hA 10 20 30 40 50 0 oz f am ric a bi q Bo ue * ts w an a Kewww.asti.cgiar.org ny Ug a an d N a ig er Bu ia ru n Za di m 2000/1 bi S a en eg a M l al aw i Bu Gh rk a in na 2007/8 a Fa so N ig er To go E th country, 2000/1 to 2007/8 i To o pi ta a l( 14 )* Female shares in professional staff by
  • 11. Gender-disaggregated shares by degree level, 2000/1 to 2007/8 100 90Share of professional staff by degree (percentage) 26% 27% 80 36% 37% 70 60 43% 50 48% 36% 40 45% 30 20 31% 27% 26% 10 20% 0 2000/1 2007/8 2000/1 2007/8 Females Males BSc MSc PhD www.asti.cgiar.org
  • 12. Shares of female students enrolled and graduated, 2007 South Africa (3) Nigeria (5) Botswana (1) Malawi (1) Kenya (3) Uganda (3) Mozambique (2) Zambia (2) Ethiopia (2) Ghana (4) Senegal (1) Burundi (1)12 country total (28)10 country total (25) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Female share in total enrolled students (percentage) Female share in total graduated students (percentage) BSc MSc PhD BSc MSc PhD www.asti.cgiar.org
  • 13. Shares of female students enrolledand female in professional staff, 2007/8South AfricaMozambique Botswana Kenya Uganda Nigeria Burundi Zambia Senegal Ghana Malawi Ethiopia 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Female share (percentage) In total professional staff In total students enrolled www.asti.cgiar.org
  • 14. Shift in gender gap with career advancement (10 countries), 2007/8 100 Male Female 85% 80 72% 71% 65% Female share (percentage) 65% 60 40 34% 35% 35% 27% 20 17% 0 Students (10) Graduates (10) PS/ST (10) SPL (10) M (10)PS/TS indicates professional and technical support staff; SPL includes scientists, (assistant) professors, and (senior)lecturers not in management positions; and M indicates management and includes directors, deans, and departmentheads. When including all 15 countries, the female share in management positions is lower at 14 percent www.asti.cgiar.org
  • 15. Distribution of female professional staff by age group, 2007/8 Ethiopia Botswana Malawi Zambia South Africa Uganda Burundi Ghana Senegal Kenya NigeriaMozambique TogoBurkina Faso Niger Total(15) 0 20 40 60 80 100 Female researchers by age group (percentage) < 31 y 31-40 y 41-50 y > 50 y www.asti.cgiar.org
  • 16. Distribution of female professional staff by discipline, 2007/8 Agricultural economics Agronomy Animal science Biodiversity Crop science Ecology Entomology Extension Fisheries Food/nutritional science Forestry Molecular biologyNatural resource management Soil science Water/irrigation Other Total 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Female shares in total research staff (percentage) www.asti.cgiar.org
  • 17. Other outcomes of the study■ Female shares in agricultural research in Africa are, on average, slightly higher than in Asia and Middle East/North Africa, but lower than in Latin America. In all region there are large differences across countries■ Unsurprisingly, almost all countries with young female staff also have comparatively more women employed for less than 2 years at their respective institutes■ The share of women obtaining university degrees during 2005-07 is high compared to their male colleagues■ Fewer women than men were promoted during 2005-07, (no information was available on the level of employment hierarchy at which these promotions took place■ Relatively more men than women departed during 2005- 07 (except for Botswana, Burundi, and Ethiopia) www.asti.cgiar.org
  • 18. Key points■ The proportion of female professional staff in agricultural research and higher education increased from 18 percent in 2000/01 to 24 percent in 2007/08■ Female participation levels were low in Ethiopia, Togo, Niger, and Burkina Faso. Female shares in South Africa, Mozambique, and Botswana were comparatively high■ About two-thirds of this (female and male) capacity increase comprised staff holding only BSc degrees■ Female share of all students enrolled in higher education in agriculture was higher the female shares of professional staff in most cases, but a large proportion of the female students (83 percent) where enrolled in BSc studies■ Only 14 percent of the management positions were held by women www.asti.cgiar.org
  • 19. Next steps■ Finalize report and brief; seek comments from experts■ How to publish/disseminate?■ How to use results for broader AWARD program (including M&E component)?■ Next step – second survey round in 2011, which includes collection of additional information through country visits■ Feedback of ASTI-AWARD data into regular ASTI data collection in 25 sub-Saharan African countries (add on exv■ ????????? www.asti.cgiar.org
  • 20. Thank you

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