Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International


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Les "Dossiers d'Agropolis International", n° 14, february 2012 Research competences in Montpellier and the Languedoc Roussillon in the field of water resources

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Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International

  1. 1. WaterresourcesPreservation and management Number 14
  2. 2. AGROPOLIS international agriculture • food • biodiversity • environment Agropolis International Agropolis is an international campus devoted to agricultural and brings together institutions of environmental sciences. There is significant potential for scientific research and higher education and technological expertise: more than 2 200 scientists in over in Montpellier and Languedoc- 80 research units in Montpellier and Languedoc-Roussillon, Roussillon in partnership with including 300 scientists conducting research in 60 countries. local communities, companies and regional enterprises and Agropolis International is structured according to a broad range of in close cooperation with international institutions. research themes corresponding to the overall scientific, technological This scientific community and economic issues of development: has one main objective– • Agronomy, cultivated plants and cropping systems the economic and social • Animal production and health development of Mediterranean • Biodiversity and Aquatic ecosystems and tropical regions. • Biodiversity and Land ecosystems • Economics, societies and sustainable development Agropolis International • Environmental technologies is an international space open • Food: nutritional and health concerns to all interested socioeconomic • Genetic resources and integrative plant biology development stakeholders in fields associated with • Grapevine and Wine, regional specific supply chain agriculture, food production, • Host-vector-parasite interactions and infectious diseases biodiversity, environment and • Modelling, spatial information, biostatistics rural societies. • Water: resources and management Agropolis International promotes the capitalisation and enhancement of knowledge, personnel training and technology transfer. It is a hub for visitors and international exchanges, while promoting initiativesWater resources: preservation and management based on multilateral and collective expertise and contributing to the scientific and technological knowledge needed for preparing development policies. 2
  3. 3. Water research expertise in Montpellier and Water resources: Languedoc-Roussillon preservation and management Seven years after the first“Dossier d’Agropolis International” on the theme of “Water: resources and management”, it was time for giving an update in order to provide the large number of website visitors (about Introduction Page 4 120,000 downloads of the Dossier, French and English versions combined) with up-to- date information and developing visibility with evidence of the progress made by theLanguedoc-Roussillon region’s scientific water Water resources: identification, Page 6 community. Readers will also find an updated functioning, mobilisationdirectory of research, technology transfer and higher education structures. Water quality preservation Page 24 This Dossier thus presents 18 research units from Languedoc-Roussillon and Avignon, and restoration gathering more than 800 scientists, working fully or partially on hydrosystems, water quality and/or water resource management. Management of resources and uses: Page 38Research units focused on lagoons and coastal institutions, territories and societies zones are not presented here but in another Agropolis Dossier about “Aquatic Ecosystems” published in 2007. The Dossier also presents International Cooperation Page 54 10 international cooperation or valorisation structures or programmes, in which the and Partnerships regional water scientific community is highlyinvolved. Finally, it also gives a list of 43 higher Topics covered Page 64 education diplomas, from 2 to 8 years post-graduate, proposed in the region and more or by the research teams less tightly linked to the theme of water. The re-edition of this Dossier in early 2012 is Agropolis International training Page 65an opportunity to demonstrate the dynamism and education in the field of “Water”of the regional water scientific community on the occasion of the 6th World Water Forum held in Marseille, France (12-17 March 2012) Liste of acronyms Page 70 and of the international water exhibition Hydrogaia in Montpellier (6-8 March 2012). and abbreviations This is also the first Agropolis Dossier to be available in Spanish, in addition to the usual French and English versions. D isponib spañol iones le en fra ible en E D isponopolis.org/es/publicac www.agr opolis.fr nçais /publicat ions www.agr On the cover “Chapada dos Veadeiros” National Park in the Brazilian Cerrado V. Simonneaux © IRD The information presented in this Dossier was valid on 01/01/2012.
  4. 4. Introduction I n recent years, the recognised to offer cooperation in Montpellier in September 2008, Montpellier scientific and development prospects to all which then favoured the settlement community has continued its water sector stakeholders. Another in 2010 of the executive board of consolidation through a number important success is the creation of the International Water Research of research projects (funded by three research and teaching Chairs: Association (IWRA) on the Agropolis the French National Research (i) the UNESCO-labelled Chair campus. The first stake of this Agency, European Union 6th and “Membrane sciences applied to the Dossier is to give international 7th Framework Programmes, environment”, on water treatment visibility to the regional water French “Investissements d’avenir” by membrane processes, (ii) the scientific community on the programmes, etc.) and educational “Water for All” Chair in partnership occasion of the 6th World Water projects (“Water” Master’s degree, with the Suez-Environnement Forum, held in Marseilles, France, Masters courses, etc.) it has company, offering capacity building in March 2012. co-ordinated and successfully programmes for utility managers accomplished. A selection of in the developing and emerging This event has huge ambitions those projects is presented in this countries and (iii) the Chair “Risks since its objectives are not only toWater resources: preservation and management document. analyses of emerging contaminants take stock of the latest world-wide in aquatic environments” in developments in water management Among these projects, the most partnership with the Veolia and shared recommendations for emblematic success has no doubt company, focused on organic achieving sustainable development, been the involvement of businesses contaminants in water. but also to provide solutions to through the creation of a "Water" many issues remaining unresolved competitiveness cluster with an The aim of the Dossiers d’Agropolis and new challenges likely to arise. international scope. Its mission is to International is also to support The regional scientific community, coordinate the actions the French the projects led by the Languedoc- engaged in the event, provides its “water” clusters from the three Roussillon region’s scientific contribution. regions of Languedoc-Roussillon, community. For the previous Dossier, Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur and the challenge was the organisation Thierry Rieu (AgroParisTech, 4 Midi-Pyrénées. Its leadership is of the XIIIth World Water Congress Centre de Montpellier)
  5. 5. Water resources: preservation and management 5P. Wagnon © IRD  The Sabai glacier and the Sabai Tsho lake in Nepal.
  6. 6. © M. Soulié  Spring of Anjar, Bekaa, Lebanon. Water resources: identification, functioning, mobilisationWater resources: preservation and management 6
  7. 7. T he latest UNESCO world report on water resources was already characterised by a rather alarming tone. For instance, itstipulated that "despite the vital dimension of water, this The regional scientific community has the skills required to play a leading international role and to provide answers to some of the society’s concerns. For this purpose, it has developed proven observationdomain is plagued by a chronic lack of political attention, capabilities on which research is being based:poor governance and insufficient investment", and that the Universe Sciences Observatory OREME, the"action is urgently required to prevent a global crisis". Environmental Research Observatories OMERE, AMMA- CATCH, OHMCV and H+, the KARST ObservationYet, it is estimated today that global annual withdrawals system, etc. Recently, the regional scientific communityamount to 3,800 billion m3, representing only 25% has received significant equipment subsidies fromof useable resources. But such a relative abundance the French Ministry of Research, thus reinforcing itsdoes not reflect the huge disparities in the geographic position as a leader in the field of spatial information fordistribution of this vital resource. Indeed, some regions environmental purposes.are already facing hydric stress (less than 500 m3/year/inhabitant), while others are hit by disasters caused by The expertise of regional teams in the field ofchronic overabundant rainfalls. Such inequalities raise all underground water has long received the highestkinds of difficulties and challenges. acclaim, especially in the key area of karsts. This research field is particularly strategic for the MediterraneanGiven the global population growth, water demand coastal regions as these contain almost 60% of theincreases by 64 billion m3 each year. Water needs are water resources exploited.becoming increasingly high in relation to strategicdecisions and associated commitments being taken in The regional research community has become aareas such as agriculture, economic development and reference for its research on surface water. Although theenergy production. fundamental issue of the transformation of rain water into running water – and hence into a resource availableThe disturbances induced by climate change also have an in different forms (infiltration, runoff, storage) – is aimpact on the hydrological cycle. Indeed, in many regions core concern for hydrologists, numerous other issuesof the world, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate are also addressed by the community. One such issue isChange (IPCC) forecasts all point towards longer the use of water in agriculture, deemed to be essential,droughts and/or more frequent floods. Such disturbance especially within the Mediterranean context. The issuefurther aggravates the degradation of ecosystems, of floods, mainly considered from the viewpoint ofalready facing growing anthropogenic pressures. extreme events (destructive floods and rainfalls), is another key topic to which many experts are devoted.From the health point of view, 80% of the diseasesaffecting developing countries are water-related. This is Finally, other approaches are future-driven. Usingdue to insufficient access to drinking water and lack of available climate scenarios based on varyingsanitation infrastructures, owing to both poor funding environmental, economic and demographic hypotheses,and poor political and strategic decisions. these aim at assessing water resources.This alarming water situation is further compounded Clearly, the region hosts a wide range of skills andby the general public’s growing environmental concerns expertise. These are all called on to tackle the challengesand international and global thinking about water issues. of tomorrow in terms of sustainable management of“Blue Gold” is slowly emerging as one of the most water resources, which is such a vital issue for thecritical stakes of the 21st century, with the growing societies and every person in the world.looming threat of “water wars”. Éric Servat (UMR HSM)Within such a context, it is more than ever importantto control as completely as possible the resource, in Water resources: preservation and managementorder to feed the reflexion on how to better manageand govern water. It is therefore necessary to beable to locate, identify, evaluate and mobilise waterresources. These are major stakes. They call for theanalysis, understanding and modelling of all water cycleprocesses, be they natural or man-made. 7
  8. 8. Water resources: identification, functioning, mobilisation Main teams UPR EAU/NRE Water: New resources and Economy (BRGM) 14 scientists Director: Jean-Christophe Maréchal jc.marechal@brgm.fr Biogeochemistry, of Polytech’Montpellier. Besides, the  Presentation page 16 whole HSM staff is involved in training extreme events, from the science degree to Ph.D. levels. UMR EMMAH Mediterranean Environment underground water and Agro-Hydrosystems Modelling Much of its research being based (Inra, UAPV) and hydrological cycles on observation, the laboratory is a 40 scientists in Mediterranean and member of the Universe Sciences Director: Liliana Di Pietro Observatory OREME (see page 13). It liliana.dipietro@paca.inra.fr tropical regions also participates to several observation www.umr-emmah.fr  Presentation page 14 systems (MEDYCISS, OHMCV, AMMA- The Montpellier HydroSciences Joint CATCH, OMERE), while playing a UMR GM Research Unit (JRU) – UMR HSM leading role in the development Montpellier Geosciences (CNRS, UM2) (CNRS, IRD, UM1, UM2) is devoted of the KARST Observation System. 89 scientists to research in water sciences covering In addition to its water chemistry Director: Jean-Louis Bodinier a broad range of domains from and microbiology equipment, the bodinier@gm.univ-montp2.fr biogeochemistry to extreme events, laboratory have access to other major dirgm@gm.univ-montp2.fr including underground water and the technical facilities: the large regional www.gm.univ-montp2.fr hydrological cycle. technical platform for the “analysis of  Presentation page 10 trace elements in the environment” UMR HSM HSM carries out most of its scientific and the collective laboratory for the Montpellier HydroSciences activity in the Mediterranean and analysis of stable isotopes in water. (CNRS, IRD, UM1, UM2) tropical regions, in four scientific 57 scientists fields: HSM strength relies on its involvement Director: Éric Servat eric.servat@msem.univ-montp2.fr  Biogeochemistry, contamination in a number of national and www.hydrosciences.org agents and health. international projects, its extensive  Presentation page 8  Karsts and heterogeneous network of collaboration with UPR LGEI environments: hydrogeology, research laboratories and institutions Industrial Environment hydraulics and transfers. worldwide, giving the lab a high level Engineering Laboratory  Climate, environmental changes of international recognition. (EMA) and modelling of their impacts on HSM also works with public partners 45 scientists water resources. (DRE: Regional Directorate for the Director: Miguel Lopez-Ferber  Hydrological cycle mechanisms, Environment, AFSSET: French Agency miguel.lopez-ferber@mines-ales.fr surface-atmosphere transfers and for Environmental and Occupational www.mines-ales.fr/LGEI  Presentation page 12 interactions. Health Safety, local authorities: communities of municipalities, UMR LISAH Laboratory for the Study of In addition, the laboratory develops joint basin organizations, etc.), Interactions between Soils, four cross-disciplinary technical private consultancy and engineering Agrosystems and Hydrosystems approaches: (a) hydrodynamic companies (SDEI, BioUV S.A., SOMEZ, (Inra, IRD, Montpellier SupAgro) modelling and couplings; etc.). HSM has also filed several 34 scientists (b) hydrosphere tracers; (c) modelling patents, especially in metrology,Water resources: preservation and management Director: Jérôme Molénat methods: assimilation, spatialisation and has developed “professional” jerome.molenat@supagro.inra.fr and sensitivity; (d) information software tools, particularly around www.umr-lisah.fr  Presentation page 15 systems. data management. Besides, the study of organic contaminants is one of UMS OREME HSM is highly involved in research- HSM’s fields of excellence. It has set Mediterranean Environment Research oriented training and education. up, in partnership with the company Observatory (CNRS, IRD, UM2) The training courses provided by the Veolia, a training and research chair 3 scientists sensu stricto + 6 linked units laboratory attract French and foreign devoted to the “Risks analyses in Director: Nicolas Arnaud students alike (especially students relation to emerging contaminants in nicolas.arnaud@gm.univ-montp2.fr from developing countries): “Water” aquatic environments”. Moreover, HSM www.oreme.univ-montp2.fr Master’s degree, “Health Engineering” is involved in the “Water” and “Local  Presentation page 13 Master’s degree, “Water sciences and Vulnerability and Risk Management” 8 ...continued on page 10 technologies” engineering degree competitiveness clusters. •••
  9. 9.  Palm grove of Tafilalet, Morocco. M .N. Favier © IRD© UMR HSM & Plan Bleu Water stress indexes in the Mediterranean Basin. > W at e r R e s o u r c e s a n d G l o b a l C h a n g e s Global changes in the Mediterranean: what will tomorrow’s water resources be like? The Mediterranean basin is characterised by unevenly emphasising regional disparities concerning the capacity to distributed and limited water resources as well as by meet various water needs at different periods in the past and increasing anthropogenic pressures. Hydro-climatic future. Alternative scenarios, such as supply networks with projections suggest a progressive diminution of the mean improved efficiency, are being tested to assess the efficacy annual flows in this region, accompanied by more frequent and of adaptative strategies. The team also studies the impact of severe drought periods. Moreover, water demand has doubled these changes on the water resources at more local scales. Water resources: preservation and management since the nineteen fifties and is likely to continue to grow Hydrological modelling coupled with water uses is thus as irrigated surfaces increase and urban areas spread. Within implemented in the river basins of Ebre (Spain) and Hérault the HSM JRU, the RESCUE-Med team focuses its research (France). These research efforts seek to elaborate scenarios on the prospective evaluation of water resources under of climate change and water demand evolution adapted to pressure of climate change and uses at different scales in the these working scales. The objective is to assess the volumes Mediterranean region. and dynamics of flows, taking into account anthropogenic pressures (storage, withdrawals, consumption and transfers), As part of a current PhD and in partnership with the “Blue in order to provide water resource managers with decision- Plan”, the future availability of water resources is modelled making support tools. at the regional scale according to various scenarios of climatic and water demand evolution, for agricultural and Contact: Denis Ruelland, denis.ruelland@univ-montp2.fr household purposes. A hydric stress indicator was developed, 9
  10. 10. Water resources: identification, functioning, mobilisation > W at e r R e s o u r c e s a n d G l o b a l C h a n g e s SICMED: The evolution of Mediterranean anthropo-ecosystems The Mediterranean region subjected to global change-induced stresses. It is one of the  Cultivated landscape in Tunisia. is one of the focal points components of the MISTRALS (Mediterranean Integrated STudies of global changes. The at Regional And Local Scales) project, and for the last decade it region evolves swiftly has been developing a multi-disciplinary research project to study under the effects of severe biophysical, technical and social mechanisms at work. climatic and anthropogenic The programme pursues three objectives: pressures, while the  To identify and analyse the scientific locks preventing efficient resources produced are forecasting of the evolution of the bio-hydro-geo-chemical already unable to meet processes subjected to current and future anthropogenic and the population needs. climatic stresses; The current intense  To develop knowledge and tools for the rationalised exploitation of resources management of the systems studied; aggravates social and  To transfer such knowledge and tools to decision makers and environmental weaknesses managers in the private and public sectors. and induces high stresses The SICMED programme is funded by IRSTEA, CNRS-INSU, INRA © R. Calvez on the hydrological and and IRD. It is based on a broad multilateral partnership involving biogeochemical cycles. Critical situations and conflicts of use scientific institutions and stakeholders representing various are increasing in frequency and intensity. The quest for new Mediterranean countries, but also other countries involved in ways of sustainable development calls for a deeper knowledge research and development towards the Mediterranean region. of anthropo-ecosystem degradation, resilience, flexibility and rehabilitation factors. Contacts: Christian Leduc, christian.leduc@ird.fr Jean-Claude Menaut, jean-claude.menaut@cesbio.cnes.fr Within this context, the SICMED programme (continental Marc Voltz, marc.voltz@supagro.inra.fr surfaces and interfaces in the Mediterranean) carries out research, & Maxime Thibon, maxime.thibon@ird.fr training and transfer activities dedicated to the study of evolving More information on SICMED: www.sicmed.net Mediterranean rural and peri-urban anthropo-ecosystems More information on Mistrals: www.mistrals-home.org Other teams involved UMR ESPACE-DEV Spatial Analysis for Development Mass and energy  Environmental and climatic changes with high anthropogenic (IRD, UM2, UAG, UR) 60 scientists transfers in porous, impact (coastline evolution, sea Director: Frédéric Huynh fractured and karstic water intrusion in groundwater). frederic.huynh@ird.fr GM comprises five multidisciplinary www.espace-dev.fr aquifers teams working in three scientific  Presentation page 47 fields: UMR G-EAU The Montpellier Geosciences Joint  Geodynamics (“Lithosphere Water Management, Stakeholders, Uses Research Unit – UMR GM (CNRS, Dynamics” and “Mantle and (AgroParisTech, Irstea, Ciheam-IAMM, UM2) has developed a global Interface” teams) Cirad, IRD, Montpellier SupAgro) approach to earth dynamics and  Reservoirs (“Basins” and “Porous 75 scientists their surface manifestations. This Environment Transfers” teams) Director: Patrice Garin patrice.garin@irstea.fr takes into account the couplings  Risks (“Risks” team) www.g-eau.net between the various layers including  Presentation page 40 the hydrosphere. The objective is to Research on water is undertaken by UMR ITAP gain a better understanding of the the “Porous Environment Transfers” Information –Technology – Environmental dynamic processes at different scales, and “Risks” teams. It concerns the Analysis – Agricultural Processes and to bring this in line with societal characterisation and modelling of (Irstea, Montpellier SupAgro) expectations such as: mass and energy transfers in porous,Water resources: preservation and management 40 scientists  Supply of non-energy resources fractured and karstic aquifers. The Director:Tewfik Sari (mineral and hydric); main scientific challenges lie in tewfik.sari@irstea.fr  Energy choices for the future, from the in situ measurement of these www.irtsea.fr/itap  Presentation page 28 extending carbon-based reserves to transfers, taking into account the developing new energy technologies heterogeneities controlling them at UMR TETIS (natural hydrogen, geothermal all scales. These research works target Territories, Environment, Remote sensing energy); four objectives: the development and Spatial information (AgroParisTech, Cirad, Irstea)  Waste storage and confinement of (1) instrumented sites (Majorca, 70 scientists (downstream from the nuclear cycle, Maguelone, Roussillon, Larzac and Director: Jean-Philippe Tonneau CO2, mining wastes, etc.); Lodève) dedicated to observation and jean-philippe.tonneau@cirad.fr  Natural hazards (earthquakes, experimentation, (2) devices allowing10 http://tetis.teledetection.fr tsunamis, gravity hazards, floods, controlled dynamic experiments,  Presentation page 46 etc.); (3) surface and bore hole
  11. 11. hydrogeophysical measurement and Research Observatory, being in (Marie-Curie, FP7 networks), the monitoring systems and (4) specific charge of several observation tasks Mediterranean region (North Africa, digital tools allowing the integration (SO-LTC, GPST2, GEK, Bore Hole Middle East), and all over the world of data obtained at different scales. Hydrogeophysics). (Taiwan, Japan, India, Australia, New-Zealand, Iran, Brazil, Mexico These research works are carried GM is involved in the large and the USA). GM collaborates out in the framework of several regional technical platform for with the private sector, namely via projects supported by the French the “analysis of trace elements in the creation of businesses by PhD National Research Agency (MOHINI, the environment”. It also houses students and for the funding of GRAIN DSEL, LINE, COLINER, equipments for the “Gravimetry” research contracts and theses. It and HYDROKARST-G2) and the and “Experimentation” platforms of belongs to the Geosciences cluster SOERE H+ (long term observation the National Institute for Universe initiated in 2011 and involving key and experimentation systems Sciences (absolute gravimeter and regional companies (Geoter, Cenote, for environmental research in EBSD SEM). imaGeau, Schlumberger, Fugro, hydrogeology). GM is in charge of Antea, Areva, Lafarge) and R&D and several SOERE H+ experimental sites GM is also part of a wide national training organisations (GM, BRGM, around the Mediterranean region. and international cooperation EMA, CEFREM, HSM). A large GM is a member of the OREME network including countries number of these stakeholders are Mediterranean Environment and programmes from Europe active in the field of water. ••• > W at e r R e s o u r c e s a n d G l o b a l C h a n g e s OMERE: Mediterranean Observatory of Rural Environment and Water The OMERE observatory supports the study of global changes affecting the Mediterranean hydrosystems/agrosystems. It is located in an intermediate hydrological context, between arid and temperate environments, subjected to a wide range of hydrological processes stretching from severe drought events to extreme floods. The observatory also explores the social and human context, submitted to considerable and rapid changes (intensification of agricultural productions in favourable areas, abandonment of farmlands in less favourable zones, increased water withdrawals, hydro-agricultural or environmental planning, etc.). The various climate change scenarios elaborated by IPCC foresee major rainfall changes in these latitudes: less winter precipitations, more extreme rainfall events. Given the peculiar situation of the Mediterranean region, the observatory has been collecting climatic, hydrological, sediment and solute flows in two catchment basins over the last two decades. These basins differ in terms of soils, hydro-agricultural developments, cultural practices and evolution dynamics: Roujan (France, mainly wine growing) and Kamech (Tunisia, polycrops-stock farming). The objectives of the observatory are as follows: i) to understand the impact of agricultural activities on mass flows in Mediterranean elementary catchment basins (hydrological regimes and balances, water resource allocation, erosion dynamics, evolution of water quality); ii) to assess the intensity and speed at which water and ground resources can change as a function of changing land use; iii) to support the development of modelling approaches for flows in agricultural environments, by bringing observation in line with modelling; iv) to supply scientific bases, references and diagnostic tools for the agro-environmental engineering of agricultural landscapes. The HSM JRU, the Tunis National Water resources: preservation and management Institute of Agronomy, the Tunisian National Institute of Rural Engineering, Water and Forestry, and the LISAH JRU are the four partners in charge of coordinating and managing OMERE. The Observatory is a member of the French catchment basin network*.© M. Soulié  Instrumentation of the Contacts: Patrick Andrieux, patrick.andrieux@supagro.inra.fr Roujan site (Hérault, France) as & Damien Raclot, damien.raclot@ird.fr part of the OMERE observatory. Information: www.umr-lisah.fr/omere * http://rnbv.ipgp.fr 11
  12. 12. Water resources: identification, functioning, mobilisation > W at e r R e s o u r c e s a n d G l o b a l C h a n g e s The OpenFLUID platform: modelling and simulation of the spatial functioning of agricultural landscapes The spatio-temporal functioning of agricultural landscapes results from complex interactions between biophysical processes and human activities. Modelling the functioning of such systems and simulating their changes under the impact of climatic changes and anthropogenic pressures (pollution, development, changes in land use), involves taking into account all these interactions and coupling many processes/phenomena distributed in the area re studied. In order to implement such modelling processes and run simulations . Fab J.C © based on these coupled models, the LISAH JRU has developed an advanced and generic software tool.  Water level simulations within the hydrographic Thus, the OpenFLUID platform can provide a software environment to network of Roujan (Hérault, France) using the model and simulate the spatial functioning of agricultural landscapes. It allows MHYDAS model with the OPENFLUID modelling platform. models to be developed and implemented during simulations. These models are developed as plug-in software tools for OpenFLUID. Then they can be used to create coupled models adapted to (i) the modelling context, (ii) the simulation objectives and (iii) the data available. The simulations are based on digital representations of the landscapes studied. These include the geometries and properties of the actual landscape elements. OpenFLUID has been used for numerous projects and Ph.D. theses. It has been applied to Mediterranean and tropical environments, for the modelling of water and pollutant flows and erosion, especially under the impact of agricultural practices. OpenFLUID also provides software support for the development and implementation of the MHYDAS (distributed hydrological modelling of agro-systems) model, among others, as well as the digital representation of agricultural catchment basins, and the simulation of water and pollutant flows. OpenFLUID has a user graphic interface and can also be used in a command line (in a calculation cluster for example). It is an open-source, free licence software and can be downloaded from the OpenFLUID internet site*. Contacts: Jean-Christophe Fabre, fabrejc@supagro.inra.fr & Roger Moussa, moussa@supagro.inra.fr * www.umr-lisah.fr/openfluid Analysis of the water and effluents; development of etc.), as well as a test hall for semi- processes and process couplings for industrial pilot scale experiments. hydrological cycle for the treatment of water and effluents; Academic and industrial teams have research, economic and integrated management of polluting access to these facilities through industrial activities flows (industrial environments, the regional technical platforms, water resources) according to a including Ecotech LR (Eco- “local ecology” type approach; technologies for agro-bioprocesses). The Industrial Environment geomatics and collective intelligence Engineering Laboratory – UPR LGEI – for decision support. These different Moreover, the hydrometric is an Internal Research Unit of Alès levels of water cycle analysis make monitoring of experimental Engineering High School (École des it possible to answer the questions catchment basins is a fundamental Mines d’Alès, EMA), a national public raised not only by science, but research effort for understanding the institution reporting to the Ministry also by economic and industrial processes underlying flash kinetics of Industry. Its research work covers a stakeholders. floods. This research started in 2001 broad field of applications based on in collaboration with the ESPACE- complementary disciplines: process LGEI is part of the Institut Carnot DEV, HSM and TETIS JRUs. Several engineering, analytical chemistry and M.I.N.E.S., reflecting its privileged experimental catchment basins in metrology, microbiology, molecular relationships with the economic the Cevennes are currently beingWater resources: preservation and management biology, hydrology, hydrogeology, sector. The laboratory is active monitored. Thanks to the diversity of geomatics, geostatistical methods, in the “Water”, “Trimatec”, “Local the experimental devices, research computer sciences and modelling, Vulnerability and Risk Management” work has focused on developing simulation tools and decision support and “Eurobiomed” competitiveness imaging applied to river velocities systems. clusters. It collaborates with and flow rates as well as “low cost” academics and industrialists at devices for extending and refining Water issues are addressed from national and international levels, distributed hydrometric analyses. several angles: control of disastrous participating and coordinating impacts for a resilient environment; several European projects*. * SWIFT: Screening Methods for Water Data understanding and spatialisation of Information in Support of the Implementation hydrological processes in catchment The laboratory hosts all the facilities of the WFD. KNAPPE: Knowledge and Need Assessment on basins (modelling); diagnosis of the needed in a chemistry lab (HPLC/ Pharmaceutical Products in Environmental12 chemical and ecological quality of MS/MS, GC/MS/MS, ICP extractors, , waters
  13. 13.  Water stainingexperiments for transferscharacterisation andvulnerability assessmentof the karstic hydrosystemof the Lez River (France). © V. LeonardiObservation for a better systems. These range from the basin couplings occurring in the various scale to the in situ bore-hole scale: compartments. Complex simulationsunderstanding of the  Geodesic, gravimetric, geophysical/ are necessary to understand thesedynamics and facilitated hydrogeophysical systematic bore- conditions: real-time modelling of the hole observation at all scales; state of the resource, its uses and theirmanagement of water  Multi-scale observation system of immediate effects. At the core of thisresources flood dynamics and underground process of study, the data collected, hydrodynamics of fractured and calculated or associated with usesThe Mediterranean Environment karstic systems; must be processed within theResearch Observatory Joint Service  Observation system for the “acquisition-refinement-processing-Unit – UMS OREME (CNRS, IRD, pollution and biological adaptability decision” continuum.UM2) is dedicated to the study of downstream from mining sites;the uncertainties and vulnerabilities  Monitoring of the Languedoc Thanks to its network of partnershipsof Mediterranean environments. coastline, interface between and its expertise, OREME intervenesOREME focuses on natural hazards, catchment basin and marine at different stages of this continuum,resources and the impact of global environment. especially during acquisitionand anthropogenic changes on the (sensor network management),living and inert Mediterranean area. These observation systems – storage, sharing (managementIts aim is to identify such systems’ included in French and international of query standards and norms,response mechanisms to natural and networks  – provide information management of metadata, webanthropogenic forcing. on water resource dynamics, services, etc.) and decision support especially karstic aquifers. They (detection of changes, informationOREME’s mission consists in also make it possible to monitor fusion, reasoning, user interactions,collecting, integrating and sharing the quantity and quality of the visualisation, recommendation,long-term observation data to resource downstream from the forecasting and real-time operations).understand the evolution of aquifers. Geophysical methods areresources and environments. This used to monitor underground water The water resource must be managed Water resources: preservation and managementdata is also essential for developing movements and link aquifer supplies in such a way as to prevent or betterexplanatory and predictive models. with their discharge. The aim here manage crises. This is why resource is to understand their hydrological modelling must give a picture asOMERE closely works with public cycles and analyse it both in terms of close as possible to the reality, sopartners (universe and ecology resource quantity and hydrological that risks can be analysed and thesciences laboratories, information hazards, such as flash discharges. necessary decisions taken in realscience laboratories, local authorities time. For this reason, a shift toand State agencies) and private The quantity and quality of the operational decision support modelscompanies (especially IBM). resource available at each utilisation is required. Indeed, to avoid having to site are the result of complex carry out time-consuming exhaustiveIn the field of water, OREME processes. Their assessment needs modelling, “basic” simulations, basedcollaborates with other JRUs in order combining models of water storage, on reliable data, has to be performed 13to develop hydrologic observation flow and physico-biochemical upstream. •••
  14. 14. Water resources: identification, functioning, mobilisation The “Fontaine duVaucluse” spring (France)in high water conditions. © UMR EMMAH Mediterranean human pathogens in these treated with the different processes, on waters. the one hand, and include new environment and modelling approaches that take into modelling of EMMAH’s work is based on the consideration the heterogeneities of utilisation of remote sensing the environment and processes at agro-hydrosystems and geophysical data, intensive different scales, on the other hand. observation of instrumented sites, The Mediterranean Environment laboratory measurements and The disciplinary expertise and and Agro-Hydrosystem Modelling methodological development to techniques implemented cover Joint Research Unit – UMR EMMAH better understand and model the hydrology, hydrogeology, soil (INRA Avignon, UAPV) is focused on functioning of Mediterranean and water geochemistry and impact analysis of global changes ecosystems. EMMAH has set up microbiology, agronomy, remote on water resources, agricultural a monitoring system of several sensing, geophysics, applied production and their interactions at observation sites representative mathematics, the physics of waves the local level (from the landscape of different hydro-geological and in porous media, digital simulation, to the production basin and the agronomic contexts (Crau-Camargue parallel calculation and signal aquifer). The research works target region, karstic aquifers of the processing. five cross-disciplinary goals: Fontaine de Vaucluse, Avignon peri-  Quantification of the impacts of urban zone). EMMAH collaborates with the French global change on the interactions academic world (INRA: French between surface biophysical In addition, two sites are dedicated National Institute for Agronomic processes (agricultural production to the study of hydric flows into the Research, CEA: French Nuclear and water cycle) and water resources, atmosphere and the water table. and Alternative Energies Centre, especially underground. EMMAH is also equipped to carry out CNRS: French National Centre for  Identification of landscape changes biological measurements (biomass, Scientific Research, Universities, and their driving forces, based on a foliar index, chlorophyll content, etc.) and the international academic retrospective analysis that stretches etc.), chemical analyses of water and world (Sfax National School of over several decades. soils (organic and mineral chemistry), Engineering, Tunisia; Spanish  Understanding of the modifications water isotopic analyses (H 3, C14, C13/ Institute for Sustainable Agriculture induced by extreme climatic events C12 ratio of dissolved carbon) and and Valencia University, Spain; DutchWater resources: preservation and management (such as drought/heat wave) on the ground hydrodynamic properties. National Aerospace Laboratory and functioning of agro-ecosystems. EMMAH also has access to the University of Twente, Netherlands;  Understanding and modelling Rustrel (Vaucluse) low-disturbance Universities of Maryland and Boston, the impacts of heavy rainfall on the underground laboratory in the karstic USA, etc.). Moreover, EMMAH also hydrological and hydrochemical massif of Fontaine de Vaucluse, and develops partnerships with French functioning of the ground-table to the INRA molecular biology lab institutional or managerial bodies system. in Avignon. It is also equipped with (Rhône-Méditerranée-Corse Water  Study of alternative irrigation subsurface geophysical prospecting Agency, irrigators’ and farmers’ techniques, such as the use of instruments (electrical tomography). unions, joint organisations for the water downstream from waste The researchers develop mechanistic management of underground water water treatment plants, particularly models for hydrosystem functioning. resources) as well as private partners14 regarding quantification of the risks These integrate and spatialise the (Veolia, Suez Environnement, associated with the presence of elementary models associated engineering offices, etc.).
  15. 15. At the crossroad of soil hydrological regimes and the to the resource (a few hundred km²) evolution of water and land catchment basins;sciences, hydrology resources;  Development of digital soil mappingand agronomy: the  The definition of new modes of methods and information systems; sustainable management for the rural  Analysis of factors and processes offunctioning of cultivated environment; soil erosion and sediment transfer inlandscapes  The training of students on the catchment basins; concepts and tools used to analyse  Study of the influence of hydraulicThe Laboratory for the Study and model the spatial organisation works (ditches, banks, hill lakes) on theof Interactions between Soils, and the hydrology of cultivated hydrological functioning of cultivatedAgrosystems and Hydrosystems environments. soil and catchment basins.Joint Research Unit – UMRLISAH (INRA, IRD, Montpellier LISAH combines expertise in soil LISAH scientific approach is basedSupAgro) studies the functioning science, hydrology, agronomy and on in situ hydrological studies andof cultivated landscapes resulting spatialisation. Its structure is based experiments, methodological researchfrom the interactions between i) the on three research teams: for the acquisition and processingunderlying soil, ii) the agrosystem  Water and pollutants in cultivated of soil and landscape spatial datathat modifies the geometry of the catchment basins; and development of distributedlandscape and iii) the hydrosystem  Erosion and sediment transport in hydrological modelling approaches,that transfers water and other cultivated catchment basins; taking into account the specificelements. It serves the following  Spatial and dynamic structure of heterogeneities of rural landscapes.specific objectives: soils and cultivated landscapes. To this end, LISAH runs the The development of knowledge on Mediterranean Observatory of Ruralerosion, water and material transfers LISAH especially focuses on wine Environment and Water (OMERE, seeand the evolution of polluting growing in the Languedoc-Roussillon page 11). The laboratory analyses thesubstances (pesticides) in soils and region and banana tree farming impact of anthropogenic actions onrural catchment basins with respect in the French Antilles, with the the physical and chemical erosion ofto their spatial organisation and following objectives: Mediterranean soils and on the qualitytemporal evolution;  Study of soils and water pollution of water. Moreover, since 2006, LISAH The elaboration of tools for by phytosanitary products; has been developing the simulationdiagnosing and preventing the  Analysis of the “soil-crop” system platform OpenFLUID (Softwarerisks induced by human activities hydrological cycle at various scales, Environment for Modelling Fluxes in(cultivated environments) on from the elementary (a few km²) Landscapes, see page 12). •••> F u n c t i o n i n g o f c o m p l e x aqu i f e r sAquifers in bedrock regions:a water resource to be managed DrillingBedrock (granite, schist, gneiss, etc.) occupies large surface areasin Europe and France and elsewhere across the planet. The water Alterites Porous geological mediumresources they contain are used substantially in agriculturaland economic development in the regions concerned. This is Saturated aquiferparticularly true for emerging economies where the context is Fracturedarid or semi-arid and access to water is limited. geological mediumThe BRGM EAU/NRE research unit contributes to the Fractured and altered bedrockdevelopment of knowledge on the genesis, geometry, hydraulic Unaltered bedrock Discontinuousproperties and functioning of bedrock aquifers. Significant geological medium 0 25 mprogress has been made in this corpus of knowledge. More  Conceptual model of the structure Water resources: preservation and managementspecifically, it has been demonstrated that climatic alteration and hydrologic properties of the bedrock aquifers.processes significantly influence aquifer properties through the © J.C. Maréchaldevelopment of alteration profiles. Moving downwards, theseare made up of (see figure on the right): loose alterites (coarsesand in granitic zones), characterised by low permeability and regionalisation of hydrodynamic parameters for modelling.significant underground water storage capacities; a stratabound Other applications concern water resource management tools“cracked horizon”, 50 to 100-metres thick, also strongly for catchment basins. Indeed, such management is essential forinfluenced by alteration processes and to which the bedrock intensive withdrawals for irrigation purposes. These applicationsaquifer owes much of its permeability. also cover bore-hole layout techniques and methods leading to improved success rates for exploitable flow rates.Numerous practical applications stem from these geologicaland hydrogeological concepts. One such application is Contacts: Jean-Christophe Maréchal, jc.marechal@brgm.fr 15regional mapping of underground water potentialities and the & Benoît Dewandel, b.dewandel@brgm.fr
  16. 16. Water resources: identification, functioning, mobilisation Located in Montpellier on the increasing constraints, i.e. climate Several researchers are involved in Mediterranean shore, LISAH runs change, anthropogenic pressure, teaching for vocational training, collaboration programmes with socio-economic evolution, urban for the “Water” Master’s degree and several Tunisian and Moroccan growth, etc. The following topics others Master’s and engineering higher education, research and are more specifically studied: courses related to water. training institutions: Hassan II (i) characterisation of the structure Agronomy and Veterinarian Institute and functioning of complex aquifers EAU/NRE has developed a strong in Rabat; National Institute of (karst, fractured ground, volcanic partnership with the French-Indian Research on Rural Engineering, environments) in order to assess Research Centre on Underground Water and Forestry in Tunis; National their potentialities; (ii) development Water. This joint BRGM-NGRI Institute of Agronomy in Tunis; of modelling and decision support (National Geophysical Research National Engineering School in Tunis, tools for managing these aquifers and Institute) laboratory, based in National Centre for Cartography forecasting impact of global changes; Hyderabad in the south of India, and Remote Sensing. It also works in and (iii) development of active has developed research on base partnership with public and private resource management methods aquifers in tropical regions using stakeholders in the field of water and (recycling of treated waste waters, the SOERE (H+) observation soil resource management. artificial recharging of water-tables, system. The lab develops tools for inter-seasonal storage and controlled managing aquifers that are severely overexploitation). impacted by agricultural practices Hydrogeologists and  The development of economic (irrigation pumping, pollution) and economists working approaches needed to evaluate water by climate change. on water resource resource management scenarios at the basin scale. Research efforts EAU/NRE specifically develops management focus on the economic evaluation of applied research activities directed incentive programmes and resource to local authorities, water agenciesWater resources: preservation and management The Water/New resources and management policies as a function and industrialists. Several projects Economy Internal Research of uses, the economic optimisation have led to the development of Unit – UPR EAU/NRE – belongs to of resource management plans methodologies to study mineral the BRGM Water Department. Its via cost-efficiency analyses, the water deposits and their industrial permanent staff comprises eight weighting of benefits and drawbacks management (i.e. Nestlé Waters and hydrologists and six economists between economic development Danone Eaux France). Moreover, whose research efforts focus on and environmental policies, the EAU/NRE is involved in the water resource management. EAU/ comparison of approaches (analysis “Water” competitiveness cluster.   NRE’s activities comprise two main of costs avoided), the contingent scientific focuses: evaluation based on enquiries and  The development of alternative the elaboration of medium and16 solutions to conventional water long-term water use scenarios resources, that are suffering from (prospective analysis).
  17. 17.  Water sampling in the non-saturated zone of the karsticaquifer in the low-disturbancelaboratory of Rustrel (Vaucluse,France).>The Mediterraneankarstic aquifers:complex systems © UMR EMMAHKarstic aquifers contain a significantshare of water resources in France > F u n c t i o n i n g o f c o m p l e x aqu i f e r s Study of the functioning of non-saturated(35% of the country), all the more inthe Mediterranean region (> 50%).Their heterogeneity makes thesezones complex (with voids varying insize from cracks of a few centimetres zones of karstic systemsto sinkholes several meters wide), The functioning of the non-saturated zone (NSZ) of karstic systems, which can reach upwhich are characterised by a specific to tens or even hundreds of metres in size, remains poorly known and modelled. Yet, ithydrologic functioning. Because is now obvious that it plays a major role in transfer dynamics and storage characteristics.of their complexity, they are still The Rustrel (Vaucluse) Low Disturbance Underground Laboratory (LSBB) is located inunderexploited. Moreover, the use of an artificial gallery (opened for no hydrogeological reasons). The site of the laboratorythis resource must take into account spans flows within the limestone massif of the Mont de Vaucluse covering a distance ofcharacteristics specific to the karstic 3,800 metres and reaching depths ranging from 0 and 500 meters.systems, especially their vulnerabilityto pollution and overexploitation. The site provides direct access to the karst NSZ, hence offering an exceptionalIn regions where water is already research opportunity. Thanks to direct (geological, hydrodynamic, hydrochemical) andscarce and within a context of global indirect (hydro-geophysical) measurements carried out on this site, the EMMAH JRU ischange, a better understanding of developing an operational model of the karstic aquifer NSZ. Eventually, it will be possibletheir functioning has become essential to precisely assess the impact of the NSZ on the global functioning of these aquiferto ensure they are optimally and systems. The experimental site of the LSBB, located in the supply basin of Fontaine desustainably exploited and protected. Vaucluse, will serve as a reference site for the development of this model, which will Water resources: preservation and managementTo this end, the regional research then be validated and refined through its application to other systems.units develop different complementaryapproaches. In addition to studying the karstic aquifer as such, the work carried out in the Fontaine de Vaucluse catchment basin includes the whole upstream area: vegetation, land use, definition and mapping of drainage units. The impact of the karstic system on the environment downstream from the spring is also studied under different aspects (flood warning, biodiversity and green tourism). Contacts: Christophe Emblanch, christophe.emblanch@univ-avignon.fr Charles Danquigny, charles.danquigny@paca.inra.fr & Kostantinos Chalikakis, konstantinos.chalikakis@univ-avignon.fr 17