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Russian absolute monarchs
 

Russian absolute monarchs

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    Russian absolute monarchs Russian absolute monarchs Presentation Transcript

    • Absolute Monarchy in Russia The ULTIMATE Absolutism!
    • TRIVIA: Can you say your name in Russian?
      • In Russian, your middle name is your father’s first name.
        • If a boy, you would say:
          • I am (your first name) and (your father’s first name) –vitch.
          • Daniel Clarkovitch
        • If a girl you would say:
          • I am (your first name) and (your father’s first name) – ovna.
          • Carolina Clarkovna
    • Russia BEFORE Peter the Great
      • Russia was still in the Middle Ages – with touches of the Muslim culture added in.
      • There was very, very little interaction with the rest of Europe or the world.
    • Russian Life BEFORE Peter the Great
      • There were only three social classes.
        • The Boyars
        • The Church
        • The Serfs
    • The Boyars
      • Russian nobles, most called themselves Princes.
      • 10 th – 17 th Centuries were the “real” rulers of Russia.
      • Positions in society were based on service your family did for the Czar and owning land.
      • Pretty much had no checks on their local power .
        • Could change your loyalty to different princes, depending on what they would give you in return.
    • The Boyars
      • Dressed more like Arabs with beards that you were never supposed to trim.
      • Separate society from women.
        • Women weren’t often seen – let alone heard!
        • Covered hair and no shape to clothing.
    • The Boyars
      • Lived on their feudal estates with their own armies and self-sufficient economies.
      • Little interest in the outside world.
      • Do you see
      • Muslim influence?
    • The Church = Russian Orthodox
      • One of the oldest Christian religions.
      • Does not recognize the Pope or Catholic Church.
      • They believe they practice the Christian religion of the Roman Emperor Constantine.
    • Russian Orthodox Church
      • Ruled by the Patriarch.
      • Urged people to not be corrupted by outside influences.
      • Urged the serfs to remain loyal without questioning the Boyars.
      • Life is suffering, but heaven will be your reward.
    • Russian Orthodox Church
    • The Serfs
      • At the time of Peter the Great, they made up 95% of the population in Russia.
      • They were essentially slaves – bound to the land and bound to the noble.
    • The Serfs
      • Had absolutely no say about anything in their lives.
    • Over these three levels of society were the CZARS
      • Czar = Caesar / Emperor.
      • Sometimes in books as Tsar.
      • Technically had absolute power.
        • But few czars had been powerful enough to make the boyars and the church obey him.
    • Before Peter: The Time of Troubles
      • The belief in “blue blood” was also with the Russian Czars.
      • 1600 – the last of the “Rurik” czars died with no children.
        • Family had ruled since 900 AD.
        • WHO SHOULD BE CZAR?
    • The Time of Troubles
      • “ Smutnoya Vremya”’
      • No czar and wars broke out between the boyars.
      • Sensing weakness and the chance to take land – Poland and Lithuania invaded.
      • Russia was in chaos!
    • The Romanovs become Czar
      • A distant relative of the last Rurik czar.
      • Started a dynasty in 1613 that would last until 1918.
        • This is NOT the Hapsburg double-headed eagle!
        • It is the Romanov symbol.
    • Which eagle for which family? Hapsburg v. Romanov?
    • Even though the Romanovs were on the throne
      • Power was still weak.
        • Just the way the boyars and the Church wanted it!
    • Peter the Great’s story starts with his father:
      • Alexei
        • His first wife died.
          • 13 children
          • 5 boys – only one was surviving to adulthood.
            • Ivan was mentally retarded.
        • A new wife was needed.
          • He practiced “droit de seigneur.”
          • Most common way that boyars chose wives and mistresses.
    • Czar Alexis I – Peter’s Father
      • Had started some reforms in Russia.
        • Shaved his beard
        • Could read Latin and spoke Polish as well as Russian.
    • Peter the Great’s mother
      • Natalia Kirilovna Naryshkinov
      • Her grandmother was Scottish and had some contact with Western Europeans while growing up.
    • Peter the Great 1672 - 1725
      • Peter was the firstborn son to a second wife who did not come from a powerful family to protect her or her children.
      • 1682 – Alexis dies.
      • Who becomes Czar?
    • Peter the Great
      • First born son of a second wife.
      • He was only ten when his father died.
        • Peter’s mother’s family was not the most powerful Boyar family and suspected of “western” leanings.
    • Who should rule Russia
      • The eldest son?
      • Ivan
      • Mentally handicapped.
      • Should be easy for the Boyars and Church to manipulate.
      • But could he lead?
    • OR
      • Their older sister Sophia Alexovna?
        • Smart
        • Ambitious
        • A woman
          • Yes! She really was.
    • The Compromise: A double-Czar
      • Little Peter and his mentally handicapped brother were crowned co-czars and their sister Sophia sat behind them whispering instructions on what to say and do.
    • Problem-Solve this!
      • Why didn’t Peter’s half-sister Sophia just take her little half-brother on a walk along the cliffs, and get rid of him?
      • Why did she keep her brother Ivan alive?
    • Peter the Great grows up
      • Unusually tall 6’ 8”.
      • But his head was small for his body and he suffered from epilepsy.
      • He grew up away from Moscow and played around German sailors and ship-builders who were along the Russian coast.
      • Fascinated with the west!
    • Peter the Great Grows Up
      • 1696: Peter leaves Russia and comes to the West.
        • Didn’t just visit fellow Royals.
        • He visited factories and took jobs in shipyards to learn how to build ships.
        • Had a dentist teach him how to pull teeth.
        • Learned a lot about Western Europe art and culture.
    • Peter the Great comes home to Russia
      • Brought with him technical experts, teachers, and soldiers to teach western methods.
      • Was ready to become a true Czar without his sister in 1698.
    • Do you think Sophia accepted this new way?
      • Now she did try to assassinate her brother.
      • Sent her personal body guards the Streltsky to kill Peter.
      • They failed.
    • Peter’s Response:
      • Forced his sister to become a nun and locked her away in a nunnery.
      • Hung the bodies of the Streltsky guards outside her window.
        • 1,000 corpses
      • Later he sent her to a sub-arctic nunnery.
      • She died in 1704
    • On one thing the two half-siblings agreed on:
      • Leave Ivan out of it.
      • Ivan remained a co-czar living in a palace until he died.
      • Married and had three daughters.
        • Might / Probably / Maybe were his children biologically.
          • The crown is the original one czars were crowned with – The Cap of Monmahk.
    • Peter the Great has two goals:
      • Westernize Russia
        • Had 400 years of development to catch up on.
      • Become an absolute monarch.
      • Which should be done first?
    • Becoming the Absolute Monarch
      • Following another king’s model, he sought to make the boyars too weak to challenge him.
        • Took away walled fortresses.
        • Took away private armies.
        • Made the boyars become courtiers and serve in his government and military.
    • Stipulations
      • Had to be WESTERN:
        • Dress like they did in the west.
        • Shave their beards.
        • Women were to dress western and not be segregated from men.
        • Dancing and mingling between men and women was ORDERED.
    • How do you think Peter got compliance?
      • Humiliations
      • Imprisonment / Torture
      • Forced labor
      • Death
      • AND ---
    • Give the Boyars something they wanted in return.
      • Serfdom spread in Russia.
        • Slave = Serf
      • The boyars, now called nobles, got more control over the people of Russia.
        • It continued until 1861 in Russia.
    • How about the Church?
      • Peter replaced positions with western leaning patriarchs.
      • Built fabulous new churches in the western style.
    • Peter’s Germans
      • Ever hear of “Germans from Russia”?
      • Most were imported by Peter to teach and create a new system.
    • Peter’s Modernization with Force
      • Improved education
      • Academies for mathematics, science, music, dance and engineering.
      • Improved travel with roads, waterways, and canals.
      • Developed mining and textiles for export.
    • Modernization with Force
      • Serfs were forced labor for many improvements.
      • Worked until they died to create the modernization.
    • Revolts?
      • Peter’s first wife, Eudoxia:
        • Preferred the “old” ways and encouraged revolts.
          • Divorced and sent to a sub-arctic nunnery.
      • His son Tsarivitch Alexei:
        • Hated his father and was encouraged by his mother to revolt.
        • Was executed by his father.
    • Results of Revolts? Czarist reaction for 200 years
    • Peter the Great Expanding Russian Borders
      • Russia needed a warm-water port so ships could sail year around.
    • Where on the map would be the best spot for a warm-water port that is close to Europe??
    • The Great Northern War
      • 1700 – Russia goes to war against Sweden to get control of the land needed for a warm water port.
        • Had 5x as many troops as Sweden did!
          • Got his royal butt kicked by the Swedes!
    • Peter did not give up!
      • Went back and rebuilt his military and trained them better.
      • 1709 – defeated the Swedes and took the land that would become his new capitol.
    • St. Petersburg
      • Note who he named the city for!
      • Also, called it Petersburg after the German way, not Petrograd, the Russian way!
        • 1918 – 1993 called Leningrad.
      • A city built to be the Window to Europe .
    • Scenes from St. Petersburg The Winter Palace
    • Scenes from St. Petersburg
    • The Winter Palace
    • JAV (just another view) The Winter Palace
    • The Winter Palace and the Hermitage
    • Peter the Great Blazing to the Pacific
      • Made fur trading outposts all the way to Alaska.
        • FYI: Alaska was part of Russia until 1862.
      • The Bering Strait is named for the Danish navigator Vitus Bering that he sent to discover a way between Russia and Alaska.
    • Peter the Great had a problem close to his death
      • Despite having had 11 children with two wives, only two daughters had lived.
        • Too young.
      • His grandson was too young and Peter didn’t think he would be able to continue Russia’s transformation to a modern country.
      • WHO SHOULD COME AFTER HIM?
    • Peter’s second wife
      • Catherine I
      • Born Martha Elena Scowronska
        • Lithuanian Peasant
        • A commoner, little better than a serf to the Russian nobles.
          • Had grown up a peasant, doing laundry, becoming other men’s mistresses.
        • Rumors that Peter had purchased her from one of her lovers.
    • Peter and Catherine
      • Love at first sight. Secretly married in 1707.
      • As smart and daring as her husband.
      • Could deal with Peter’s temper and help him in epileptic seizures.
      • Never left his side.
        • Kept a 3 room cabin for them and their children while he was building St. Petersburg.
    • Peter and Catherine
      • Peter crowned her Czarina and they were co-rulers in 1724.
      • Ruled by herself from 1725 until her death in 1727.
    • Catherine I coronation gown
    • After Catherine I
      • Peter’s Grandson.
        • Became czar at 12
      • Only ruled three years.
      • Died of smallpox on his wedding day in 1730.
        • Did bring back his Grandmother Eudoxia from exile. (Peter’s first wife.)
    • After Peter II?
      • Remember Peter the Great’s “co-czar” brother?
      • His daughter Anna became Czarina.
    • Czarina Anna
      • The Russian nobles put her on the throne.
        • She would be easy to control.
          • She should be “grateful” for the chance to become the Czarina.
          • She wasn’t known for a strong personality, she could be influenced.
            • Maybe even get a Constitutional Monarchy?
    • Czarina Anna ruled until 1 740
      • Kept company with foolish people.
      • Created a Secret Police to terrorize people to follow her.
      • Enjoyed humiliating the older nobles.
        • Ordering marriages between inappropriate people and having them spend the night naked in an “ice palace.”
    • Anna HATED her Cousin
      • Elizabeth
      • The daughter of Peter the Great and his wife Catherine.
      • Every inch the daughter of her parents!
    • The saddest story of a Czar
      • Ivan VI
      • A nephew of Anna, she adopted him when he was an infant and declared him her successor in 1740.
      • She died later that year.
    • Would the daughter of Peter the Great let a baby rule?
      • Elizabeth took the throne.
      • Infant Ivan was imprisoned.
        • Never left his prison.
        • Not allowed contact except with guards.
        • No education.
        • Effort to “rescue” him and make him czar failed and he was killed by his guards in 1764.
    • Empress Elizabeth aka Czarina
      • Continued her father’s westernization, but had censorship of ideas she did not agree with.
      • Waged years of war against Prussia.
        • Frederick the Great
      • Could be kind and generous.
        • Abolished the death penalty.
      • “ Had to be the bride at every wedding, the corpse at every funeral.”
        • “ It is all about ME.”
    • Empress Elizabeth
      • Selected a nephew to become the next czar.
        • The future Peter III
      • Put some special thought into deciding who his wife should be.
        • Selected German Princess Sophia Augusta Frederika of Anhalt – Zerbst.
          • Known in history as ___
    • Catherine the Great
    • Huh?
      • How does a German princess become the Czarina of Russia?
      • What happened to her husband?
    • Catherine the Great
      • Unusual intellectual abilities.
      • Embraced all things Russian.
      • Inspired loyalty.
    • Her husband Peter -
      • Not very smart
      • Not good looking
      • Loved everything PRUSSIAN not Russian.
        • Cheered on Frederick the Great against his aunt.
    • Peter and Catherine
      • Were NOT a good couple.
      • Peter preferred male-looking German women for mistresses rather than being with his wife.
      • Empress Elizabeth wanted a son from Peter and Catherine.
        • Blamed Catherine
        • What is a woman to do?
    • Catherine produces a son!
      • Was her son Paul the son of a Russian noble?
      • Was her son Paul the son of a Polish musician?
      • ???
      • Peter couldn’t deny paternity without having to answer a lot of “embarrassing” questions.
        • Might have been “relieved” to have the heir.
    • 1762: Elizabeth dies
      • Peter ends the war with Frederick the Great at a great loss to Russia.
      • Peter puts his Prussian Guards above the Russian nobles.
      • Plans to divorce Catherine.
        • Monastery for her!
        • Marry a German mistress.
    • Catherine’s current lover helps hatch a plan!
      • Gregori Orlov
      • Stage a Coup d’Etat.
        • A takeover of the government.
        • Imprison Peter.
        • Make Catherine the Czarina.
    • It Worked!
      • Peter was so hated that people welcomed Catherine to the throne.
        • Peter ended up being murdered.
          • By Gregori Orlov
        • Paul always harbored a hatred of his mother for not making him czar and killing his “father.”
    • Trivia
      • Gregori Orlov gave Catherine an incredible diamond – it is kept in the scepter of the Russian crown jewels.
        • The Orlov Diamond
    • Catherine the Great
      • Set forth new efforts with an effective ruler to keep going with Peter the Great’s reforms.
    • Catherine the Great An Enlightened Ruler
      • Reorganized government, so she knew what was happening throughout Russia.
      • Codified laws (wrote them down!)
      • State-sponsored education for boys and girls.
    • Catherine the Great Absolute Monarch
      • Did not accept any challenges to her authority.
      • Liked the French intellectuals ideas of power for people – but never allowed it to be discussed outside of her palace.
      • Allowed the nobles to increase their strangle-hold on the serfs.
    • Catherine the Great Military Leader
      • Expanded Russia’s borders with wars against Turkey and the Partition of Poland.
        • Poland was divided up between Catherine, Frederick the Great and Maria Theresa’s son Josef.
    • Catherine the Great Pleasures
      • Kept a court where French costume, manners, and language were encouraged.
        • Russian became a language for serfs, not nobles.
    • Catherine the Great – what happened with Prince Orlov?
      • She never married again.
      • She kept many lovers.
        • Would enjoy, give them land, serfs, and money as a “pension”.
        • But expected the men to be loyal to her for life.
        • Some say 11 lovers, others say 300 lovers in her life.
    • Catherine and Orlov
      • Had a son together.
      • He was raised by both his parents and made noble.
      • Alexsai did a great deal of traveling in the west.
      • Gregory Orlov, broken at not getting Catherine to marry him, went west for five years, came home a “broken” man.
        • Died after marrying his niece in retaliation against Catherine.
    • Catherine the Great
      • Did not get along with her son at all.
      • Took her grandsons, Alexander and Nicholas and raised them, intending to make one of them the czar over their father.
    • Catherine the Great
      • Died before she could make her choice law in 1796.
        • Ruled Russia for 34 years
        • Not bad for a non-Russian woman!
      • Paul took over and tried to undo everything his mother had done.
        • Made it law no woman could rule in Russia.
        • He was murdered five years later.
    • Hmmmm.
      • Do we want to consider Peter the Great and Catherine the Great
        • GREAT absolute leaders?
        • Good absolute leaders?
        • Fair absolute leaders?
        • BAD absolute leaders?