ASTI/IFPRI–FARA CONFERENCE AGRICULTURAL R&D: INVESTING IN AFRICA ’ S FUTURE Analyzing Trends, Challenges, and Opportunitie...
OUTLINE <ul><li>Role of Agriculture and its New Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Organization of Agricultural Research and cha...
1.  Role of Agriculture and  its New Challenges <ul><li>Agriculture is a major contributor to economic growth in Africa </...
…   Role of Agriculture and  its New Challenges <ul><li>To achieve the 1 st  MDG African countries have set a target of 6 ...
2. Organization of Agricultural Research and challenges <ul><li>Most public agricultural research is organized along natio...
… . Organization of Agricultural Research and challenges <ul><li>The challenges small countries face in agricultural resea...
3.  New Paradigms in Agricultural  Research and Development <ul><li>With reduced funding, agricultural R&D systems are for...
… . New Paradigms in Agricultural  Research and Development <ul><li>In the Agricultural Innovation System perspective and ...
… . New Paradigms in Agricultural  Research and Development <ul><li>To be called an innovation, an idea must be replicable...
4. Investment in Agricultural Research <ul><li>Public investment in Agricultural Research in SSA is low – most countries i...
5. Regionalization of Agricultural Research <ul><li>Most public agricultural research is organized along national lines </...
… . Regionalization of Agricultural Research <ul><li>One of the largest sources of finance for agricultural research in SS...
6. Concluding  Comments <ul><li>AGRIC. INNOVATION SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>There is limited emperical evidence of the appl...
<ul><li>AGRIC. ADVISORY SERVICES </li></ul><ul><li>Returns on investment for advisory services are not immediate and somew...
… ... <ul><li>THANK YOU  </li></ul><ul><li>FOR YOUR ATTENTION </li></ul>
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Aligning and Rationalizing Institutional Structures of Agricultural R&D

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By Yusuf Abubakar.
Presented at the ASTI-FARA conference Agricultural R&D: Investing in Africa's Future: Analyzing Trends, Challenges, and Opportunities - Accra, Ghana on December 5-7, 2011. http://www.asti.cgiar.org/2011conf

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Aligning and Rationalizing Institutional Structures of Agricultural R&D

  1. 1. ASTI/IFPRI–FARA CONFERENCE AGRICULTURAL R&D: INVESTING IN AFRICA ’ S FUTURE Analyzing Trends, Challenges, and Opportunities <ul><li>SESSION 6: </li></ul><ul><li>ALIGNING AND RATIONALIZING INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURES OF AGRICULTURAL R&D </li></ul><ul><li>Discussant: Yusuf Abubakar </li></ul><ul><li>(Executive Secretary) </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural Research Council of Nigeria (ARCN) </li></ul>
  2. 2. OUTLINE <ul><li>Role of Agriculture and its New Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Organization of Agricultural Research and challenges </li></ul><ul><li>New Paradigms in Agricultural Research and Development </li></ul><ul><li>Investment in Agricultural Research </li></ul><ul><li>Regionalization of Agricultural Research </li></ul><ul><li>Concluding Comments </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1. Role of Agriculture and its New Challenges <ul><li>Agriculture is a major contributor to economic growth in Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>vast majority of the African countries are agriculture-based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>agriculture contributes over 25% to GDP and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50% or more of the economically active people involved in agriculture. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>South Africa, Botswana & most of N/Africa have different economic structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture contributes less than 10% to GDP in these countries. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Despite diversity of socio-economic, ecological conditions & different agricultural systems agriculture-based countries share some generic features. </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural growth is a condition sine-qua-non for economic development in Africa in agriculture-based countries. </li></ul>
  4. 4. … Role of Agriculture and its New Challenges <ul><li>To achieve the 1 st MDG African countries have set a target of 6 % AGDP growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Through CAADP, African governments set to raise agricultural productivity by 6% per year and the value added of the agricultural sector to GDP by 4 – 5 % a year. </li></ul><ul><li>New challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural development in Africa is challenged by the complex and unpredictable influence of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Globalization and regionalization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection of domestic and regional markets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marginalization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate change . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accelerated growth requires more radical innovation in various areas, and at different scales. </li></ul>
  5. 5. 2. Organization of Agricultural Research and challenges <ul><li>Most public agricultural research is organized along national lines. </li></ul><ul><li>Countries in SSA have a complex array of institutes responsible for planning, funding and implementing agricultural R&D activities (NARIs, IARCs, FOs, NGOs, CBOs). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government research agencies represent 81% of total research capacity of African NARS. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Universities contribute 18% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Private and non-profit sectors as the remaining 1%. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Agricultural research systems in most SSA countries are characterized by low capacity and vulnerability to funding volatility. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only one-third of SSA researchers are qualified to the PhD-degree level, whereas three-quarters of Indian researchers and all of American researchers are PhD-qualified. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. … . Organization of Agricultural Research and challenges <ul><li>The challenges small countries face in agricultural research include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited in their ability to take advantage of economies of scale and scope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to maintain the required core staff capacity to ensure programmatic and operational continuity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of in-country degree programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vulnerable to funding fluctuations. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Small-country agricultural research systems generally thought of as vulnerable and unviable, lacking both capacity and resources. </li></ul><ul><li>The recommended solution was a consolidated research institution focused primarily on the adoption and adaptation of borrowed technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite challenges, small-country research systems in SSA should not be considered unviable as world-class research programs are found in small countries & their small size can be an advantage </li></ul>
  7. 7. 3. New Paradigms in Agricultural Research and Development <ul><li>With reduced funding, agricultural R&D systems are forced to raise questions about their continuing relevance, approaches, accountability and impact. </li></ul><ul><li>With the financial and other constraints facing agricultural research in countries of SSA, there is a need for paradigm shift in the way we manage and conduct agricultural research. </li></ul><ul><li>This shift has already started and the R&D processes within the agricultural sector in SSA are currently influenced by four concepts and principles: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Innovation Systems Perspective (ISP); </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Value Chain (VC) and Value Chain Analysis (VCA); </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>impact orientation; and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated Research for Development (IR4D). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>These paradigms are impact oriented and complementary . </li></ul>
  8. 8. … . New Paradigms in Agricultural Research and Development <ul><li>In the Agricultural Innovation System perspective and its dimensions “Research converts money into knowledge and innovation converts knowledge into money”. </li></ul><ul><li>Using ‘a three legged stool’ to illustrate the innovation process and role of research, the 3 critical elements in the innovation process are: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Education or knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to translate (realize) the knowledge into real products & services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The ability to communicate (market) the ideas to the world </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A platform is needed to hold the legs - end users & something to support the stool (the government, society, institutes & institutions). If any of the five elements change, the overall system may become unstable. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The activities involved in the stages of the innovation process are : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>invention; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>translation/realization; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>commercialization and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>utilization </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. … . New Paradigms in Agricultural Research and Development <ul><li>To be called an innovation, an idea must be replicable at an economic cost and must satisfy a specific need. </li></ul><ul><li>The single most important feature for innovation to occur is understanding the users ’ needs and translating it into action across all functional areas. </li></ul><ul><li>ISP does not undermine the value of research, good communication or effective extension services. These are necessary preconditions. </li></ul><ul><li>The IS idea does not provide one generic model for innovation as there is no uniform theory of innovation. </li></ul><ul><li>As we progress from knowledge and technology generation to innovation, the roles and responsibilities of individual actors change. This needs to be recognized and acknowledged by all R&D practitioners. </li></ul><ul><li>Institutionalizing such a perspective in the AR4D system offers both opportunities and challenges. </li></ul>
  10. 10. 4. Investment in Agricultural Research <ul><li>Public investment in Agricultural Research in SSA is low – most countries invest less than $25million purchasing power parity (PPP) dollars per year. </li></ul><ul><li>This low investment negatively affects the infrastructure, research equipment, quantity and quality of research staff as well as the research output. </li></ul><ul><li>Private sector can and are already playing an important role in Agricultural Research and Development in SSA. </li></ul><ul><li>Governments can encourage more private technology introduction by continuing to liberalize: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>allowing local and foreign firms to enter; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>providing firms with a stable policy and regulatory environment; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>strengthening IPR; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>and stopping taxing agriculture. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>bio-safety regulations that allowed the use of safe GMOs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. 5. Regionalization of Agricultural Research <ul><li>Most public agricultural research is organized along national lines </li></ul><ul><li>The impact of a part of the public agricultural research effort does not stop at ‘artificial’ national borders. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The same knowledge and technology can be used at both sides of the border if not across multiple countries - ‘spillovers’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many countries in Africa have small economies and face limited capacities and resources to undertake their own basic research </li></ul><ul><li>The need for greater regionalization of R&D is well recognized among national R&D systems, as evident in the establishment of FARA, ASARECA and CORAF/WECARD. </li></ul><ul><li>SROs have grappled with the problem of country buy-in and funding, but have gradually secured regional cooperation around CAADP and FAAP. </li></ul>
  12. 12. … . Regionalization of Agricultural Research <ul><li>One of the largest sources of finance for agricultural research in SSA is the World Bank, which has also taken a regional approach. </li></ul><ul><li>Two sub-regional based programs, EAAPP and WAAPP have already begun operations, with a similar program proposed for Southern Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>These regional programs mark a change in approach by the World Bank in terms of financing agricultural research in SSA. </li></ul><ul><li>So far, these sub-regional programs have not directly funded research in the smaller countries of SSA, but in 2011 a number were selected for the next phase of WAAPP </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-regional cooperation in research will help promote regional integration as well as increase productivity but there are still questions </li></ul>
  13. 13. 6. Concluding Comments <ul><li>AGRIC. INNOVATION SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>There is limited emperical evidence of the application of AIS, it’s utility and value addition. </li></ul><ul><li>The innovation process is evolutionary, takes time and needs long-term commitment by all actors. </li></ul><ul><li>Are innovation platforms(commodity focused) sustainable? Are macro platforms more viable? </li></ul><ul><li>PRIVATE INVESTMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Shortage of well trained scientists is a major constraint to the growth of private sector R & D in all African countries. Which way forward (ACI, WACCI, CCAI)? </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>AGRIC. ADVISORY SERVICES </li></ul><ul><li>Returns on investment for advisory services are not immediate and somewhat uncertain and their establishment is very costly. Are they justifiable? </li></ul><ul><li>SUPRANATIONAL COLLABORATION </li></ul><ul><li>Key limitation is high transaction cost-many inst. And admin. barriers to manage & coordinate. </li></ul><ul><li>Funding of FARA and SRO’s still largely based on donor support. Can the REC’s come to the rescue? What is the role of AU? </li></ul>… Concluding Comments
  15. 15. … ... <ul><li>THANK YOU </li></ul><ul><li>FOR YOUR ATTENTION </li></ul>
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