Trends in Public Agricultural R&D Investment and Staffing in Pakistan
Trends in Public Agricultural R&DInvestment and Staffing in PakistanMuhammad SharifMember (Social Sciences), PARCGert-Jan StadsASTI Program Coordinator, IFPRIIslamabad | 27 November 2012Pakistan AgriculturalResearch Council
Outline1. Why Monitor the Allocation of Agricultural R&DResources?2. Recent Investment and Capacity Trends inAgricultural R&D in Pakistan3. Pakistan’s R&D Indicators in a Regional and GlobalContext4. Conclusion, Policy Implications, and Way Forward
PART 1:Why Monitor the Allocation ofAgricultural R&D Resources?
Why Invest in Agricultural R&D?• Pakistan’s population is expected to grow from 187million in 2011 to 335 million in 2050 (unless fertility rates dropfaster than currently projected — Source: United Nations)• In order to feed these 148 million extra people and toaddress other pressing challenges (including climatechange and rising and food price volatility), it is crucialthat agricultural productivity is increased• Substantial empirical evidence that agricultural R&D hasbeen a major contributor to agricultural productivityincreases and poverty reduction around the globe overthe past 50 years
Agricultural R&D Should Remain a Priority• Despite the well-documented evidence that the payoffsto agricultural R&D are considerable, many countriescontinue to underinvest in agricultural research.• The time lag between research investment and themoment when the research rewards can be reaped issubstantial: typically decades, not years.
Why Monitor the Allocation of R&D Resources?• Quantitative data are essential for agricultural R&Dstakeholders to be able to analyze trends in agriculturalR&D investments; identify gaps; set future investmentpriorities; and better coordinate agricultural R&D acrossinstitutes, regions, and commodities.• R&D indicators are also an indispensable tool whenassessing the contribution of agricultural R&D toagricultural growth and to economic growth moregenerally.
The Agricultural Science and TechnologyIndicators (ASTI) initiative• Collects national-level investment andhuman resource capacity data onagricultural R&D:– Focus on low- and middle-income countries– Through institutional survey rounds (primarydata)• Includes a large collaborative network ofnational, regional and internationalpartners; facilitated by the InternationalFood Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) ofthe CGIAR Consortium• Provides:– Trends over time at country / regional levels;within countries– Comparisons across countries / regions; withincountries
ASTI’s OutputsASTI outputs:• Country notes• Regional and subregional reports• Downloadable datasets• Analytical assessments• Seminars and presentations• Press releases/media outreach• ASTI website (www.asti.cgiar.org)ASTI indicators:• Institutional arrangements• R&D spending by cost category• Funding sources• R&D staff by degree, gender, and age• R&D focus by commodity and thematic area
PART 2:Recent Investment and Capacity Trends inAgricultural R&D in Pakistan
PARC/ASTI survey in Pakistan• Surveyed 123 public agencies involvedin agricultural R&D:• 21 agencies under PARC• 13 agencies under NARC• 18 other federal government agencies• 41 provincial government agencies• 30 higher education agencies• Private sector was surveyed separately• Some data for missing years have beenestimated/interpolated• PARC/IFPRI team consisted of NoumanBaddar, Hina Fatima, Kathleen Flaherty,Shazia Firdous, Muhammad Sharif,David Spielman, and Sultan Ali Tariq
Institutional Changes and Challenges• The passage of the 18th Amendment in 2010, whichdevolved agriculture to the provinces, has given theprovincial research systems a clearer mandate in R&D• A key challenge will be to ensure that resources andcapacities are more evenly distributed, both from thecentral government to the provinces and among theprovinces themselves• Punjab is the only province that currently hosts anagricultural research board, mandated to prioritize R&D,allocate funds, monitor impact, and coordinatestakeholder support• A similar devolution of public universities to theprovinces is currently being pursued
Total public agricultural R&D spending• Includes salaries, operating costs, and capitalcosts• Includes research on crops, livestock, fisheries,forestry, postharvest, socio-economics, etc.• Includes all federal, provincial, and highereducation agencies5.5 billion rupees(current prices)2009172 million dollars(in 2005 PPP prices)
What is the money spent on?0 20 40 60 80 100Sindh (11)Punjab (12)KhyberPakhtunkhwa (4)Balochistan (2)Other federal (15)NARC (12)PARC (15)Share (%)Salaries Operatingcosts Capital expenditures2009• High salary share acrossagencies indicates limitedfunding for other costsassociated with research• Given the dependence bymany federal agencies onresearch funding fromdonors directed towardoutput- and outcome-oriented activities, longerterm researchmaintenance issues tendto be overlooked
Negative cycle of underinvestment• Agricultural R&Dspending as a % ofAgGDP halved during1991-2009• Pakistan invested 0.21%of AgGDP on agriculturalR&D in 2009• Excluding salary costs,this share would amountto just 0.05%• Clear sign that Pakistanis underinvesting inagricultural R&D0.00.10.20.30.40.51991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009AgR&Dspendingas%ofAgGDP19910.43%20090.21%
How is public agricultural R&D funded?• Recurrent government budgets generally fund the cost ofsalaries• Donor contributions are directed towards operating costsand capital investments.• PARC and the other federal agencies receive a variety ofdonor funding, but much less is directed to the provincialinstitutes.• Proceeds from the sale of goods and services accounted fora moderate amount of funding for federal agencies otherthan PARC.• Overall, funding levels were higher in the 1980s and 1990sdue to substantial financial support by the World Bank andUSAID.
Public agricultural R&D staff, 20093,352FTEresearchstaff6% PARC8% NARC16% Other federal27% Punjab11% KP11% Sindh6% Balochistan14% Universities
Long-term trends in public agricultural R&Dcapacity, 1991—200905001,0001,5002,0002,5003,0003,5004,0001991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009NumberofFTEresearchersPARC (21) NARC (13)Other federal(18) Punjab (18)Other provinces(24) Higher education (30)• R&D staff levels have remained relatively stable over time• Share of universities in agricultural R&D has increased, butremains relatively low• In 2009, Pakistan employed 144 FTE agricultural researchers forevery million farmers
Degree qualifications of R&D staff• In 2009, 18% ofresearchers heldPhD degrees, 71%MSc, and 11% BSc• Shares haveremained relativelyunchanged during2003-2009• Universities employa higher share ofPhDs0 20 40 60 80 100Higher education(16)Sindh (11)Punjab (13)KhyberPakhtunkhwa (4)Balochistan (2)Other federal (15)NARC (13)PARC (15)Share of FTE researchers (%)BSc MSc PhD
Women underrepresented in AgR&D• Most Pakistani farmers arewomen, but women areseverely underrepresented inagricultural R&D• Share of female scientists rosefrom 6% to 10% during 2003-2009• 20% of male scientists hold PhDdegrees, compared to just 14%of female scientists• PARC employs the highest shareof female researchers with PhDdegrees among governmentagencies200990% male10% female
Aging pool of PhD-qualified scientists• Many PhD-qualified scientists will retire in the coming years, making theirreplacement a high priority• Situation particularly acute at PARC and NARC• Capacity improvements have been supported through scholarships by thePakistan Science Foundation (PSF), the Higher Education Commission ofPakistan (HEC), and the Punjab Educational Endowment Fund (PEEF)3%15%18%65%3%8%28%61%1%11%49%40%1%17%44%32%PARC NARC OthergovernmentHighereducationPhD-qualified scientists by age group:
Research focus by major commodity, 2009Wheat (23%)*Rice (12%)Cotton (10%Sugarcane (7%)Fruits (6%)Vegetables (6%)Maize (5%)* % of total cropresearchers020406080100PARC (21) NARC(13)Otherfederal(18)KP (5) Punjab(18)Sindh(16)Highereducation(30)Total(121)ShareofFTEresearchers(%)Crops LivestockNaturalresources ForestryFisheries PostharvestOtherMost researched crops:
Global Private Agricultural R&D SpendingInbillion2005PPPdollarsPrivatePublic2008 total: $40.1 billion (2005 PPP dollars)• Most private-sector R&D was undertaken by companies inOECD countries;• Evidence suggests significant growth in large middle-incomecountries such as China and India
CGIAR Spending, 1981-2011After more than a decade of stagnation, R&D spendingby the CGIAR has accelerated since 2006Inbilliondollars
PART 4:Conclusion, Policy Implications, andWay Forward
Pakistan’s Agricultural R&D ChallengesBased on a number of key indicators, Pakistanappears to be falling behind other South Asiancountries:• R&D spending has not matched AgGDP growth, resulting in arapid weakening of the country’s intensity ratio (0.21% of AgGDPin 2009)• The share of researchers with PhDs remains low, at just 18percent; the majority of PhD holders are older than 50• Overall employment of female researchers continues to be verylow (despite recent improvements)• Private research has grown, but remains limited
Pakistan’s Agricultural R&D Challenges• These financial and capacity challenges have occurred attime of great institutional uncertainty• Spending and capacity patterns have fluctuated as agenciesadjust to the devolution and reorganization ofresponsibilities across national, provincial, and local levelsof government• Provincial institutes have taken on a larger role inagricultural R&D, but questions remain as to whether theyare resourced and structured to do so effectively• This period of change has, however, offered opportunitiesto review existing structures and re-assess researchpriorities.
Role of indicators in fostering andsupporting agricultural R&D policy change• Important to continuously monitor R&D investment and capacitytrends in Pakistan.• Up-to-date indicators are an important tool to raise awareness ofunderinvestment and capacity challenges among policymakersand stakeholders, and to incite action toward improvement
Way ForwardIn 2013, PARC and ASTI will launch a new data collectionround, which will cover:• Standard set of core indicators• Expansion of dataset with a number of key agricultural R&D output andperformance indicators• More in-depth analysis of trends in private-sector R&D• Expansion of analysis on issues underlying agricultural R&D andinstitutional developments in Pakistan through close collaborations withPakistan-based economists and other agricultural R&D expertsEnhanced policyrelevance and impact!
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