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Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International
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Water resources - Preservation and management - Les dossiers d'Agropolis International

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Les "Dossiers d'Agropolis International", n° 14, february 2012 Research competences in Montpellier and the Languedoc Roussillon in the field of water resources

Les "Dossiers d'Agropolis International", n° 14, february 2012 Research competences in Montpellier and the Languedoc Roussillon in the field of water resources

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  • 1. WaterresourcesPreservation and management Number 14
  • 2. AGROPOLIS international agriculture • food • biodiversity • environment Agropolis International Agropolis is an international campus devoted to agricultural and brings together institutions of environmental sciences. There is significant potential for scientific research and higher education and technological expertise: more than 2 200 scientists in over in Montpellier and Languedoc- 80 research units in Montpellier and Languedoc-Roussillon, Roussillon in partnership with including 300 scientists conducting research in 60 countries. local communities, companies and regional enterprises and Agropolis International is structured according to a broad range of in close cooperation with international institutions. research themes corresponding to the overall scientific, technological This scientific community and economic issues of development: has one main objective– • Agronomy, cultivated plants and cropping systems the economic and social • Animal production and health development of Mediterranean • Biodiversity and Aquatic ecosystems and tropical regions. • Biodiversity and Land ecosystems • Economics, societies and sustainable development Agropolis International • Environmental technologies is an international space open • Food: nutritional and health concerns to all interested socioeconomic • Genetic resources and integrative plant biology development stakeholders in fields associated with • Grapevine and Wine, regional specific supply chain agriculture, food production, • Host-vector-parasite interactions and infectious diseases biodiversity, environment and • Modelling, spatial information, biostatistics rural societies. • Water: resources and management Agropolis International promotes the capitalisation and enhancement of knowledge, personnel training and technology transfer. It is a hub for visitors and international exchanges, while promoting initiativesWater resources: preservation and management based on multilateral and collective expertise and contributing to the scientific and technological knowledge needed for preparing development policies. 2
  • 3. Water research expertise in Montpellier and Water resources: Languedoc-Roussillon preservation and management Seven years after the first“Dossier d’Agropolis International” on the theme of “Water: resources and management”, it was time for giving an update in order to provide the large number of website visitors (about Introduction Page 4 120,000 downloads of the Dossier, French and English versions combined) with up-to- date information and developing visibility with evidence of the progress made by theLanguedoc-Roussillon region’s scientific water Water resources: identification, Page 6 community. Readers will also find an updated functioning, mobilisationdirectory of research, technology transfer and higher education structures. Water quality preservation Page 24 This Dossier thus presents 18 research units from Languedoc-Roussillon and Avignon, and restoration gathering more than 800 scientists, working fully or partially on hydrosystems, water quality and/or water resource management. Management of resources and uses: Page 38Research units focused on lagoons and coastal institutions, territories and societies zones are not presented here but in another Agropolis Dossier about “Aquatic Ecosystems” published in 2007. The Dossier also presents International Cooperation Page 54 10 international cooperation or valorisation structures or programmes, in which the and Partnerships regional water scientific community is highlyinvolved. Finally, it also gives a list of 43 higher Topics covered Page 64 education diplomas, from 2 to 8 years post-graduate, proposed in the region and more or by the research teams less tightly linked to the theme of water. The re-edition of this Dossier in early 2012 is Agropolis International training Page 65an opportunity to demonstrate the dynamism and education in the field of “Water”of the regional water scientific community on the occasion of the 6th World Water Forum held in Marseille, France (12-17 March 2012) Liste of acronyms Page 70 and of the international water exhibition Hydrogaia in Montpellier (6-8 March 2012). and abbreviations This is also the first Agropolis Dossier to be available in Spanish, in addition to the usual French and English versions. D isponib spañol iones le en fra ible en E D isponopolis.org/es/publicac www.agr opolis.fr nçais /publicat ions www.agr On the cover “Chapada dos Veadeiros” National Park in the Brazilian Cerrado V. Simonneaux © IRD The information presented in this Dossier was valid on 01/01/2012.
  • 4. Introduction I n recent years, the recognised to offer cooperation in Montpellier in September 2008, Montpellier scientific and development prospects to all which then favoured the settlement community has continued its water sector stakeholders. Another in 2010 of the executive board of consolidation through a number important success is the creation of the International Water Research of research projects (funded by three research and teaching Chairs: Association (IWRA) on the Agropolis the French National Research (i) the UNESCO-labelled Chair campus. The first stake of this Agency, European Union 6th and “Membrane sciences applied to the Dossier is to give international 7th Framework Programmes, environment”, on water treatment visibility to the regional water French “Investissements d’avenir” by membrane processes, (ii) the scientific community on the programmes, etc.) and educational “Water for All” Chair in partnership occasion of the 6th World Water projects (“Water” Master’s degree, with the Suez-Environnement Forum, held in Marseilles, France, Masters courses, etc.) it has company, offering capacity building in March 2012. co-ordinated and successfully programmes for utility managers accomplished. A selection of in the developing and emerging This event has huge ambitions those projects is presented in this countries and (iii) the Chair “Risks since its objectives are not only toWater resources: preservation and management document. analyses of emerging contaminants take stock of the latest world-wide in aquatic environments” in developments in water management Among these projects, the most partnership with the Veolia and shared recommendations for emblematic success has no doubt company, focused on organic achieving sustainable development, been the involvement of businesses contaminants in water. but also to provide solutions to through the creation of a "Water" many issues remaining unresolved competitiveness cluster with an The aim of the Dossiers d’Agropolis and new challenges likely to arise. international scope. Its mission is to International is also to support The regional scientific community, coordinate the actions the French the projects led by the Languedoc- engaged in the event, provides its “water” clusters from the three Roussillon region’s scientific contribution. regions of Languedoc-Roussillon, community. For the previous Dossier, Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur and the challenge was the organisation Thierry Rieu (AgroParisTech, 4 Midi-Pyrénées. Its leadership is of the XIIIth World Water Congress Centre de Montpellier)
  • 5. Water resources: preservation and management 5P. Wagnon © IRD  The Sabai glacier and the Sabai Tsho lake in Nepal.
  • 6. © M. Soulié  Spring of Anjar, Bekaa, Lebanon. Water resources: identification, functioning, mobilisationWater resources: preservation and management 6
  • 7. T he latest UNESCO world report on water resources was already characterised by a rather alarming tone. For instance, itstipulated that "despite the vital dimension of water, this The regional scientific community has the skills required to play a leading international role and to provide answers to some of the society’s concerns. For this purpose, it has developed proven observationdomain is plagued by a chronic lack of political attention, capabilities on which research is being based:poor governance and insufficient investment", and that the Universe Sciences Observatory OREME, the"action is urgently required to prevent a global crisis". Environmental Research Observatories OMERE, AMMA- CATCH, OHMCV and H+, the KARST ObservationYet, it is estimated today that global annual withdrawals system, etc. Recently, the regional scientific communityamount to 3,800 billion m3, representing only 25% has received significant equipment subsidies fromof useable resources. But such a relative abundance the French Ministry of Research, thus reinforcing itsdoes not reflect the huge disparities in the geographic position as a leader in the field of spatial information fordistribution of this vital resource. Indeed, some regions environmental purposes.are already facing hydric stress (less than 500 m3/year/inhabitant), while others are hit by disasters caused by The expertise of regional teams in the field ofchronic overabundant rainfalls. Such inequalities raise all underground water has long received the highestkinds of difficulties and challenges. acclaim, especially in the key area of karsts. This research field is particularly strategic for the MediterraneanGiven the global population growth, water demand coastal regions as these contain almost 60% of theincreases by 64 billion m3 each year. Water needs are water resources exploited.becoming increasingly high in relation to strategicdecisions and associated commitments being taken in The regional research community has become aareas such as agriculture, economic development and reference for its research on surface water. Although theenergy production. fundamental issue of the transformation of rain water into running water – and hence into a resource availableThe disturbances induced by climate change also have an in different forms (infiltration, runoff, storage) – is aimpact on the hydrological cycle. Indeed, in many regions core concern for hydrologists, numerous other issuesof the world, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate are also addressed by the community. One such issue isChange (IPCC) forecasts all point towards longer the use of water in agriculture, deemed to be essential,droughts and/or more frequent floods. Such disturbance especially within the Mediterranean context. The issuefurther aggravates the degradation of ecosystems, of floods, mainly considered from the viewpoint ofalready facing growing anthropogenic pressures. extreme events (destructive floods and rainfalls), is another key topic to which many experts are devoted.From the health point of view, 80% of the diseasesaffecting developing countries are water-related. This is Finally, other approaches are future-driven. Usingdue to insufficient access to drinking water and lack of available climate scenarios based on varyingsanitation infrastructures, owing to both poor funding environmental, economic and demographic hypotheses,and poor political and strategic decisions. these aim at assessing water resources.This alarming water situation is further compounded Clearly, the region hosts a wide range of skills andby the general public’s growing environmental concerns expertise. These are all called on to tackle the challengesand international and global thinking about water issues. of tomorrow in terms of sustainable management of“Blue Gold” is slowly emerging as one of the most water resources, which is such a vital issue for thecritical stakes of the 21st century, with the growing societies and every person in the world.looming threat of “water wars”. Éric Servat (UMR HSM)Within such a context, it is more than ever importantto control as completely as possible the resource, in Water resources: preservation and managementorder to feed the reflexion on how to better manageand govern water. It is therefore necessary to beable to locate, identify, evaluate and mobilise waterresources. These are major stakes. They call for theanalysis, understanding and modelling of all water cycleprocesses, be they natural or man-made. 7
  • 8. Water resources: identification, functioning, mobilisation Main teams UPR EAU/NRE Water: New resources and Economy (BRGM) 14 scientists Director: Jean-Christophe Maréchal jc.marechal@brgm.fr Biogeochemistry, of Polytech’Montpellier. Besides, the  Presentation page 16 whole HSM staff is involved in training extreme events, from the science degree to Ph.D. levels. UMR EMMAH Mediterranean Environment underground water and Agro-Hydrosystems Modelling Much of its research being based (Inra, UAPV) and hydrological cycles on observation, the laboratory is a 40 scientists in Mediterranean and member of the Universe Sciences Director: Liliana Di Pietro Observatory OREME (see page 13). It liliana.dipietro@paca.inra.fr tropical regions also participates to several observation www.umr-emmah.fr  Presentation page 14 systems (MEDYCISS, OHMCV, AMMA- The Montpellier HydroSciences Joint CATCH, OMERE), while playing a UMR GM Research Unit (JRU) – UMR HSM leading role in the development Montpellier Geosciences (CNRS, UM2) (CNRS, IRD, UM1, UM2) is devoted of the KARST Observation System. 89 scientists to research in water sciences covering In addition to its water chemistry Director: Jean-Louis Bodinier a broad range of domains from and microbiology equipment, the bodinier@gm.univ-montp2.fr biogeochemistry to extreme events, laboratory have access to other major dirgm@gm.univ-montp2.fr including underground water and the technical facilities: the large regional www.gm.univ-montp2.fr hydrological cycle. technical platform for the “analysis of  Presentation page 10 trace elements in the environment” UMR HSM HSM carries out most of its scientific and the collective laboratory for the Montpellier HydroSciences activity in the Mediterranean and analysis of stable isotopes in water. (CNRS, IRD, UM1, UM2) tropical regions, in four scientific 57 scientists fields: HSM strength relies on its involvement Director: Éric Servat eric.servat@msem.univ-montp2.fr  Biogeochemistry, contamination in a number of national and www.hydrosciences.org agents and health. international projects, its extensive  Presentation page 8  Karsts and heterogeneous network of collaboration with UPR LGEI environments: hydrogeology, research laboratories and institutions Industrial Environment hydraulics and transfers. worldwide, giving the lab a high level Engineering Laboratory  Climate, environmental changes of international recognition. (EMA) and modelling of their impacts on HSM also works with public partners 45 scientists water resources. (DRE: Regional Directorate for the Director: Miguel Lopez-Ferber  Hydrological cycle mechanisms, Environment, AFSSET: French Agency miguel.lopez-ferber@mines-ales.fr surface-atmosphere transfers and for Environmental and Occupational www.mines-ales.fr/LGEI  Presentation page 12 interactions. Health Safety, local authorities: communities of municipalities, UMR LISAH Laboratory for the Study of In addition, the laboratory develops joint basin organizations, etc.), Interactions between Soils, four cross-disciplinary technical private consultancy and engineering Agrosystems and Hydrosystems approaches: (a) hydrodynamic companies (SDEI, BioUV S.A., SOMEZ, (Inra, IRD, Montpellier SupAgro) modelling and couplings; etc.). HSM has also filed several 34 scientists (b) hydrosphere tracers; (c) modelling patents, especially in metrology,Water resources: preservation and management Director: Jérôme Molénat methods: assimilation, spatialisation and has developed “professional” jerome.molenat@supagro.inra.fr and sensitivity; (d) information software tools, particularly around www.umr-lisah.fr  Presentation page 15 systems. data management. Besides, the study of organic contaminants is one of UMS OREME HSM is highly involved in research- HSM’s fields of excellence. It has set Mediterranean Environment Research oriented training and education. up, in partnership with the company Observatory (CNRS, IRD, UM2) The training courses provided by the Veolia, a training and research chair 3 scientists sensu stricto + 6 linked units laboratory attract French and foreign devoted to the “Risks analyses in Director: Nicolas Arnaud students alike (especially students relation to emerging contaminants in nicolas.arnaud@gm.univ-montp2.fr from developing countries): “Water” aquatic environments”. Moreover, HSM www.oreme.univ-montp2.fr Master’s degree, “Health Engineering” is involved in the “Water” and “Local  Presentation page 13 Master’s degree, “Water sciences and Vulnerability and Risk Management” 8 ...continued on page 10 technologies” engineering degree competitiveness clusters. •••
  • 9.  Palm grove of Tafilalet, Morocco. M .N. Favier © IRD© UMR HSM & Plan Bleu Water stress indexes in the Mediterranean Basin. > W at e r R e s o u r c e s a n d G l o b a l C h a n g e s Global changes in the Mediterranean: what will tomorrow’s water resources be like? The Mediterranean basin is characterised by unevenly emphasising regional disparities concerning the capacity to distributed and limited water resources as well as by meet various water needs at different periods in the past and increasing anthropogenic pressures. Hydro-climatic future. Alternative scenarios, such as supply networks with projections suggest a progressive diminution of the mean improved efficiency, are being tested to assess the efficacy annual flows in this region, accompanied by more frequent and of adaptative strategies. The team also studies the impact of severe drought periods. Moreover, water demand has doubled these changes on the water resources at more local scales. Water resources: preservation and management since the nineteen fifties and is likely to continue to grow Hydrological modelling coupled with water uses is thus as irrigated surfaces increase and urban areas spread. Within implemented in the river basins of Ebre (Spain) and Hérault the HSM JRU, the RESCUE-Med team focuses its research (France). These research efforts seek to elaborate scenarios on the prospective evaluation of water resources under of climate change and water demand evolution adapted to pressure of climate change and uses at different scales in the these working scales. The objective is to assess the volumes Mediterranean region. and dynamics of flows, taking into account anthropogenic pressures (storage, withdrawals, consumption and transfers), As part of a current PhD and in partnership with the “Blue in order to provide water resource managers with decision- Plan”, the future availability of water resources is modelled making support tools. at the regional scale according to various scenarios of climatic and water demand evolution, for agricultural and Contact: Denis Ruelland, denis.ruelland@univ-montp2.fr household purposes. A hydric stress indicator was developed, 9
  • 10. Water resources: identification, functioning, mobilisation > W at e r R e s o u r c e s a n d G l o b a l C h a n g e s SICMED: The evolution of Mediterranean anthropo-ecosystems The Mediterranean region subjected to global change-induced stresses. It is one of the  Cultivated landscape in Tunisia. is one of the focal points components of the MISTRALS (Mediterranean Integrated STudies of global changes. The at Regional And Local Scales) project, and for the last decade it region evolves swiftly has been developing a multi-disciplinary research project to study under the effects of severe biophysical, technical and social mechanisms at work. climatic and anthropogenic The programme pursues three objectives: pressures, while the  To identify and analyse the scientific locks preventing efficient resources produced are forecasting of the evolution of the bio-hydro-geo-chemical already unable to meet processes subjected to current and future anthropogenic and the population needs. climatic stresses; The current intense  To develop knowledge and tools for the rationalised exploitation of resources management of the systems studied; aggravates social and  To transfer such knowledge and tools to decision makers and environmental weaknesses managers in the private and public sectors. and induces high stresses The SICMED programme is funded by IRSTEA, CNRS-INSU, INRA © R. Calvez on the hydrological and and IRD. It is based on a broad multilateral partnership involving biogeochemical cycles. Critical situations and conflicts of use scientific institutions and stakeholders representing various are increasing in frequency and intensity. The quest for new Mediterranean countries, but also other countries involved in ways of sustainable development calls for a deeper knowledge research and development towards the Mediterranean region. of anthropo-ecosystem degradation, resilience, flexibility and rehabilitation factors. Contacts: Christian Leduc, christian.leduc@ird.fr Jean-Claude Menaut, jean-claude.menaut@cesbio.cnes.fr Within this context, the SICMED programme (continental Marc Voltz, marc.voltz@supagro.inra.fr surfaces and interfaces in the Mediterranean) carries out research, & Maxime Thibon, maxime.thibon@ird.fr training and transfer activities dedicated to the study of evolving More information on SICMED: www.sicmed.net Mediterranean rural and peri-urban anthropo-ecosystems More information on Mistrals: www.mistrals-home.org Other teams involved UMR ESPACE-DEV Spatial Analysis for Development Mass and energy  Environmental and climatic changes with high anthropogenic (IRD, UM2, UAG, UR) 60 scientists transfers in porous, impact (coastline evolution, sea Director: Frédéric Huynh fractured and karstic water intrusion in groundwater). frederic.huynh@ird.fr GM comprises five multidisciplinary www.espace-dev.fr aquifers teams working in three scientific  Presentation page 47 fields: UMR G-EAU The Montpellier Geosciences Joint  Geodynamics (“Lithosphere Water Management, Stakeholders, Uses Research Unit – UMR GM (CNRS, Dynamics” and “Mantle and (AgroParisTech, Irstea, Ciheam-IAMM, UM2) has developed a global Interface” teams) Cirad, IRD, Montpellier SupAgro) approach to earth dynamics and  Reservoirs (“Basins” and “Porous 75 scientists their surface manifestations. This Environment Transfers” teams) Director: Patrice Garin patrice.garin@irstea.fr takes into account the couplings  Risks (“Risks” team) www.g-eau.net between the various layers including  Presentation page 40 the hydrosphere. The objective is to Research on water is undertaken by UMR ITAP gain a better understanding of the the “Porous Environment Transfers” Information –Technology – Environmental dynamic processes at different scales, and “Risks” teams. It concerns the Analysis – Agricultural Processes and to bring this in line with societal characterisation and modelling of (Irstea, Montpellier SupAgro) expectations such as: mass and energy transfers in porous,Water resources: preservation and management 40 scientists  Supply of non-energy resources fractured and karstic aquifers. The Director:Tewfik Sari (mineral and hydric); main scientific challenges lie in tewfik.sari@irstea.fr  Energy choices for the future, from the in situ measurement of these www.irtsea.fr/itap  Presentation page 28 extending carbon-based reserves to transfers, taking into account the developing new energy technologies heterogeneities controlling them at UMR TETIS (natural hydrogen, geothermal all scales. These research works target Territories, Environment, Remote sensing energy); four objectives: the development and Spatial information (AgroParisTech, Cirad, Irstea)  Waste storage and confinement of (1) instrumented sites (Majorca, 70 scientists (downstream from the nuclear cycle, Maguelone, Roussillon, Larzac and Director: Jean-Philippe Tonneau CO2, mining wastes, etc.); Lodève) dedicated to observation and jean-philippe.tonneau@cirad.fr  Natural hazards (earthquakes, experimentation, (2) devices allowing10 http://tetis.teledetection.fr tsunamis, gravity hazards, floods, controlled dynamic experiments,  Presentation page 46 etc.); (3) surface and bore hole
  • 11. hydrogeophysical measurement and Research Observatory, being in (Marie-Curie, FP7 networks), the monitoring systems and (4) specific charge of several observation tasks Mediterranean region (North Africa, digital tools allowing the integration (SO-LTC, GPST2, GEK, Bore Hole Middle East), and all over the world of data obtained at different scales. Hydrogeophysics). (Taiwan, Japan, India, Australia, New-Zealand, Iran, Brazil, Mexico These research works are carried GM is involved in the large and the USA). GM collaborates out in the framework of several regional technical platform for with the private sector, namely via projects supported by the French the “analysis of trace elements in the creation of businesses by PhD National Research Agency (MOHINI, the environment”. It also houses students and for the funding of GRAIN DSEL, LINE, COLINER, equipments for the “Gravimetry” research contracts and theses. It and HYDROKARST-G2) and the and “Experimentation” platforms of belongs to the Geosciences cluster SOERE H+ (long term observation the National Institute for Universe initiated in 2011 and involving key and experimentation systems Sciences (absolute gravimeter and regional companies (Geoter, Cenote, for environmental research in EBSD SEM). imaGeau, Schlumberger, Fugro, hydrogeology). GM is in charge of Antea, Areva, Lafarge) and R&D and several SOERE H+ experimental sites GM is also part of a wide national training organisations (GM, BRGM, around the Mediterranean region. and international cooperation EMA, CEFREM, HSM). A large GM is a member of the OREME network including countries number of these stakeholders are Mediterranean Environment and programmes from Europe active in the field of water. ••• > W at e r R e s o u r c e s a n d G l o b a l C h a n g e s OMERE: Mediterranean Observatory of Rural Environment and Water The OMERE observatory supports the study of global changes affecting the Mediterranean hydrosystems/agrosystems. It is located in an intermediate hydrological context, between arid and temperate environments, subjected to a wide range of hydrological processes stretching from severe drought events to extreme floods. The observatory also explores the social and human context, submitted to considerable and rapid changes (intensification of agricultural productions in favourable areas, abandonment of farmlands in less favourable zones, increased water withdrawals, hydro-agricultural or environmental planning, etc.). The various climate change scenarios elaborated by IPCC foresee major rainfall changes in these latitudes: less winter precipitations, more extreme rainfall events. Given the peculiar situation of the Mediterranean region, the observatory has been collecting climatic, hydrological, sediment and solute flows in two catchment basins over the last two decades. These basins differ in terms of soils, hydro-agricultural developments, cultural practices and evolution dynamics: Roujan (France, mainly wine growing) and Kamech (Tunisia, polycrops-stock farming). The objectives of the observatory are as follows: i) to understand the impact of agricultural activities on mass flows in Mediterranean elementary catchment basins (hydrological regimes and balances, water resource allocation, erosion dynamics, evolution of water quality); ii) to assess the intensity and speed at which water and ground resources can change as a function of changing land use; iii) to support the development of modelling approaches for flows in agricultural environments, by bringing observation in line with modelling; iv) to supply scientific bases, references and diagnostic tools for the agro-environmental engineering of agricultural landscapes. The HSM JRU, the Tunis National Water resources: preservation and management Institute of Agronomy, the Tunisian National Institute of Rural Engineering, Water and Forestry, and the LISAH JRU are the four partners in charge of coordinating and managing OMERE. The Observatory is a member of the French catchment basin network*.© M. Soulié  Instrumentation of the Contacts: Patrick Andrieux, patrick.andrieux@supagro.inra.fr Roujan site (Hérault, France) as & Damien Raclot, damien.raclot@ird.fr part of the OMERE observatory. Information: www.umr-lisah.fr/omere * http://rnbv.ipgp.fr 11
  • 12. Water resources: identification, functioning, mobilisation > W at e r R e s o u r c e s a n d G l o b a l C h a n g e s The OpenFLUID platform: modelling and simulation of the spatial functioning of agricultural landscapes The spatio-temporal functioning of agricultural landscapes results from complex interactions between biophysical processes and human activities. Modelling the functioning of such systems and simulating their changes under the impact of climatic changes and anthropogenic pressures (pollution, development, changes in land use), involves taking into account all these interactions and coupling many processes/phenomena distributed in the area re studied. In order to implement such modelling processes and run simulations . Fab J.C © based on these coupled models, the LISAH JRU has developed an advanced and generic software tool.  Water level simulations within the hydrographic Thus, the OpenFLUID platform can provide a software environment to network of Roujan (Hérault, France) using the model and simulate the spatial functioning of agricultural landscapes. It allows MHYDAS model with the OPENFLUID modelling platform. models to be developed and implemented during simulations. These models are developed as plug-in software tools for OpenFLUID. Then they can be used to create coupled models adapted to (i) the modelling context, (ii) the simulation objectives and (iii) the data available. The simulations are based on digital representations of the landscapes studied. These include the geometries and properties of the actual landscape elements. OpenFLUID has been used for numerous projects and Ph.D. theses. It has been applied to Mediterranean and tropical environments, for the modelling of water and pollutant flows and erosion, especially under the impact of agricultural practices. OpenFLUID also provides software support for the development and implementation of the MHYDAS (distributed hydrological modelling of agro-systems) model, among others, as well as the digital representation of agricultural catchment basins, and the simulation of water and pollutant flows. OpenFLUID has a user graphic interface and can also be used in a command line (in a calculation cluster for example). It is an open-source, free licence software and can be downloaded from the OpenFLUID internet site*. Contacts: Jean-Christophe Fabre, fabrejc@supagro.inra.fr & Roger Moussa, moussa@supagro.inra.fr * www.umr-lisah.fr/openfluid Analysis of the water and effluents; development of etc.), as well as a test hall for semi- processes and process couplings for industrial pilot scale experiments. hydrological cycle for the treatment of water and effluents; Academic and industrial teams have research, economic and integrated management of polluting access to these facilities through industrial activities flows (industrial environments, the regional technical platforms, water resources) according to a including Ecotech LR (Eco- “local ecology” type approach; technologies for agro-bioprocesses). The Industrial Environment geomatics and collective intelligence Engineering Laboratory – UPR LGEI – for decision support. These different Moreover, the hydrometric is an Internal Research Unit of Alès levels of water cycle analysis make monitoring of experimental Engineering High School (École des it possible to answer the questions catchment basins is a fundamental Mines d’Alès, EMA), a national public raised not only by science, but research effort for understanding the institution reporting to the Ministry also by economic and industrial processes underlying flash kinetics of Industry. Its research work covers a stakeholders. floods. This research started in 2001 broad field of applications based on in collaboration with the ESPACE- complementary disciplines: process LGEI is part of the Institut Carnot DEV, HSM and TETIS JRUs. Several engineering, analytical chemistry and M.I.N.E.S., reflecting its privileged experimental catchment basins in metrology, microbiology, molecular relationships with the economic the Cevennes are currently beingWater resources: preservation and management biology, hydrology, hydrogeology, sector. The laboratory is active monitored. Thanks to the diversity of geomatics, geostatistical methods, in the “Water”, “Trimatec”, “Local the experimental devices, research computer sciences and modelling, Vulnerability and Risk Management” work has focused on developing simulation tools and decision support and “Eurobiomed” competitiveness imaging applied to river velocities systems. clusters. It collaborates with and flow rates as well as “low cost” academics and industrialists at devices for extending and refining Water issues are addressed from national and international levels, distributed hydrometric analyses. several angles: control of disastrous participating and coordinating impacts for a resilient environment; several European projects*. * SWIFT: Screening Methods for Water Data understanding and spatialisation of Information in Support of the Implementation hydrological processes in catchment The laboratory hosts all the facilities of the WFD. KNAPPE: Knowledge and Need Assessment on basins (modelling); diagnosis of the needed in a chemistry lab (HPLC/ Pharmaceutical Products in Environmental12 chemical and ecological quality of MS/MS, GC/MS/MS, ICP extractors, , waters
  • 13.  Water stainingexperiments for transferscharacterisation andvulnerability assessmentof the karstic hydrosystemof the Lez River (France). © V. LeonardiObservation for a better systems. These range from the basin couplings occurring in the various scale to the in situ bore-hole scale: compartments. Complex simulationsunderstanding of the  Geodesic, gravimetric, geophysical/ are necessary to understand thesedynamics and facilitated hydrogeophysical systematic bore- conditions: real-time modelling of the hole observation at all scales; state of the resource, its uses and theirmanagement of water  Multi-scale observation system of immediate effects. At the core of thisresources flood dynamics and underground process of study, the data collected, hydrodynamics of fractured and calculated or associated with usesThe Mediterranean Environment karstic systems; must be processed within theResearch Observatory Joint Service  Observation system for the “acquisition-refinement-processing-Unit – UMS OREME (CNRS, IRD, pollution and biological adaptability decision” continuum.UM2) is dedicated to the study of downstream from mining sites;the uncertainties and vulnerabilities  Monitoring of the Languedoc Thanks to its network of partnershipsof Mediterranean environments. coastline, interface between and its expertise, OREME intervenesOREME focuses on natural hazards, catchment basin and marine at different stages of this continuum,resources and the impact of global environment. especially during acquisitionand anthropogenic changes on the (sensor network management),living and inert Mediterranean area. These observation systems – storage, sharing (managementIts aim is to identify such systems’ included in French and international of query standards and norms,response mechanisms to natural and networks  – provide information management of metadata, webanthropogenic forcing. on water resource dynamics, services, etc.) and decision support especially karstic aquifers. They (detection of changes, informationOREME’s mission consists in also make it possible to monitor fusion, reasoning, user interactions,collecting, integrating and sharing the quantity and quality of the visualisation, recommendation,long-term observation data to resource downstream from the forecasting and real-time operations).understand the evolution of aquifers. Geophysical methods areresources and environments. This used to monitor underground water The water resource must be managed Water resources: preservation and managementdata is also essential for developing movements and link aquifer supplies in such a way as to prevent or betterexplanatory and predictive models. with their discharge. The aim here manage crises. This is why resource is to understand their hydrological modelling must give a picture asOMERE closely works with public cycles and analyse it both in terms of close as possible to the reality, sopartners (universe and ecology resource quantity and hydrological that risks can be analysed and thesciences laboratories, information hazards, such as flash discharges. necessary decisions taken in realscience laboratories, local authorities time. For this reason, a shift toand State agencies) and private The quantity and quality of the operational decision support modelscompanies (especially IBM). resource available at each utilisation is required. Indeed, to avoid having to site are the result of complex carry out time-consuming exhaustiveIn the field of water, OREME processes. Their assessment needs modelling, “basic” simulations, basedcollaborates with other JRUs in order combining models of water storage, on reliable data, has to be performed 13to develop hydrologic observation flow and physico-biochemical upstream. •••
  • 14. Water resources: identification, functioning, mobilisation The “Fontaine duVaucluse” spring (France)in high water conditions. © UMR EMMAH Mediterranean human pathogens in these treated with the different processes, on waters. the one hand, and include new environment and modelling approaches that take into modelling of EMMAH’s work is based on the consideration the heterogeneities of utilisation of remote sensing the environment and processes at agro-hydrosystems and geophysical data, intensive different scales, on the other hand. observation of instrumented sites, The Mediterranean Environment laboratory measurements and The disciplinary expertise and and Agro-Hydrosystem Modelling methodological development to techniques implemented cover Joint Research Unit – UMR EMMAH better understand and model the hydrology, hydrogeology, soil (INRA Avignon, UAPV) is focused on functioning of Mediterranean and water geochemistry and impact analysis of global changes ecosystems. EMMAH has set up microbiology, agronomy, remote on water resources, agricultural a monitoring system of several sensing, geophysics, applied production and their interactions at observation sites representative mathematics, the physics of waves the local level (from the landscape of different hydro-geological and in porous media, digital simulation, to the production basin and the agronomic contexts (Crau-Camargue parallel calculation and signal aquifer). The research works target region, karstic aquifers of the processing. five cross-disciplinary goals: Fontaine de Vaucluse, Avignon peri-  Quantification of the impacts of urban zone). EMMAH collaborates with the French global change on the interactions academic world (INRA: French between surface biophysical In addition, two sites are dedicated National Institute for Agronomic processes (agricultural production to the study of hydric flows into the Research, CEA: French Nuclear and water cycle) and water resources, atmosphere and the water table. and Alternative Energies Centre, especially underground. EMMAH is also equipped to carry out CNRS: French National Centre for  Identification of landscape changes biological measurements (biomass, Scientific Research, Universities, and their driving forces, based on a foliar index, chlorophyll content, etc.) and the international academic retrospective analysis that stretches etc.), chemical analyses of water and world (Sfax National School of over several decades. soils (organic and mineral chemistry), Engineering, Tunisia; Spanish  Understanding of the modifications water isotopic analyses (H 3, C14, C13/ Institute for Sustainable Agriculture induced by extreme climatic events C12 ratio of dissolved carbon) and and Valencia University, Spain; DutchWater resources: preservation and management (such as drought/heat wave) on the ground hydrodynamic properties. National Aerospace Laboratory and functioning of agro-ecosystems. EMMAH also has access to the University of Twente, Netherlands;  Understanding and modelling Rustrel (Vaucluse) low-disturbance Universities of Maryland and Boston, the impacts of heavy rainfall on the underground laboratory in the karstic USA, etc.). Moreover, EMMAH also hydrological and hydrochemical massif of Fontaine de Vaucluse, and develops partnerships with French functioning of the ground-table to the INRA molecular biology lab institutional or managerial bodies system. in Avignon. It is also equipped with (Rhône-Méditerranée-Corse Water  Study of alternative irrigation subsurface geophysical prospecting Agency, irrigators’ and farmers’ techniques, such as the use of instruments (electrical tomography). unions, joint organisations for the water downstream from waste The researchers develop mechanistic management of underground water water treatment plants, particularly models for hydrosystem functioning. resources) as well as private partners14 regarding quantification of the risks These integrate and spatialise the (Veolia, Suez Environnement, associated with the presence of elementary models associated engineering offices, etc.).
  • 15. At the crossroad of soil hydrological regimes and the to the resource (a few hundred km²) evolution of water and land catchment basins;sciences, hydrology resources;  Development of digital soil mappingand agronomy: the  The definition of new modes of methods and information systems; sustainable management for the rural  Analysis of factors and processes offunctioning of cultivated environment; soil erosion and sediment transfer inlandscapes  The training of students on the catchment basins; concepts and tools used to analyse  Study of the influence of hydraulicThe Laboratory for the Study and model the spatial organisation works (ditches, banks, hill lakes) on theof Interactions between Soils, and the hydrology of cultivated hydrological functioning of cultivatedAgrosystems and Hydrosystems environments. soil and catchment basins.Joint Research Unit – UMRLISAH (INRA, IRD, Montpellier LISAH combines expertise in soil LISAH scientific approach is basedSupAgro) studies the functioning science, hydrology, agronomy and on in situ hydrological studies andof cultivated landscapes resulting spatialisation. Its structure is based experiments, methodological researchfrom the interactions between i) the on three research teams: for the acquisition and processingunderlying soil, ii) the agrosystem  Water and pollutants in cultivated of soil and landscape spatial datathat modifies the geometry of the catchment basins; and development of distributedlandscape and iii) the hydrosystem  Erosion and sediment transport in hydrological modelling approaches,that transfers water and other cultivated catchment basins; taking into account the specificelements. It serves the following  Spatial and dynamic structure of heterogeneities of rural landscapes.specific objectives: soils and cultivated landscapes. To this end, LISAH runs the The development of knowledge on Mediterranean Observatory of Ruralerosion, water and material transfers LISAH especially focuses on wine Environment and Water (OMERE, seeand the evolution of polluting growing in the Languedoc-Roussillon page 11). The laboratory analyses thesubstances (pesticides) in soils and region and banana tree farming impact of anthropogenic actions onrural catchment basins with respect in the French Antilles, with the the physical and chemical erosion ofto their spatial organisation and following objectives: Mediterranean soils and on the qualitytemporal evolution;  Study of soils and water pollution of water. Moreover, since 2006, LISAH The elaboration of tools for by phytosanitary products; has been developing the simulationdiagnosing and preventing the  Analysis of the “soil-crop” system platform OpenFLUID (Softwarerisks induced by human activities hydrological cycle at various scales, Environment for Modelling Fluxes in(cultivated environments) on from the elementary (a few km²) Landscapes, see page 12). •••> F u n c t i o n i n g o f c o m p l e x aqu i f e r sAquifers in bedrock regions:a water resource to be managed DrillingBedrock (granite, schist, gneiss, etc.) occupies large surface areasin Europe and France and elsewhere across the planet. The water Alterites Porous geological mediumresources they contain are used substantially in agriculturaland economic development in the regions concerned. This is Saturated aquiferparticularly true for emerging economies where the context is Fracturedarid or semi-arid and access to water is limited. geological mediumThe BRGM EAU/NRE research unit contributes to the Fractured and altered bedrockdevelopment of knowledge on the genesis, geometry, hydraulic Unaltered bedrock Discontinuousproperties and functioning of bedrock aquifers. Significant geological medium 0 25 mprogress has been made in this corpus of knowledge. More  Conceptual model of the structure Water resources: preservation and managementspecifically, it has been demonstrated that climatic alteration and hydrologic properties of the bedrock aquifers.processes significantly influence aquifer properties through the © J.C. Maréchaldevelopment of alteration profiles. Moving downwards, theseare made up of (see figure on the right): loose alterites (coarsesand in granitic zones), characterised by low permeability and regionalisation of hydrodynamic parameters for modelling.significant underground water storage capacities; a stratabound Other applications concern water resource management tools“cracked horizon”, 50 to 100-metres thick, also strongly for catchment basins. Indeed, such management is essential forinfluenced by alteration processes and to which the bedrock intensive withdrawals for irrigation purposes. These applicationsaquifer owes much of its permeability. also cover bore-hole layout techniques and methods leading to improved success rates for exploitable flow rates.Numerous practical applications stem from these geologicaland hydrogeological concepts. One such application is Contacts: Jean-Christophe Maréchal, jc.marechal@brgm.fr 15regional mapping of underground water potentialities and the & Benoît Dewandel, b.dewandel@brgm.fr
  • 16. Water resources: identification, functioning, mobilisation Located in Montpellier on the increasing constraints, i.e. climate Several researchers are involved in Mediterranean shore, LISAH runs change, anthropogenic pressure, teaching for vocational training, collaboration programmes with socio-economic evolution, urban for the “Water” Master’s degree and several Tunisian and Moroccan growth, etc. The following topics others Master’s and engineering higher education, research and are more specifically studied: courses related to water. training institutions: Hassan II (i) characterisation of the structure Agronomy and Veterinarian Institute and functioning of complex aquifers EAU/NRE has developed a strong in Rabat; National Institute of (karst, fractured ground, volcanic partnership with the French-Indian Research on Rural Engineering, environments) in order to assess Research Centre on Underground Water and Forestry in Tunis; National their potentialities; (ii) development Water. This joint BRGM-NGRI Institute of Agronomy in Tunis; of modelling and decision support (National Geophysical Research National Engineering School in Tunis, tools for managing these aquifers and Institute) laboratory, based in National Centre for Cartography forecasting impact of global changes; Hyderabad in the south of India, and Remote Sensing. It also works in and (iii) development of active has developed research on base partnership with public and private resource management methods aquifers in tropical regions using stakeholders in the field of water and (recycling of treated waste waters, the SOERE (H+) observation soil resource management. artificial recharging of water-tables, system. The lab develops tools for inter-seasonal storage and controlled managing aquifers that are severely overexploitation). impacted by agricultural practices Hydrogeologists and  The development of economic (irrigation pumping, pollution) and economists working approaches needed to evaluate water by climate change. on water resource resource management scenarios at the basin scale. Research efforts EAU/NRE specifically develops management focus on the economic evaluation of applied research activities directed incentive programmes and resource to local authorities, water agenciesWater resources: preservation and management The Water/New resources and management policies as a function and industrialists. Several projects Economy Internal Research of uses, the economic optimisation have led to the development of Unit – UPR EAU/NRE – belongs to of resource management plans methodologies to study mineral the BRGM Water Department. Its via cost-efficiency analyses, the water deposits and their industrial permanent staff comprises eight weighting of benefits and drawbacks management (i.e. Nestlé Waters and hydrologists and six economists between economic development Danone Eaux France). Moreover, whose research efforts focus on and environmental policies, the EAU/NRE is involved in the water resource management. EAU/ comparison of approaches (analysis “Water” competitiveness cluster.   NRE’s activities comprise two main of costs avoided), the contingent scientific focuses: evaluation based on enquiries and  The development of alternative the elaboration of medium and16 solutions to conventional water long-term water use scenarios resources, that are suffering from (prospective analysis).
  • 17.  Water sampling in the non-saturated zone of the karsticaquifer in the low-disturbancelaboratory of Rustrel (Vaucluse,France).>The Mediterraneankarstic aquifers:complex systems © UMR EMMAHKarstic aquifers contain a significantshare of water resources in France > F u n c t i o n i n g o f c o m p l e x aqu i f e r s Study of the functioning of non-saturated(35% of the country), all the more inthe Mediterranean region (> 50%).Their heterogeneity makes thesezones complex (with voids varying insize from cracks of a few centimetres zones of karstic systemsto sinkholes several meters wide), The functioning of the non-saturated zone (NSZ) of karstic systems, which can reach upwhich are characterised by a specific to tens or even hundreds of metres in size, remains poorly known and modelled. Yet, ithydrologic functioning. Because is now obvious that it plays a major role in transfer dynamics and storage characteristics.of their complexity, they are still The Rustrel (Vaucluse) Low Disturbance Underground Laboratory (LSBB) is located inunderexploited. Moreover, the use of an artificial gallery (opened for no hydrogeological reasons). The site of the laboratorythis resource must take into account spans flows within the limestone massif of the Mont de Vaucluse covering a distance ofcharacteristics specific to the karstic 3,800 metres and reaching depths ranging from 0 and 500 meters.systems, especially their vulnerabilityto pollution and overexploitation. The site provides direct access to the karst NSZ, hence offering an exceptionalIn regions where water is already research opportunity. Thanks to direct (geological, hydrodynamic, hydrochemical) andscarce and within a context of global indirect (hydro-geophysical) measurements carried out on this site, the EMMAH JRU ischange, a better understanding of developing an operational model of the karstic aquifer NSZ. Eventually, it will be possibletheir functioning has become essential to precisely assess the impact of the NSZ on the global functioning of these aquiferto ensure they are optimally and systems. The experimental site of the LSBB, located in the supply basin of Fontaine desustainably exploited and protected. Vaucluse, will serve as a reference site for the development of this model, which will Water resources: preservation and managementTo this end, the regional research then be validated and refined through its application to other systems.units develop different complementaryapproaches. In addition to studying the karstic aquifer as such, the work carried out in the Fontaine de Vaucluse catchment basin includes the whole upstream area: vegetation, land use, definition and mapping of drainage units. The impact of the karstic system on the environment downstream from the spring is also studied under different aspects (flood warning, biodiversity and green tourism). Contacts: Christophe Emblanch, christophe.emblanch@univ-avignon.fr Charles Danquigny, charles.danquigny@paca.inra.fr & Kostantinos Chalikakis, konstantinos.chalikakis@univ-avignon.fr 17
  • 18. Water resources: identification, functioning, mobilisation > F u n c t i o n i n g o f c o m p l e x aqu i f e r s Multi-uses management of the Lez river catchment basin karstic aquifer © M. Soulié The “karst and heterogeous environments” research group within the HSM JRU focuses on underground and surface transfers in this type of environment. Within the framework of its research activities combining hydrogeological, hydrological and hydraulic characterisation and modelling, the laboratory participates to a broad-reaching research project. The project is entitled “Multi-Uses Management of Mediterranean Karstic Aquifers” and is being coordinated by BRGM for Montpellier Agglomeration, in collaboration with the G-EAU and TETIS JRUs, the Biotope company and the European Centre for Research and Advanced Training in Scientific Computation. This 3-year project started in June 2009 (mainly funded by Montpellier Agglomeration with co-funding from the Rhône - Méditerranée - Corse Water Agency, the Hérault General Council, the BRGM). It mainly concerns the Lez catchment basin (France) as well as the associated karstic aquifer, and deals with resource management and flood hazard mitigation issues. The project serves the following main objectives:  To get a better knowledge of the hydrogeological underground environment, through a better understanding of underground flows and geology of this type of peri-Mediterranean hydrosystem;  To assess the quantitative and qualitative vulnerability of the aquifer;  The Lez spring near Montpellier, France.  To reassess the water resource that can be exploited within the aquifer and characterise the impacts of global changes using different models;  To characterise the role of the karstic aquifer in the hydrological regime of the Lez river in order to better evaluate flood hazard as well as the chemical and geological quality of the hydrological environment;  To take stock of the situation of the underground biodiversity of the Lez aquifer;  To study the effects of actively managing the karstic aquifer on flood mitigation using coupled hydrological and hydrogeological models. Contacts: Véronique Leonardi, leonardi@msem.univ-montp2.fr Hervé Jourde, herve.jourde@univ-montp2.fr & Jean-Christophe Maréchal, jc.marechal@brgm.fr > F u n c t i o n i n g o f c o m p l e x aqu i f e r s Geodesy to study water resources in a karstic environment For several years now, the “Risk” team of the GM JRU has been temporal variations without drilling any bore hole. This type conducting original research works on the monitoring and of measurement has become so successful that it is now being localisation of fresh water resources in karstic zones. exported to other karsts such as the Vaucluse plateau. In 2011, within the framework of the OREME Observatory, and The Larzac observatory also welcomes French and foreign in partnership with the National Institute for Universe Sciences, researchers who wish to collaborate on research works the H+ Observatory, the Maison de l’Eau water science centre in progress, both in geophysics and in hydrogeology. TheWater resources: preservation and management and the companies imaGeau (Montpellier), MicroG and GWR observatory is a training site enabling students from UM2 and (USA), GM established a geodesic observatory on the Larzac all over France to work on current topics using high tech tools. plateau. The aim of the observatory is to bring new knowledge The data collected will make it possible to better understand based on very high tech original observations over long periods and model karstic aquifers so that quantitative information can of time. be provided to help with the exploitation/protection of the Larzac water resources and of karstic zones in general The observatory includes the first new generation supraconductor gravimeter (iGrav) developed by GWR, as well Contacts: as one of the 50 absolute gravimeters existing in the world Cédric Champollion, champollion@gm.univ-montp2.fr (MicroG). Gravimetry consists in making surface ground mass & Jean Chéry, jean.chery@gm.univ-montp2.fr measurements in order to determine water bodies and their18
  • 19. © J.C. Maréchal > F u n c t i o n i n g o f c o m p l e x aqu i f e r s Karstic flash floods: from research to operational management Since 2004, the BRGM EAU/NRE research unit has been working on the issue of karstic flash floods. This work comprises several projects with the aim of providing long-term assessments. A first research project for the city of Nîmes (France) targeted the functioning of the Fontaine de Nîmes karstic system in flood conditions. It has evidenced the flood buffering role when the aquifer is undersaturated. It has also showed the karstic system’s major contribution to the genesis of devastating floods in Nîmes, especially that of underground waters during a flood peak. Water resources: preservation and management A tight monitoring of the underground waters has thus been proposed to the Nîmes authorities. Furthermore, a warning tool was designed, based on an abacus. This tool is able to forecast flood magnitudes. It takes into account the saturation condition of the karst and the real time weather forecasts. This type of approach has been replicated in other karstic catchment basins following a request from the Central Department of Hydrometeorology and Flood Forecast Support (SCHAPI). The tools developed for the forecasters are currently being tested by the Flood Forecasting Departments. Contacts: Perrine Fleury, p.fleury@brgm.fr  Retro-flooding of an ancient & Jean-Christophe Maréchal, jc.marechal@brgm.fr Roman pit during the 2005 19 flood of Nîmes (France).
  • 20. Water resources: identification, functioning, mobilisation > W at e r - r e l at e d h a z a r d s Real-time flood forecasting using neuronal-type networks floods). The models developed will then be validated on the Cèze and Ardèche rivers, also known for their flash floods, and on the Somme river, known for its table floods. The use of neuronal-type networks offers a new alternative: it consists in taking advantage of experimental data recorded during the elaboration of models, obtained through artificial learning. The first results show that floods of the Gardon river at Anduze can be anticipated without any rainfall forecast even for short time horizons (2 to 3 hours), thus enabling the local authorities to take the first decisions rapidly. The purpose of this method is to publish a “vigicrues*” flood vigilance map on the internet. These research efforts are being carried out within the framework of the FLASH project (Flood forecasting with machine Learning, data Assimilation and Semi-physical modelling), in collaboration with national partners (SCHAPI: © LGEI Central Department of Hydrometeorology and Flood Forecast Support, School of Industrial Chemistry and Physics of the City  Flood forecast one hour before the event without rainfall forecast of Paris, “Mountain environments, dynamics and territories” JRU), (calculated water level in green, measured water level in red). and with the financial support of the French National Research Agency. Real-time flood forecasting is a complex issue with vital economic and societal implications. The complexity stems Contacts: Anne Johannet, anne.johannet@mines-ales.fr from the coupling between atmospheric, hydrological and & Pierre-Alain Ayral, pierre-alain.ayral@mines-ales.fr hydrogeological models. Additional information: Toukourou M., 2009. Application de l’apprentissage artificiel aux The EMA LGEI research unit studies and implements the prévisions des crues éclair. Thèse de doctorat de lEMA, Alès, France. methods it develops on the catchment basins of the Gardon Kong A Siou L., 2011. Modélisation des crues de bassins karstiques par réseaux de neurones. Cas du bassin du Lez (France). Thèse de Doctorat de l’UM2, France. river in Remoulins and its upstream outfalls in France. The site is known for the devastating “gardonnades” (river Gardon flash * www.vigicrues.gouv.fr > W at e r - r e l at e d h a z a r d s Methodology for the evaluation of rainfall runoff hazards Qualitative Rainfall runoff is a phenomenon poorly taken into account and rarely dealt with runoff sensibility as a full scale risk. It is often confused or associated with floods. Yet, it may cause classes around severe damage. The complexity of the phenomenon stems from its sudden and Nîmes (France) highly localised occurrence. It usually affects small urban and rural catchment between March and June, 2011 basins. Its characterisation is very difficult since the phenomenon is influenced (from clearest colour by numerous physical parameters but mainly because it is aggravated by human = lowest sensibility activities. to darkest colour = highest The methodologies currently implemented to study runoff are mainly based on sensibility). quantitative studies and/or modelling. The work carried out by the EMA LGEI research unit uses a hydro-geomorphological approach to characterise and spatialise the phenomenon. A rainfall diagnosis method has been developed andWater resources: preservation and management applied to a rural community. The qualitative approach used makes it possible to take stock of the general situation. All information and data can be integrated into a qualitative map. rat ion Using this approach, a global spatial analysis was performed. Associated with mé permeability measurements, the trends observed by the qualitative analysis have glo s Ag Nî me been confirmed. © Classes de susceptibilité au ruissellement Contacts: Très forte Limite bassin versant Sophie Sauvagnargues, sophie.sauvagnargues-lesage@mines-ales.fr Forte Moyenne Limite communale & Pierre-Alain Ayral, pierre-alain.ayral@mines-ales.fr Faible20 Très faible Réseau hydrographique
  • 21. > W at e r - r e l at e d h a z a r d s Satellite measurement of river flow rates Satellites are very useful tools for quantifying global biophysical variables and monitoring their time-space dynamics. They contribute to water cycle knowledge by measuring atmospheric humidity, rainfall, ground humidity, evapotranspiration and the topography of hydrographic networks. Measuring river flow rates is a major challenge for future satellite missions. The TETIS JRU carries out research work in this field together with the National Space Study Centre (CNES), the French Aerospace Lab (ONERA) and industrial stakeholders in the space industry (European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company; Thales Alenia Space; Collection, Localisation, Satellites, Noveltis). The work is devoted to measurement technologies for river surface variables. These variables are then integrated in order to derive river hydraulic parameters and calculate flow rates. Three families of spatial techniques are being developed. Radar altimetry (Lidar) makes it possible to measure river levels; TETIS develops qualification methods for measuring river levels and quantifying their uncertainty. As part of the Surface Water and Ocean Topography mission (NASA-CNES), spatial radar interferometry is used to measure slopes; TETIS studies the roughness of water surface and its influence on radar retrodiffusion. TETIS is also involved in airborne campaigns to validate radar devices, processing chains and models. Finally, time interferometry makes it possible to measure surface velocities; TETIS takes part in exploratory airborne campaigns and explores the modelling of this technique on rivers. In order to assess the flow rate of rivers by means of satellite measurements without in situ measurements, TETIS develops hydraulic equation inversion methods that make it possible to determine river bed parameters (level, slope, roughness of bed, velocity profile), using surface variables only. These methods constitute a coherent framework for specifying future space missions and improving knowledge of the world river flow rates within the next twenty years. Contact: Pascal Kosuth, pascal.kosuth@teledetection.fr  Rio Madeira in Brazil. Water resources: preservation and managementM. Jégu © IRD 21
  • 22. Water resources: identification, functioning, mobilisation > W at e r - r e l at e d h a z a r d s Utilisation of very high resolution satellite images: study of the geomorphological origin of water routes in Mediterranean catchment basins. The intensity and variability of precipitations together with the complexity of hydrological processes in Mediterranean catchment basins somewhat limit predictability of extreme phenomena. A better understanding of the processes involved in the hydrological responses of catchment basins, which are responsible for the spatio- temporal variability of water routes, could make it possible to improve the modelling of this type of event. This research (LGEI/TETIS research units collaboration) falls within the framework of geomatics applied to hydrology. It calls on the use of satellites (especially very high resolution 3D products for the spatial characterisation of basins and their hydrographic networks), to study the geomorphological origins of the spatio- temporal variations of hydrological responses. First, using spatial data, the “potential” drainage system representing the dry geomorphological network formed by the continuous thalweg lines of the basins is defined. An original algorithm using a terrain digital model structure in a triangular form has been developed specifically for this purpose. It makes it possible to faithfully plot the networks in relation to their real routes and provides information about their geomorphology and that of the basins. The second research area concerns the study of water or “real” drain dynamics. The purpose is to better understand the spatial dynamics of drain water filling over the course of different flood episodes. To this end, a spatialised network of light sensors has been distributed over two experimental basins (< 1 km²) located on the Anduze Gardon. The idea is to monitor the time-space variations of the hydrological dynamics in the water networks. © P.A. Ayral By comparing and contrasting the geomorphological characteristics and hydrological responses observed, the predominance of sub-surface flows in the basins studied has  Stream gauging experiments been confirmed. This has also led to evidence two types of networks with different during a precipitation event. functioning and has underlined the important influence of the slopes and their changes on the initiation and sustainability of flows within the networks. Finally, it has led to hypotheses about the different functioning of these networks in relation to episodes. Contacts: Sophie Sauvagnargues, sophie.sauvagnargues-lesage@mines-ales.fr Pierre-Alain Ayral, pierre-alain.ayral@mines-ales.fr Christian Puech, puech@teledetection.fr & Jean-Stéphane Bailly, bailly@teledetection.fr > Ag r i c u l t u r a l w at e r u s e Mapping of vine evapotranspiration from satellite images The LISAH JRU has designed a simple vine evapotranspiration covariances on two of these plots. By means of regular soilWater resources: preservation and management mapping method. The study concerned the lower valley of the moisture and water table level monitoring, it was also possible Peyne river, a tributary of the Hérault river, where vines cover to precisely assess the daily evapotranspiration of the seven more than 70% of the surface. Twelve ASTER images were plots, via the HYDRUS1D hydric transfer model. acquired between July 2007 and October 2008. These surface temperature images (with a spatial resolution of 90 m), were The evapotranspiration maps made from satellite images were then converted into daily evapotranspiration maps using water then successfully validated, the SSEBI index being slightly more deficit index (WDI) and simplified surface energy balance index precise (0.8 mm/day) than the WDI index (1 mm/day). The (SSEBI) values, which so far had never been used on vines. evapotranspiration maps thus obtained exhibit a spatial stability over time, similar to that of 1:25 000 scale soil maps. These maps were then validated by means of a measurement device installed on seven vine plots deemed to be Contacts: Frédéric Jacob, frederic.jacob@supagro.inra.fr22 representative of the soil-landscape variability of the Peyne Philippe Lagacherie, philippe.lagacherie@supagro.inra.fr valley. Evapotranspiration was measured directly using turbulent & Laurent Prévot, laurent.prevot@supagro.inra.fr
  • 23. > Ag r i c u l t u r a l w at e r u s eSpatialisation of the hydric status of vinesThe hydric status of vines and its spatial and temporal  Experimentalvariations determine the quantitative and qualitative potential device for directof the harvest. This knowledge is essential to trigger the measurement of vinecorrective actions needed to optimise the management of evapotranspiration.grape quality and the water resources used for irrigation.Being able to spatialise changes of the vine’s hydric status overthe cultivated areas is also a pre-requisite for diagnosing thecurrent situation of the water resource and possibly forecastingthe impacts of climate change in Mediterranean agriculturalenvironments where vine growing is dominant.The objective of this research effort (collaboration betweenITAP, LISAH, Sciences for Oenology research units; INRA“Pech Rouge” experimental station, the French Wine and VineInstitute, Sydney University in Australia and Talca University inChile), is to propose an estimation model of the hydric statusof the vine in time and space. The model can then be scaledaccording to the vineyard and production area hence providingoperational decision-making support for crop management.The project is thus scaled to offer interesting potential for vinegrowers.The model uses and creates synergy so that the data availablecan be configured differently and according to the targetedscale. Thanks to recent technological progress, and to anetwork of local geo-referenced measurements to monitor thehydric condition of the vine, it is now possible to characterise © M. Galleguillosthe heterogeneous aspects of crops (near infrared airinformation) and soils (measurement of the apparent electricalconductivity of the soil using high space resolution sensorsmounted on mobile vehicles). Based on a reference measurement, the spatial extrapolation approach has been validated at the scale of the plot and of theThese networks of communicating sensors (located in the vineyard. It is currently being transferred to an industrial partnersoil and in the crops), make it possible to collect real-time (Fruition Sciences) and validated on a larger scale (cooperativecontinuous information (plant and soil monitoring systems). It is cellar).already possible to monitor variables and hence obtain indirectand local assessments of plant hydric conditions. Contact: Bruno Tisseyre, tisseyre@supagro.inra.fr © UMR LISAH Water resources: preservation and management  Mapping of vineyards evapotranspiration level in the Peyne Valley (France) and localisation of the seven 23 validation plots.
  • 24. © D. Lacroix  Cascades in Krk, Croatia. Water quality preservation and restorationWater resources: preservation and management24
  • 25. P reserving the quality of water resources raises major environmental, sanitary and economic issues for our societies. Aquaticecosystems host a broad variety of animal and vegetal (nitrogen, phosphorus) and pesticides, but also on emerging contaminants such as drug substances, viruses and bacteria.species whose conditions and dynamics are sensitive One way to reduce environmental pollution is toto the chemical, biological and physical composition of develop and implement efficient treatment processeswater. Moreover, water is a vital resource for humans of agricultural and industrial effluents. Conventionaland an essential resource for the development of their treatments have mainly been guided by output watersocieties.Yet, human activities can also be a threat to quality. The current scientific challenge is to designwater quality, because of the substances they release in new processes that meet environmental requirementsthe environment. The degradation of the physico-chemical broader than the sole quality of the effluents processed,and biological qualities of water can induce pathological integrating energy constraints (development of low-risks for human beings. This degradation in turn energy processes, or even bioenergy-producingcompromises the sustainability of human activities and processes). An array of biological, physico-chemical andthe environmental functions of the water resource. The membrane-based processes are being explored.impact of agriculture on water resources is particularlyillustrative of the challenges science has to take up in The evolution of the contaminants in the environmentorder to preserve water quality. Water is increasingly can only be understood by means of analytical researchneeded for agriculture, industrial processes and energy works that examine the processes involved, be theyproduction. But at the same time, agricultural inputs such biological, physical or chemical, and the interactionsas fertilisers and pesticides and industrial effluents are as among processes. In particular, the specific properties ofmany sources of water contamination. In an attempt to each environment (geology, soils, landscape structures,overcome the challenges of production within a context rural and urban developments, etc.) have to be takenof water scarcity, agriculture looks for new practices, into account. The evolution of contaminants with regardsuch as the use of non conventional water (such as to micro-organisms activity, degradation or modificationtreated waste water).Yet, there will be no sustainable of chemical compounds, is also an issue. The effect ofagricultural development without a control of the release contrasted climatic and hydrological conditions on theof contaminating substances and of their mobility in the mobilisation and transport of contaminants is a researchenvironment. In that respect, the use of non conventional topic of upmost importance, especially in Mediterraneanwater may lead to potential contamination of surface and and tropical contexts.underground water, due to the presence of toxic andpathogenic compounds in waste water. Finally, water quality preservation necessitates the design of generic decision-support tools, useable in the longMany of these issues are being tackled by the regional term and over large areas, to evaluate, monitor andscientific community: the development of innovative optimise the effects of human activities on water quality.processes for waste water treatment (industrial, Associated scientific issues concern time and spacedomestic, urban); the understanding and forecasting integration of the processes involved in contaminantsof contaminants concentrations and mobility in evolution. In particular, digital modelling of contaminantshydrosystems; the design of landscape development evolution, life cycle assessment and the developmentand management approaches to limit the scattering of indicators of pollution stresses are areas of majorof contaminants in the environment; the development interest.decision-support tools for risk evaluation and wateruse optimisation. The research efforts concentrate not Jérôme Molénat, Olivier Grünbergeronly on usual contaminants such as metals, fertilisers & Marc Voltz (UMR LISAH) Water resources: preservation and management 25
  • 26. Water quality preservation and restoration Membrane materials Both physical and biological methods are explored to treat water. Physical and processes for water approaches include: treatment intensification  Treatment of organic compounds: • Coupled processes for the treatment The European Membrane Institute of phytosanitary products, endocrine Joint Research Unit – UMR IEM disruptors, drugs and colouring (CNRS, ENSCM, UM2), founded in agents (photocatalysis, enzymatic 1998, is a world-renowned laboratory catalysis, adsorption and membrane specialised in membrane materials processes); and processes. Its research objectives • Separation by pervaporation; are based on a multidisciplinary, • Treatment of the polycyclic aromatic multi-scale approach: hydrocarbons, using ozonation and  Elaboration and characterisation of membrane processes. new membrane materials;  Implementation of such materials  Treatment of mineral pollutions: into membrane-based processes • Selective electro-extraction of metal used in particular for effluent cations in diluted solutions; Main teams treatment, gas separation, and • Boron extraction through biotechnologies related to food and nanofiltration; US Analysis health sciences. • Membrane distillation and reverse Analysis of Water, Soils and Plants (Cirad) osmosis for sea water desalination; 9 scientists IEM comprises three research • Extraction and concentration Director: Daniel Babre departments: of heavy metals with hollow fibre daniel.babre@cirad.fr  Design of membrane materials and membrane contactors. www.cirad.fr/ur/analyses multifunctional systems;  Presentation page 31  Interfaces and physico-chemistry of Coupling of membrane separation UMR IEM polymers; and biological pathways is also European Membrane Institute  Membrane-based process developed in the lab: (CNRS, ENSCM, UM2)  Membrane bioreactor for domestic engineering. 90 scientists effluents; Director: Philippe Miele philippe.miele@iemm.univ-montp2.fr Within a context of increasing water  Treatment of effluents containing www.iemm.univ-montp2.fr demand compounded by the scarcity phenolic compounds using a  Presentation page 26 and degradation of the resource, membrane enzymatic reactor; UMR ITAP IEM develops multifunctional and  Treatment of urban residual water Information – T echnology – Environmental innovative membrane materials coupled with energy production using Analysis – Agricultural Processes and processes to intensify water a membrane reactor. (Irstea, Montpellier SupAgro) treatment. IEM works with a number 40 scientists of industrial and academic partners Moreover, IEM develops innovativeWater resources: preservation and management Director:Tewfik Sari through national and international materials with specific functionalities: tewfik.sari@irstea.fr  Super-hydrophobic membrane for collaborative research programmes. www.irtsea.fr/itap  Presentation page 28 the treatment of water (membrane The following application fields are distillation); UPR LBE specifically targeted:  New membrane synthesised by self- Environmental Biotechnology Laboratory  Water treatment to reach the assembled copolymer blocks; (Inra) required water quality (drinking  Copolymer synthesis for the 23 scientists water, process water, etc.); sorption/complexification of metals Director: Jean-Philippe Steyer  Waste water treatment for in the treatment of industrial waste jean-philippe.steyer@supagro.inra.fr environmental preservation and/ water and the recovery of metals. ••• www4.montpellier.inra.fr/narbonne or reuse of treated water (irrigation,  Presentation page 2926 cooling water, wash water, etc.); ...continued on page 28  Sea water desalination.
  • 27. © D. Lacroix  Industrial effluents have to be treated before their release in the environment (factories near Alexandria in Egypt). > W at e r q u a l i t y a n d e c o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n s Control of the ecological quality of rivers The riparian corridors, associating human activities (agriculture, corridors, with the required precision about the nature and urban development, transport infrastructures, etc.) and natural localisation of the objects (riparian vegetation, buildings, or semi-natural plant formations (prairies, riparian forests), are agricultural plots and associated developments, road factors of control of the ecological and physical conditions of infrastructures…). The land-use maps are then synthesised as rivers. Hence, they constitute key elements to comply with the spatial indicators of environmental pressure. European Water Framework Directive (WFD). The restoration of riparian corridors involves various stakeholders at the local The relations between pressure indicators and water condition level (structures in charge of the management of catchment indicators (biological or physico-chemical indicators) are then basins), district level (Water Agencies) and national level (State). modelled within the framework of the DPSIR conceptual diagram (Driving force, Pressures, State, Impacts, Responses). To facilitate the multi-level and multi-stakeholder decision This modelling approach is original in the way it takes into making process, it is necessary to develop tools to assess the consideration the imbrications between functional levels (the anthropogenic impacts on aquatic environments. The Rhône- station: local level and the catchment basin: global level), and Water resources: preservation and management Méditerranée-Corse water agency has commissioned TETIS to the inherent upstream/downstream dependences in rivers. design methods to characterise the anthropogenic pressures along rivers and to spatially model the relations between these Contacts: pressures and the ecological status of aquatic environments. Flavie Cernesson, flavie.cernesson@teledetection.fr Aurélia Decherf, aurelia.decherf@teledetection.fr TETIS has developed an innovative methodology based on Pascal Kosuth, pascal.kosuth@teledetection.fr “object-oriented” classification, using satellite or airborne Nathalie Lalande, nathalie.lalande@teledetection.fr images with a very high spatial resolution, associated with & Kenji Osé, kenji.ose@teledetection.fr exogenous data. This gives rise to land-use maps of riparian 27
  • 28. Water quality preservation and restoration © S. Ghiotti  Mediterranean rivers are submitted to strong flow rates Environmental impacts of pesticide application techniques. It facilitates the regional seasonal variations, affecting assessment, modelling platform “ecotechnologies for agro- water quality (the Hérault River during summer). and technologies bioprocesses*”, and is a reference centre for agricultural spraying. to serve water quality  Environmental assessment: ITAP develops and implements The Information – Technology – environmental and social impacts Environmental Analysis – assessment tools, based on life cycle Agricultural Processes Joint analysis (LCA) and seeks to optimise the Research Unit – UMR ITAP (IRSTEA, performance of the processes studies. It Montpellier SupAgro) develops facilitates the ELSA cluster network**. the scientific and technical bases Other teams involved to design equipment for a more Here are some examples of ITAP sustainable agriculture and research works in relation to water: UMR EMMAH environment-related services. ITAP’s  FISPRO software: design and Mediterranean Environment and Agro-Hydrosystems Modelling three main areas of research are: optimisation of fuzzy inference systems (Inra, UAPV)  Information and associated (IRSTEA – INRA free software); 40 scientists systems: on the one hand, ITAP  Implementation of control facilities Director: Liliana Di Pietro designs sensors based on optical of new sprayers and associated liliana.dipietro@paca.inra.fr measurements (vision, spectrometry) procedures; www.umr-emmah.fr for the characterisation of  Digital modelling of phytosanitary  Presentation page 14 agrosystems and environmental deposits; UMR G-EAU processes. On the other hand, ITAP  Atomisation of agricultural sprays: Water Management, Stakeholders, Uses develops new indicators derived influence of certain properties of the (AgroParisTech, Irstea, CIHEAM-IAMM, from environmental data (climatic, liquid; Cirad, IRD, Montpellier SupAgro) expert, plot-related, etc.), integrated  Influence of phytosanitary sprayingWater resources: preservation and management 75 scientists in decision-support tools, in order to quality on the transfer of pesticides Director: Patrice Garin patrice.garin@irstea.fr assess the status of agro-ecological into the environment; www.g-eau.net systems.  Phytosanitary products drift in  Presentation page 40  Technologies: development of vineyards: real scale tests in controlled UMR HSM ecotechnologies for sustainable environment; Montpellier HydroSciences agricultural production. New design  DRIFTX model of the atmospheric (CNRS, IRD, UM1, UM2) methods that integrate environmental transfer of pesticides during the 57 scientists constraints are studied: eco- applications of phytosanitary products Director: Éric Servat assessment, eco-design, built-in in vineyards; eric.servat@msem.univ-montp2.fr design. ITAP specifically works on www.hydrosciences.org equipment for the protection and  Presentation page 8 * www.ecotech-lr.org28 maintenance of crops that minimises ** Pôle Environmental Lifecycle and Sustainability ...continued on page 30 the sanitary and environmental Assessment : www.elsa-lca.org
  • 29. > W at e r q u a l i t y a n d e c o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n s Integration of ecological stakes in the management of intermittent Mediterranean rivers The MIRAGE project (Mediterranean Intermittent River resource availability, flood control, water quality and ground manAGEment), involving the HSM JRU, associates fourteen contamination. When applied to Mediterranean catchments, European research institutes, two basin management entities the management solutions developed in the context of non- and a Moroccan university. The objective of the project is to intermittent rivers do not yield the expected results, due to study the applicability of specific management measures of the non-linearity of responses of intermittent rivers and to the flash floods and severe low water levels in Mediterranean absence of reference situations in this type of environment. intermittent rivers, taking into account ecological stakes. It contributes to the enforcement of the European Framework The MIRAGE project addresses the following issues: definition Directive on Water and Aquatic Environments around of indices specific to the hydrology and ecology of these the Mediterranean Sea. It will also give rise to improved rivers; development of solutions to control the dynamics of management and development schemes for catchments of contaminants (organic matter, nutrients and priority substances) intermittent Mediterranean rivers. in water and sediments; control of the effects of floods on the remobilisation of pollutants. These actions are carried Indeed, intermittent rivers of Mediterranean catchments are out on five study sites and integrated in two pilot catchments characterised by a long period of accumulation of pollutants submitted to a broad range of anthropogenic pressures. during the dry period and their fast transfer towards the downstream coastal area during flash floods. The combination Contacts: Marie-George Tournoud, of irregular flow regime and sudden mobilisation of pollutant marie-george.tournoud@univ-montp2.fr masses creates major difficulties for the managers: water & Jochen Froebrich, jochen.froebrich@wur.nl TISCAD software for the traceability of wastes from human activities, LBE research efforts have taken theseof pesticides; be they liquid effluents (especially two scales into account, within the Eco-design and methodologies for from agro-food), solid residues context of sustainable paths. Thethe innovative fabrication of spraying (agricultural residues, domestic objective is to develop remediationmachines; waste and sludge from waste water or valorisation devices for effluents Life cycle analysis of waste water treatment plants), or biomass such and residues, under economic andsanitation plants. as micro- or macro-algae. The regulatory constraints, in order to pollutants transformation processes achieve sober, performing, reliable andFor its experiments, ITAP relies on are carried out by microbial evolving bioprocesses.ReducPol, a 3,000 m² technological communities, whose complexityplatform for spraying systems stems from their composition, LBE develops six main research axes:assessment. ReducPol is one of diversity and functional dynamics.  Research on generic indicators forthe four experimental sites of the The characteristics of these the characterisation of organic matterregional platform “ecotechnologies communities – combined with the and related co-products;for agrobioprocesses”. ITAP also fact that they can only operate in an  Knowledge and role of the biotic/develops industrial relations and “open” environment – have led the abiotic parameters with regard to thepromotes the creation of businesses laboratory to work on the operating services provided;(Lisode, l’Avion Jaune, Oléobois, 3Liz, conditions of the bioprocess, with  Means of action and management ofOndalys…) via its MINEA*** cluster. the aim to orientate the microbial processes and associated ecosystems reactions of transformation. These to act rather than to suffer; developments also take into account  Control of behaviour andTransformation of health innocuousness constraints environmental and sanitary impacts ofpolluting elements (i.e., linked to the presence of the products issued from the treatment pharmaceutical, detergent and/or processes;The Environmental Biotechnology pathogenic residues).  Descriptive/explanatory/predictiveLaboratory Internal Research models in engineering and ecology;Unit – UPR LBE (INRA), located The transformation processes of the  Engineering and eco-design of Water resources: preservation and managementin Narbonne, is attached to the pollutants are studied at different industrial chains.INRA centre of Montpellier from an scales:administrative point of view and to  Sequences: through the These research efforts concern severalthe INRA departments “environment characterisation of kinetics, key domains of competence: microbiology,and agronomy” and “microbiology physiological systems and microbial microbial ecology, biologicaland food chain” from the scientific population dynamics; engineering, process engineering,point of view. It focuses on the  Processes: through the automatic modelling, life cycleconcept of “environmental bio- development of innovative analysis, project and industrial transferrefinery”. processes, the optimisation of engineering. ••• hydrodynamics and bioreactorsFor more than 25 years now, LBE operations, the implementationresearch efforts have been targeting of physico-chemical co-treatment 29the treatment and/or valorisation techniques. *** http://minea.montpellier.cemagref.fr
  • 30. Water quality preservation and restoration > H u m a n - i n d u c e d w at e r p o l l u t i o n Study of chronic water pollution by pesticides: the case of chlordecone in the French Antilles and the Agrosphere Institute in Germany. It aims at studying the contamination of water bodies through:  The identification of the determinants of the molecule release within the soil profile and of its transfer to underground tables: the characteristics of chlordecone adsorption/desorption mechanisms are examined taking into account the type of soil, the quality of the organic matter and the mineral composition. A forecasting model of chlordecone migration is elaborated depending on soils hydrodynamic properties and climatic events.  The identification of sources and dynamics of river © J.B. Charlier contamination at the catchment scale: several measurement  Banana cultivation in the French West Indies. stations have been installed in Guadeloupe to characterise the hydrological behaviour of an elementary basin (20 ha) and of a Chlordecone is an organochlorinated insecticide, used from 1971 resource basin (400 ha). Environmental contamination is analysed to 1993 in the banana tree plantations in the French Antilles. in soils and water of tables and rivers. The transfer pathways and Chlordecone residues are still present in the environment, the dynamics of the pollutants are being modelled. especially in soils. This situation leads to chronic contamination of rivers, underground tables, (including large drinking water These research works will allow identifying the main zones that resources) and even of certain crops. Little is known either about contribute to the pollution and to the evolution of the polluting the dispersion modalities of this pesticide – which is significantly pressure over time at different scales. They will contribute to adsorbed in organic matter-rich soils submitted to tropical diagnose the importance and the short and long terms evolution rainfall – or about the modalities of plant contamination. of underground and surface water contamination. They will help to better understand the chemical stresses suffered by aquatic The Chlordexco project, supported by the National Chlordecone organisms. Finally, they will end up with recommendations for a Plan and the “Contaminants, Ecosystem, Health” programme of better environmental management. ANR, implies the research units HortSys and Systèmes Bananiers of CIRAD, the LISAH JRU (INRA, IRD, Montpellier SupAgro), Contacts: Marc Voltz, marc.voltz@supagro.inra.fr the INRA centre of Guadeloupe, the IRD centre of Martinique & Philippe Cattan, philippe.cattan@cirad.fr LBE is one of the world leading The lab is accredited by the Ministry laboratories in the field of anaerobic of Agriculture to import and analyse digestion. It promotes excellence soils from non-European countries. It in research, thematic plurality, is well-equipped with analysis devices multidisciplinary approaches, such as inductive coupling plasma innovation and technology transfer (ICP), inductive coupling plasma mass (6 patents, 11 licence contracts, spectrometry (ICP-MS), continuous Other teams involved Pollutec Innovation Awards in 2007, flow colorimeters, automatic UR LGEI 2009, 2010). Its facilities cover more granulometers, pH-meter automat Industrial Environment Engineering than 4,700 m², including a 1,900 m² controller, C, H and N elementary Laboratory experimental hall, high performance analysers, atomic absorption (EMA) scientific and analytical equipment, spectrometer with electrothermal 45 scientits Director: Miguel Lopez-Ferber with more than 50 digesters (from atomisation, polarographic chain. miguel.lopez-ferber@mines-ales.fr 1 litre to several cubic meters), www.mines-ales.fr/LGEI running on a 24/7 basis. The lab is also accredited to  Presentation page 12 train students and researchers in UMR LISAH Analysis of minerals analytical techniques. It carries out methodological studies on laboratory Laboratory for the Study of in water and field experiments. It is also Interactions between Soils,Agrosystems and Hydrosystems The Water, Soils and Plants Analyses destined to train, control and evaluate (Inra, IRD, Montpellier SupAgro) Internal Service Unit – US Analyses other analyses laboratories in terms ofWater resources: preservation and management 34 scientits (CIRAD) is an analyses laboratory metrology and quality control. Since Director: Jérôme Molénat with a staff of 19, based in Montpellier. 2000, the lab is certified by the French jerome.molenat@supagro.inra.fr It is specialised in the analysis of Association for the Improvement and www.umr-lisah.fr  Presentation page 15 mineral constituents, including metal Management of Quality according trace elements, in plants, water, soils to the ISO-9001-2008 standards UMR TETIS and other media related to agriculture for four types of services (analysis, Territories, Environment, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information (harvest residues), environment training, expertise and methodological (AgroParisTech, Cirad, Irstea) (waste water treatment plant sludge), developments). With regard to water, 70 scientists or the food industry (table oil). It plays the lab analyses elements present Director: Jean-Philippe Tonneau a cross-disciplinary role by serving in natural water (rivers, lakes, jean-philippe.tonneau@cirad.fr other research units of CIRAD and underground water tables), or in waste http://tetis.teledetection.fr other public institutes (INRA, CNRS, water, including mineral pollutants30  Presentation page 46 IRD, etc.). such as heavy metals. 
  • 31. © M. Soulié  Lowland cultivation in Majorque, Baleares . > H u m a n - i n d u c e d w at e r p o l l u t i o n Monitoring sea water intrusion into coastal aquifers through hydrogeophysics: the Campos Observatory in Majorque (Balearic Islands)The experimental and observation site of Campos (12,000 m²) is The main scientific objectives are:dedicated to the study of sea water intrusion in coastal aquifers.  On site characterisation of the heterogeneous geologicalIt is located within a highly permeable carbonated reef terrain medium, by means of drilling measurement campaigns: geological(Miocene) exhibiting some karstic cavities a few meters in size. structures (wall imagery), petrophysical characterisation onIn this part of the island, intensive farming and irrigation cause cores and in situ (electrical, acoustic, natural radioactivity), flowthe overexploitation of the coastal underground table, leading characterisation through hydrogeophysical methods (flowrate byto sea water intrusion (up to 15 km inside the island), and the spontaneous potential, hydrodispersive behaviour).progressive pollution of underground water by chlorides. The  The continuous drilling-based monitoring of the aquifer usingexperimental site comprises a network of 14 deep drillings a specific instrumentation designed within the laboratory: i) in(100 m on average, plus one 250 m deep), six of which have been geophysics (igeo-SER), for daily measurement of parametersbore drilled. such as electrical resistivity or electrokinetic potential, and ii) in hydrodynamics (Hydreka piezometers or Schlumberger probes),This site has been developed with the support of the Study and for measurement of pressure and temperature fields and ionicPlanning Service of the Water Resource Department (Balearic charge of in situ fluids (using a WestBay multi-packers tubing). Water resources: preservation and managementMinistry of Environment), within the framework of the Europeanproject ALIANCE (5th European Union Framework Programme, The main goal is to study the response of the reservoir to2002-2005) coordinated by the Tectonophysics Laboratory of external stresses, be they anthropogenic, natural or induced byMontpellier, now part of the GM joint research unit. controlled experiments. Recently, a partnership between GM and the imaGeau (Montpellier) and Schlumberger-Westbay (Canada)Currently, the project is monitored by the “transfers in porous companies has allowed the implementation of systematicenvironment” team of GM, in the framework of the OREME observation routines of underground fluids.observatory (see page 13). Contact: Philippe Gouze, gouze@gm.univ-montp2.fr 31
  • 32. Water quality preservation and restoration  Polluted water from the Carnoulès mines.  Water sampling in the Carnoulès River (Gard, France). © M. Héry © O. Bruneel > H u m a n - i n d u c e d w at e r p o l l u t i o n The role of micro-organisms in the transformation of contaminants in aquatic environments Sources of chemical contamination of water have increased control the processes of contaminant transfer into the in amount and nature throughout the last century. They can environment. This is perfectly illustrated by the research be organic or inorganic, and have a natural or anthropogenic works of HSM on acid mine drainages. These research works origin. The purpose of the research works carried out by the have made it possible to partly decipher the biogeochemical HSM JRU is to get a better picture of the mechanisms involved mechanisms involved in the dynamics of metallic and metalloid in the evolution of these chemical contaminants (metals, elements in the hydrosphere downstream from the former metalloids, organometallic compounds, endocrine disruptors, mine of Carnoulès (Gard), which forms part of the OREME medical drug residues, etc.) in the environment, especially in the Observatory (see page 13). Micro-organisms are both actors water cycle. of the generation of acid drainages from mine wastes, by controlling the sulphide oxidation reactions, and actors of Besides the physico-chemical characteristics of the the natural attenuation of water pollution, by promoting iron environment, micro-organisms activity plays a key role in the and arsenic oxidation, leading to their immobilisation in the dynamics of these contaminants, by conditioning their chemical sediments.Water resources: preservation and management form and thus their mobility. Owing to their adaptation capabilities, micro-organisms have developed metabolic or This approach has also been developed to study the transfers detoxification mechanisms enabling them to interact with and ecotoxicity of the metallic and organometallic pollutants chemical contaminants, including xenobiotics. Microbial activity from port sediments, during the ECODREDGE-MED project can lead to the biodegradation of organic forms, to the (funded by FUI). It has also been applied in the study of the modification of chemical forms, or to the immobilisation of the evolution of drug substances in the coastal environment during compounds through precipitation or complexation. the PEPSEA project (funded by ANR). Given the complexity of influencing factors, it is essential to Contacts: Marina Héry, marina.hery@univ-montp2.fr develop multidisciplinary approaches, combining microbiology Corinne Casiot, casiot@msem.univ-montp2.fr and chemistry, in order to understand, forecast and possibly & Hélène Fenet, hfenet@univ-montp1.fr32
  • 33. > H u m a n - i n d u c e d w at e r p o l l u t i o n Household-scale purification system for arsenic-contaminated drinking water in Cambodia and Vietnam A project on the evaluation The high concentration of this element in water (from 40 to of the characteristics of 1,200 µg/l whereas the maximum concentration recommended underground water tables in by WHO for human consumption is around 10 µg/l) is partly zones contaminated by arsenic of anthropogenic origin (pesticides) but essentially natural, in Cambodia and Vietnam, in through simple dissolution from arseniferous pyrites present in order to develop a household- the upstream portion of this large Asian river. In these regions, scale water purification the recently evidenced arsenic toxicity causes skin necrosis system (2009-2010, funded (arsenicosis) which can be lethal. by the Agence Universitaire de la Francophonie) has been The device designed is a simple sand bio-filter, made from ordinary coordinated by the Cambodia materials. It comprises an airing system in the shape of a watering Technological Institute (Pnom- syringe, a nail bed to enrich the iron content and foster the ferric Penh) and operated jointly with hydroxide formation that traps arsenic, a sand filter with increasing the Hochiminh Technological granulometry and a final polishing device made of rice chaff. This University (Vietman) and device is easy to use, to maintain and efficient at household or the CIRAD Analysis lab. The small village scale. For this study, the CIRAD Analysis lab provided objective of the project was to an analytical support for the characterisation of water sampled in design a simple, low-cost and different sites in the two countries and for the validation of the efficient device to lower the efficiency of the device, leading to arsenic concentrations below 10 arsenic content of water taken µg/l post-treatment. © Davin Uu from the underground water table of the Mekong River in Contacts: Daniel Babre, daniel.babre@cirad.fr Cambodia and in Vietnam, used as drinking water by the village & Karine Alary, karine.alary@cirad.fr populations.  Skin disease caused by drinking water contaminated with arsenic in Cambodia.> T r e a t m e n t o f w a s t e w at e r a n d e ff l u e n t sCreativERU project: intensive treatmentand valorisation of urban residual watersThe CreativERU project (collaboration between the research  Strong reduction of the oxygen needs (hence of energyunits IEM, LBE, the Laboratory of Engineering of Biological inputs), through the physical extraction of the organic fraction,Systems and Processes of INSA Toulouse, Veolia Water Research that is further concentrated for easier fermentation;and Innovation) is funded by the ANR “Ecotech” programme,  Optimisation of a significant biogas production;open to French-Chinese collaboration. It concerns the  Optimisation of nutrients treatment to facilitate theirdevelopment of advanced water treatment technologies, more elimination and/or recovery;specifically the treatment of urban effluents. The rather innovative  Demonstration of the possibility to treat urban waste wateraim is to reach very low carbon and water impacts. to produce fresh water of a defined quality, with a positive energy balance and a minimal environmental impact within aThis project should remove the last scientific locks and validate context of sustainable development.at the industrial pilot scale a new intensive path for urban Water resources: preservation and managementwaste water treatment. This treatment enables producing very Such a technology would constitute a real breakthroughhigh quality treated water suitable for direct reuse (as it is compared to existing intensive systems only taking intodisinfected), while reducing the size of the facilities and the account the requirements for treated water quality, withoutoperational costs, or even the equipment costs. consideration for the carbon release (linked to energy consumption) and the advantage of saving water.The aim of the project is to define a new treatment concept,with the following differences from conventional systems: Contacts: Alain Grasmick, Alain.Grasmick@univ-montp2.fr Production of quality treated water using a porous membrane & Jérôme Hamelin, jerome.hamelin@supagro.inra.frfiltration technology, enabling the resource to be reused directly; 33
  • 34. Water quality preservation and restoration  Experimental hall of LBE at INRA Narbonne, France. © J.P. Steyer > T r e a t m e n t o f w a s t e w at e r a n d e ff l u e n t s Environmental assessment of water management and uses: impacts quantification and pollution transfer identification through life cycle analysis (LCA) Regardless of its use – agricultural, household or sanitation – the quality of water >Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) or the efficiency of its use and of its treatment is always a matter of compromise between, on the one hand, the use of the water itself and, on the other hand, the Waste water collection network consumption of material and energy to save or treat the water. Conventionally, Air emission NH3 the efficiency of a waste water treatment plant used to be measured only through NOx N2O the final quality of water back to the environment. Yet, such a treatment generates CO2 ... other environmental impacts during the construction, operation, running and Resources decommissioning of the whole sanitation system. Thus, the reduction of local impacts consumption such as eutrophication of aquatic environments or ecotoxicity in fresh water bodies, STEU are impaired by regional or global impacts linked to the infrastructure and operation of the waste water treatment plant. The environmental LCA is the only assessment Water release © P. Roux Waste, sludge, method able to quantify such impacts over the whole life cycle, from the extraction leachate Performance Re-emission soil, air, water N, P, ETM, CTO, DBO5... level of the raw materials used to the end of life of the systems studied. Associated with local approaches such as environmental impact assessment studies which take into The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an efficient account the specificities of the site, LCA makes it possible to prevent as much and systematic mean to assess the environmental pollution transfers as possible. impact of a product, service or process. The purpose of the “life cycle” principle is to reduce The ELSA* cluster, based in Montpellier, comprising amongst other ITAP, LBE the stresses imparted by a product on the and LGEI research units, works in close collaboration with G-EAU on these resources and on the environment throughout its environmental assessment issues related to water management and use. life cycle, from the extraction of the raw materials Since 2010, a project funded by the National Bureau for Water and Aquatic up to the discarding at the end of life, a cycle often Environments (Office National de lEau et des Milieux Aquatiques), aims at assessing the referred to as “from cradle to grave”. environmental performance of the sanitation system of small and medium size localWater resources: preservation and management LCA is a conceptual framework, a procedure authorities (sanitation networks and waste water treatment plants). Other research (a sequence of standardised steps) and a set efforts related to water uses are in progress within the ELSA cluster: territorial LCA of models allowing the conversion of flows of applied to the management of the Thau Lagoon, to an irrigated area, to water uses of substances discharged or consumed into potential a large city, to the production of micro- and macro-algae (INRA-LBE and Montpellier environmental impacts. SupAgro). The objective of all these works and associated research issues is to better take into account water and its treatment in the LCA, both as a limited resource and  Application of the Life Cycle as an ecological medium. Assessment method to a waste water treatment plant. Contacts: Véronique Bellon-Maurel, veronique.bellon@irstea.fr Philippe Roux, philippe.roux@irstea.fr & Sami Bouarfa, sami.bouarfa@irstea.fr34 * Environmental Lifecycle & Sustainability Assessment (Irstea, Cirad, EMA, Montpellier SupAgro, Inra): www.elsa-lca.org
  • 35. > T r e a t m e n t o f w a s t e w at e r a n d e ff l u e n t sTreatment of industrial effluents for the reuse of water:case of the ceramic industryWater is fast becoming a concern and a major stake for the (1) identification of thecoming decades, due to an increasing consumption in all sectors processes applicableof activity, compounded by the unbalanced renewal of the and feasibility at theresource. This situation is especially critical in Mediterranean laboratory scale,countries. Assuming they can be valorised by means of an (2) modelling and designappropriate treatment, effluents become a resource potentially of a demonstration pilotand economically interesting for industrialists. In this context, system and (3) in situthe utilisation of membrane processes for the treatment of tests and adaptation toeffluents proves to be a solution worthy of attention. the operating conditions with an economic balance.The ceramic industry in Spain is the first in Europe and thesecond in the world. It is concentrated in a small territory The laboratory feasibilityin the province of Castellon, around the city of Castellón de step (IEM) has led tola Plana. The main bottlenecks for the reuse of the effluents couple a microfiltrationfrom this industry stem, on the one hand, from a high content and a nanofiltrationin calcium and sulphate ions and, on the other hand, from process. A demonstrationthe presence of boron salts which are contaminants unfit for pilot system has then © A. Deratinihuman consumption and for the cultivation of citrus fruits. been designed. The in-situ tests and the technico-economic study carried out by IMECAThe Nanoboron project aims at trapping the boron present have validated the approach.in the effluent by membrane separation. It is a collaborationbetween IEM, the Instituto de Technologia Ceramica de Castillon Contact:de la Plana [IMECA], Gardenia Quimicas S.A. and Estudio André Deratini, andre.deratani@iemm.univ-montp2.frCeramico S.L. The project was implemented in three steps:  Pilot machine coupling microfiltration and nanofiltration for the treatment of industrial effluents built by IEM and IMECA PROCESS.> T r e a t m e n t o f w a s t e w at e r a n d e ff l u e n t sPETZECO project: treatment of petrochemical aqueouseffluents through ozone-zeolithe combination O3+O2 FC1 Ozone destruction FC2 The main idea of this project is to use ozone combined O3, gas outlet with innovative zeolithic materials, in order to associate the decomposition capacity of ozone into hydroxyl radicals with [O3]G measurement the adsorption properties of zeolithe. This combination triggers pH [O3]L a synergy and should accelerate the degradation speeds. The measurement controller O3, liq utilisation of a mineral porous solid should guarantee a good T°C resistance to oxidation and maintain long term adsorbing and controller catalytic properties. O3, gas inlet Samples The development of this new zeolithe-type solid mesoporousWater and sediment pollution by polycyclic hydrocarbons is adsorbant/catalyst is one of the major challenges of this Water resources: preservation and managementunquestionable and induces real environmental and health threats. project, since very few studies have been done in this domain.This situation has led the European Commission to classify these The implementation of this catalysts/ozone combination insubstances as priority issues. The conventional operations of an efficient, low cost process is another challenge for thischemical oxidation or adsorption on active carbon show limits project. The chemical and mechanistic aspects will be studiedlinked to cost and implementation. Advanced oxidation processes in depth to target the most interesting functionalities of theare suited to the degradation of the bio-refractory or toxic solid during the zeolithe synthesis. The parameters used to sizecompounds, owing to the use of hydroxyl radicals. The aim of the the oxidation process in different configurations are studied inresearch efforts made within the framework of the PETZECO depth (from fluidised bed to the membrane-based separationproject (collaboration between IEM, the Montpellier Charles of the catalyst). The ultimate goal of the project is to useGerhardt Institute, the Chemical Engineering Laboratory of monolithic materials that contain the new catalyst on realINSA Toulouse and Total) is to design a leading technique for the petrochemical effluents.treatment of difficult industrial waste water. 35 Contact: Stephan Brosillon, stephan.brosillon@univ-montp2.fr
  • 36. Water quality preservation and restoration > W a s t e a n d t r e at e d w a s t e w at e r v a l o r i s a t i o n The BIORARE project: bioelectrosynthesis for residual waste refining BIORARE is a collaborative project that involves the IRSTEA research units “Hydrosystems and Bioprocesses” and “Environmental Engineering and Biological Treatment of Wastes”, the joint research unit “Chemical Engineering Laboratory” (CNRS, INPT, UPS), the INRA research unit LBE and the company Suez-Environnement. It focuses on the modalities of use of the concept of “microbial electro-synthesis” for the bio- refining of wastes and effluents. This recent discovery allowed the production of high value-added molecules using organic matter and energy present in wastes. © T. Bouchez The main idea consists in using the technology of the bio- electro-chemical systems, not to produce electricity as in “bio-energizer”, but to orientate the metabolic reactions of the bioprocess towards the production of molecules of interest, usable in green chemistry. These microbial electro-synthesis  Illustration of the bioelectrosynthesis concept. systems offer essential advantages:  Physical separation between a “dirty” compartment that receives the organic matter to be treated and a “clean” validated experimentally at laboratory scale. Multidisciplinary compartment in which the synthesis of the molecule of interest approaches shall be combined in order to better understand takes place; and appreciate the technological potential of these systems.  Possibility to orientate the metabolic flows and to select the In parallel, there will be an environmental assessment of the oxidation reactions that occur at the cathode, through voltage strategies used to couple these systems to the existing industrial regulation. facilities. This work will be carried out on the basis of reference scenarios which will allow the identification of environmentally In order to elaborate a detailed specification for the application sensitive components, in order to orientate the technical or of microbial electro-synthesis, the key components will be industrial choices. Finally, an economic, societal and regulatory identified as well as the specifications associated with the analysis shall be undertaken to achieve a better definition of the elaboration of a subsequent industrial development strategy. First, future industrial development strategies. The intellectual property it will be necessary to strengthen the microbial electro-synthesis right measures will be taken whenever necessary. scientific and technical bases. The relations between the operating conditions and the molecules effectively synthesised will be Contact: Nicolas Bernet, nicolas.bernet@supagro.inra.fr > W a s t e a n d t r e at e d w a s t e w at e r v a l o r i s a t i o n Treated waste water for irrigation: towards better risk assessment The world faces a problem of water scarcity caused by global of viruses in the environment, notably with a substitute to the warming, demographic growth and diversification of water uses. hepatitis A virus (mice Mengovirus). It wishes to extend its work to The reuse of treated waste water could be one of the solutions the Norovirus responsible for most of the viral gastroenteritis, or to this problem. It makes it possible to use in priority conventional even to the Rotavirus responsible for the same disorders in children. waters for uses that require high quality, and to prevent the It looks into the evolution of this virus in the soils, at the surface overexploitation and salinisation of coastal aquifers. The treated and in the atmosphere. It will also look into the evolution of waste water used for irrigation is therefore not discharged in certain antibiotic-resistant bacteria detected at the inlet and outlet rivers, in the aquifers or in the sea, and the agriculture benefits of waste water treatment plants, as well as into the effects of the from its fertilising potential (nitrogen and phosphates). However, salinity of waste water on the structural stability of soils. EMMAH the use of treated waste water for irrigation induces environmental uses various methods and develops models that couple differentWater resources: preservation and management and health risks. It could contain various toxic compounds harmful processes: site visits with reuse of the treated waste water, in-situ to the flora, fauna and humans, as well as human enteric pathogens. and laboratory experiments, analysis of the processes underlying Its salinity may cause soil degradation. The risks depend on the the evolution of the pathogens studied. origin of the water, its treatment, its management, the health condition of the populations, etc. The final objective is to gain a better knowledge of the processes associated with the evolution of certain viruses and bacteria in the EMMAH is currently taking part in a European survey about environment, to integrate this knowledge in mechanistic models the use of treated waste water with regard to practices, risks and finally to develop decision-support tools for public authorities. qualification and quantification, epidemics linked to water quality, Through this project, EMMAH will also be involved in the setting evolution of pollutants and pathogens in the environment, up of new warning sensors. regulations with their advantages and their implementation36 difficulties. EMMAH has initiated research efforts on the evolution Contact: Pierre Renault, pierre.renault@avignon.inra.fr
  • 37. F. Molle © IRD Traditional irrigation system in Syria. Ressources en eau : préservation et gestion 37 Water resources: preservation and management
  • 38. T. Ruf © IRD  Traditional water management system for irrigation in Morocco. Management of resources and uses: institutions, territories and societiesWater resources: preservation and management38
  • 39. T he scarcity of such a vital resource as water, to supply societies and their livestock, irrigate their crops or produce energy, ledthese societies to draw up rules for water access and The scope and variety of the regional scientific community’s work extends beyond WDM per se. It makes the best use of its many assets to:sharing. The study of such initiatives falls within the  Contribute to drawing up public environmental policies,scope of economics, management and social sciences. especially streamlining them with territorial economicNevertheless, attempting to reverse this natural development and planning policies. This involves analysisresource depletion and degradation trend through of conditions for the governance of water resources,human and social sciences has long been questioned, and uses and services in order to meet objectives concerningeven subjected to controversy. the quality of water and aquatic environments, that are shared by stakeholders at adapted territorial scales andThe harshness of the debate on whether priority should to come up with renewed terms and conditions forbe given to hydrological or social sciences has calmed management and consultation.down as awareness has increased on the growing  Design a wide range of regulatory, economic,scarcity of the resource, with the drying up of rivers, institutional or technical instruments that could enhancestreams and wetlands during dry seasons, followed by the implementation and effectiveness of environmentalwater-use conflicts, particularly acute in Mediterranean policies at the “water territory” level. Innovations inand semi-arid regions. this domain are notably dependent on the development of modelling and simulation platforms for the studyIndeed, the “water demand management” concept of interactions between biophysical mechanisms and(WDM) implies that saving water is an essential decision-making processes and between the differentprerequisite to mobilising new or alternative resources, levels of management and decision.so as to be able to balance management of water  Most of the research units are involved in internationalresources and associated uses. Implementation of the projects including Mediterranean areas and thusWDM concept was acclaimed by water managers frequently deal with risk management and territorialfrom the Mediterranean countries during a workshop vulnerability with regard to flood and drought. Accordingin Fréjus (France) in 1997. Some authors recommend to forecasts of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climateavoiding water wastage, or saving water within each Change (IPCC), these extreme events are likely tousage category, by adopting tailored technologies and increase, so it is all the more necessary to enhance theincentives. Inter-sectoral management of water is also resilience and medium-term adaptability of these areas.advocated, for example, by transferring water usagerights from one sector to another, depending on the A brief glimpse at the lines of research and projectspriorities of the competing uses. carried out by the research units that are covered in this chapter clearly highlights two features of the researchScientists now assess these issues from economic, social work:and management sciences standpoints, in order to  The territory, which is the relevant scale forunderstand, formalise or regulate individual or collective environmental and other public policies implementation,water allocation and consumption behaviours and thus is almost systematically the focal point of the research.achieve water savings on an adequate scale. This is Observatories, governance and spatial informationcertainly a break from existing approaches considering, management are thus items of growing importance.in addition to initiatives necessary for mobilising water  The research is carried out at the interface of severalresources, those that impact demand at different inter- disciplines, either internally within multidisciplinarysectoral scales. research units, or through collaborations, giving evidence of the recent astounding development of multidisciplinaryReflecting a new way of considering water resources works among hydrological, economical, management andmanagement, this change in paradigm is being increasingly social sciences.adopted by stakeholders in this domain. This approach is Water resources: preservation and managementnow privileged in regulatory texts such as the European With these qualities and the backing of the “Water”Water Framework Directive (WFD, 2000), the first to competitiveness cluster, the regional scientific communitybe so widely based on economic concepts. It imposes would appear to be in a good position to contribute toa minima incentives to save water through pricing meeting the challenges to satisfy the society’s needs whileinstruments, while recommending concerted management preventing water resource degradation.and the introduction of public participation. Thierry Rieu (UMR G-Eau) 39
  • 40. Management of resources and uses: institutions, territories and societies The sustainable (1) regulation of natural or artificial systems for “real-time” operational management of water management; 2) analysis and resources: stakeholders assessment of the impact of overall changes in the strategic management and uses of man-made basins (larger time scales). The tools and initiatives Main teams The “Water Management, range from the production of data in UMR ART -Dev Stakeholders, Uses” Joint Research the field to physical modelling. Stakeholders, Resources and Territories Unit – UMR G-EAU (AgroParisTech, in the Development Process IRSTEA, CIHEAM-IAMM, CIRAD, The second line of research, (CNRS, UM3, Cirad, UM1, UPVD) IRD, Montpellier SupAgro) “public policies, management 55 scientists aims at building knowledge and of water-associated services and Director: Geneviève Cortès genevieve.cortes@univ-montp3.fr identifying levers for sustainable risks”, deals not only with public http://recherche.univ-montp3.fr/artdev water resources management. The action, regulation and multilevel  Presentation page 48 priority is given to the European governance, but also with UMR ESPACE-DEV and African continents, with a behaviours and vulnerability in Spatial Analysis for Development special focus on the Mediterranean risk situations. As regards public (IRD, UM2, UAG, UR) basin. Multidisciplinary action, interest is particularly 60 scientists approaches are being developed, focused on (i) installations and Director: Frédéric Huynh bringing together earth sciences analysis of institutional dynamics frederic.huynh@ird.fr (hydrology, hydraulics), engineering in the implementation of collective www.espace-dev.fr (automation, fluid mechanics), life actions; (ii) construction and role  Presentation page 47 sciences (agronomy, hydrobiology) of observatories and indicators in UMR G-EAU and social sciences (economics, the water domain; (iii) regulation Water Management, Stakeholders, Uses sociology, political science). and sustainability of water utilities (AgroParisTech, Irstea, Ciheam-IAMM, Cirad, Modelling is a mediator between and iv) economic and institutional IRD, Montpellier SupAgro) 75 scientists disciplines, research workers and approaches and relations between Director: Patrice Garin stakeholders. G-EAU research agriculture and services provided patrice.garin@irstea.fr activities are structured along three by hydrosystems. Concerning www.g-eau.net lines, plus a cross-sectoral training behaviours, the aim is to qualify the  Presentation page 40 activity. demand for water in its different UMR GRED uses so as to assess their sensitivity Governance, Risk, Environment, The first line of research, “from to different forms of regulation Development operational management to the or to analyse the socioeconomic (IRD, UM3) analysis of resource allocation dimensions of vulnerabilities in risk 59 scientists scenarios”, aims to improve situations (floods, pollution).Water resources: preservation and management Director: Francis Laloë management of scarce water francis.laloe@ird.fr resources, mainly through a Research along line three – “irrigated www.gred.ird.fr  Presentation page 42 quantitative biophysical approach, agriculture” – deals with irrigation while the qualitative aspects are practices from equipments to UPR GREEN addressed from a hydro-biological irrigated areas with a focus on farms, Renewable Resources Management and Environment standpoint. G-EAU is interested through three topics: (i) analysis (Cirad) in water in regions hampered by of the physical processes for the 14 scientists shortages, should the resource be design and sustainability of irrigation Director: Martine Antona rapidly-moving (rivers, pipelines), equipment; (ii) multicriteria and martine.antona@cirad.fr slowly-moving (aquifers) or multiscale evaluation of irrigated www.cirad.fr/ur/green temporarily stored (dams). The systems performances and (iii)  Presentation page 49 management issues are addressed support for technical and institutional40 ...continued on page 42 according to two approaches: innovations in irrigated areas. •••
  • 41. T. Ruf © IRD  Dried soil in the Tafilalet Valley, Morocco.> P r e v e n t i o n a n d m a n a g e m e n t o f w at e r - r e l a t e d r i s k sDroughts and conflictsClimate change will increase the frequency of extreme climatic natural factors in the emergence of conflicts (published inevents, such as droughts, floods and hurricanes. These climatic Nature, for example). Previous research works focused on theanomalies could have disastrous consequences for countries link between short-term climatic anomalies and the occurrencealready affected by poor drinking water supply and those of civil wars, using raw data of precipitation and temperature. Independing mainly on local agriculture. Given that agricultural other words, only climatic “shocks” were taken into account andactivities represent 60 to 100 % of the income of the poorest no consensus could be found among scientists about a formalAfrican households and that these households often have no link between conflicts and climatic conditions. Using the Palmer*access to drinking water, Sub-Saharan Africa is one of the regions drought index, LAMETA has considered drought as a “stock”in the world the most sensitive to climate change. Today, there (of water and consequently food) rather than as a temporalis consensus about the fact that drought (and desertification) climatic shock. This index is particularly well-adapted to evaluateis one of the causes of the civil war in Darfur, by increasing the consequences of climatic variations on agricultural activities Water resources: preservation and managementthe tensions around the use of arable land and water. It can and considers drought as a cumulative phenomenon. The resultstherefore be suggested that climate may generate conflicts by obtained in this way show a positive relationship betweenincreasing competition for resources. drought and civil war and, unlike previous studies, are highly statistically significant.The LAMETA JRU analyses the links between climate andconflicts occurrence in Sub-Saharan Africa. This research comes Contact: Raphael Soubeyran, soubeyra@supagro.inra.frwithin the framework of emerging studies about the role of * See Palmer,W., 1965. Meteorological drought. Research Paper 45, US Dept. of Commerce 41
  • 42. Management of resources and uses: institutions, territories and societies > P r e v e n t i o n a n d m a n a g e m e n t o f w at e r - r e l a t e d r i s k s Preventing and combating floods, pollution and marine submersion in Languedoc-Roussillon and Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur HYDROGUARD*, a 2009-2012 project approved by the “Risks” competitiveness cluster, aims at developing a reliable, autonomous and automated monitoring system for the follow-up of watercourses and coastlines of the Languedoc-Roussillon and Provence- Alpes-Côte dAzur regions. More generally, it aims at supporting local authorities in the sustainable management of water bodies and territories. The devices can be fixed on buoys or set up in sensitive areas, or transported in a mobile form to be installed in varying zones at times of alert. To ensure the profitability of the investment, the devices, equipped with detectors/ sensors, onboard communication and computer systems, are not only used upon alerts (floods or storms), but also under normal circumstances to detect pollutions, to monitor the evolution of water bodies and coastlines, or even to measure erosion or any other relevant indicator. This equipment could thereby be used in monitoring strategies, in alert systems (particularly in situations of flood or marine submersion) and in the management of water bodies. This new system is consistent with European and national regulations, as well as with existing standards. In case of alert, this system is an ideal tool for anticipating actions, contributing to decision-making and orienting rescue teams, thanks to the information captured by its detectors/sensors. In normal situations, the system can be used to pass on relevant information to government departments and services, local authorities, private individuals, industrial site managers and service operators. The system’s originality lies in its decentralisation, its proximity, its redundancy and its inter-operability with other existing systems (CEMER, ALADIN…).  Gestion de leau au Maroc. This project targets the municipal scale on two pilot sites (the city of Alès and municipalities around Étang de Thau). These areas are representative of issues linked to water bodies management, rapid flood risks, lagoon and marine submersion and dune ridge rupture, with important human and economic factors at stake. 2D/3D visualisation tools will be connected to the system to allow displaying the monitored areas using suitable visualisation flows. Data collected by the sensors will be synthesised in real-time to properly inform end users. Contacts: Pierre-Alain Ayral, pierre-alain.ayral@mines-ales.fr © UMR LGEI & Catherine Gonzalez, catherine.gonzalez@mines-ales.fr * HYDROGUARD: Autonomous equipment and technologies for the optimised management of the means of prevention of floods, pollutions and marine submersion in LR and PACA.  HYDROGUARD experimental measurement device. G-EAU has four experimental Water resource governance sites: the laboratory for irrigation equipment research and studies, the and management Main teams Gignac Canal for canal regulation and UMR LAMETA the Merle and La Valette estates for The “Governance, Risk, Environment, Montpellier Laboratory of Theoretical studies on water and solute transfers Development” Joint Research Unit – and Applied Economics under irrigation. UMR GRED (IRD, UM3) studies (CNRS, Inra, Montpellier SupAgro, UM1) the relationships that societies and 50 scientists G-EAU contributes to the SICMED their individual members develop Director: Jean-Michel SallesWater resources: preservation and management sallesjm@supagro.inra.fr Programme (Continental Surfaces with the environment. This field www.lameta.univ-montp1.fr and Interfaces in the Mediterranean of investigation relates to “socio-  Presentation page 44 Basin, see page 10). Its main environmental issues”, linking UMR TETIS partners at the international governance and environment. The Territories, Environment, Remote level are the Wageningen scientific objective is to understand Sensing and Spatial Information University and Delft University how the new constraints and (AgroParisTech, Cirad, Irstea) of Technology (Netherlands), vulnerabilities modify the governance 70 scientists UFZ (Umweltforschungszentrum) and the management of territories Director: Jean-Philippe Tonneau in Leipzig (Germany), CSIRO and resources. jean-philippe.tonneau@cirad.fr (Commonwealth Scientific and http://tetis.teledetection.fr  Presentation page 46 Industrial Research Organisation) GRED is structured along three42 and Australian National University lines of research: (1) Biodiversity ...continued on page 44 (Australia). conservation and the dynamics
  • 43. of rural systems; (2) Governance The “Social water management” team historic nature of the trajectories and and management of resources focuses on rural societies, studying situations. It focuses more specifically and territories; (3) Risks and transformations that affect them on the strategies of individual and vulnerability of societies and in the context of growing pressure collective stakeholders who are territories. Cross-sectoral themes on water resources and a changing hampered by the existing institutional relate to specific topics (conflicts economic and socio-political frameworks while intervening at and access to resources…) and/or environment. different levels to facilitate changes. environments (forests…) common to the three lines of research. Research This research specifically focuses on The team also works on defining on water comes under the second issues about water resource sharing public policy, and thus on the State line. Indeed, water and hydrosystem and the decision-making power as a pivotal stakeholder in the governance represents both a priority between the public, private and transformation of water regimes focus for public development policies community stakeholders. It deals and the introduction of formal rules and a strategic challenge with respect with modes of coordination and and incentive structures. It thus to societies’ dynamics, as revealed mediation of stakeholders facing questions the social distribution of by the frequent conflicts associated repeated water-use conflicts, thus the costs and benefits attached to the with access to territorial resources inducing changes and innovations. different public policy options and the and discrimination surrounding this This is a contextualised and process- ideological and cognitive dimensions access. based approach, anchored in the of public policies. ••• > P r e v e n t i o n a n d m a n a g e m e n t o f w at e r - r e l a t e d r i s k s Economic evaluation of flood management policies with cost-benefit / avoided damage tools The French government requires that policies implemented in the framework of flood management be systematically assessed for their economic relevance. To this end, the TETIS JRU develops a cost-benefit analysis tool, based on the method of avoided damage for contracting authorities. Such a tool produces various spatial indicators to compare the economic effectiveness of different policies implemented to prevent flood. These indicators rely on an estimation of the potential damage linked to different high water scenarios, obtained by crossing random spatial data with information about risk level, land use and usage vulnerability. The control of uncertainties linked to this tool is an essential point of its performance and usefulness. IRSTEA, a leader in the development of this kind of tools in France, in partnership with AgroParisTech, UM2, and the Plan Rhône partners, has developed a framework for the analysis of uncertainties and consequent sensitivity of economic indicators. This scientific collaboration is designed to facilitate transfer of the knowledgeN. Saint-Geours © UMR TETIS produced towards the operational world, through a methodological guide and a computerised tool for the analysis of costs-benefits, uncertainties and associated sensitivities. The project also explores purely scientific issues like the crossed influence of the nature and spatial extent of input data on the resolution Water resources: preservation and management of output indicators. The results obtained will guide the State or Plan  Model for damage assessment during flood events Rhône future strategies on data collection to implement cost-benefit in the Orb Valley (Hérault, France): the blue form analyses. is a map of submersion levels in the low Orb Valley (darkest colour = highest water level). Contacts: Graphics represent respectively sensitivity indexes Nathalie Saint-Geours, nathalie.saint-geours@teledetection.fr of the various input data used in the model (on the Jean-Stéphane Bailly, bailly@teledetection.fr left) and uncertainty about total damages caused by & Frédéric Grelot, frederic.grelot@irstea.fr the flood, calculated using a cost-benefit analysis– avoided damages model (on the right). 43
  • 44. Management of resources and uses: institutions, territories and societies© K. Erdlenbruch  Irrigation in Lot (France). Other teams involved Economics to improve  Theoretical microeconomics UR EAU/NRE and public economics approaches Water: New Resources and Economics agricultural water to analyse the efficiency of water (BRGM) management management tools and mechanisms 14 scientists proposed in situations where Director: Jean-Christophe Maréchal The “Montpellier Laboratory information is lacking between jc.marechal@brgm.fr agricultural users and public  Presentation page 16 of Theoretical and Applied Economics” Joint Research Unit – authorities and when water resources UMR HSM UMR LAMETA (CNRS, INRA, are uncertain. Within the framework Montpellier HydroSciences of the European NOVIWAM project Montpellier SupAgro, UM1) (CNRS, IRD, UM1, UM2) works, among other themes, on (Novel Integrated Water Management 57 scientists Director: Éric Servat “sustainable development and Systems for Southern Europe), new eric.servat@msem.univ-montp2.fr natural resource management” forms of pricing have been developed www.hydrosciences.org policies. In particular, LAMETA which provide incentives for farmers to  Presentation page 8 develops economic instruments for “book” their required irrigation water UMR ITAP the improvement of qualitative and volumes in advance, so as to guarantee Information – T echnology – Environmental quantitative water management the availability of the resource. Analysis – Agricultural Processes relative to agricultural activities. (Irstea, Montpellier SupAgro)  Experimental economics 40 scientists LAMETA works in collaboration approaches, either in the laboratory Director:Tewfik Sari with several other research units or in the field with water users, give a tewfik.sari@irstea.fr of the regional community: LISAH better picture of their reactions to the www.irtsea.fr/itap  Presentation page 28 for hydrological aspects, SYSTEM proposed instruments. These “testbed for agronomic aspects, G-EAU experiments” tools are used to assess UMR LISAH for social aspects and systems the behaviour of economic agents Laboratory for the Study of Interactions between Soils,Agrosystems modelling. Over the past five years, with respect to public intervention. and Hydrosystems LAMETA has also strengthened LAMETA has an experimental (Inra, IRD, Montpellier SupAgro) its international cooperation economics laboratory on the Richter Water resources: preservation and management 34 scientists network, especially with various site (LEEM, Montpellier) and a Director: Jérôme Molénat Australian institutions (Ministry mobile laboratory to facilitate field jerome.molenat@supagro.inra.fr of Primary Products of Victoria experiments. www.umr-lisah.fr State, University of Melbourne,  Presentation page 15 University of Western Australia,  Integrated modelling approaches, UR LGEI Australian National University, requiring coordination with Industrial Environment University of Sydney), which other disciplines (hydro-geology, Engineering Laboratory agronomy, ecology, etc.), are usually involves researchers and Ph.D. (EMA) students exchanges in both based on in-depth field studies. 45 scientists Director: Miguel Lopez-Ferber directions. These models take into account the miguel.lopez-ferber@mines-ales.fr interdependences between land-use www.mines-ales.fr/LGEI LAMETA research on water patterns, territorial planning and water 44  Presentation page 12 combines three approaches: management programmes. •••
  • 45. > P r e v e n t i o n a n d m a n a g e m e n t o f w at e r - r e l a t e d r i s k sRISECO project: resources economicsfor the management of water scarcity and drought riskRecently, France has been confronted to several drought Different economic instruments are analysed and compared inperiods (2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2011) recalling the important terms of efficiency for the management of water shortages. Forimpact of this phenomenon on agriculture, main water example, the project proposes to analyse the role of irrigationconsuming sector and economically the most affected one. and harvest guarantees in the management of drought risk byIn a number of places, prolonged droughts induced structural farmers. It assesses how “water rights” can promote a shareshortages, with low water levels in reservoirs or water tables of both resource and risk. It evaluates the interest of “waterused for irrigation. Moreover, most global warming scenarios rights” systems, with different water supply guarantee levels,forecast more frequent drought occurrences. Thus, providing enabling farmers to build up a more or less sure “portfoliotools to efficiently regulate water demand appears to be of of rights”, depending on the way they manage shortage risks.prime importance. Finally, it proposes an original method of water pricing, based on a varying water price depending on uncertainty about theThe RISECO project (funded by ANR) proposes to carry out availability of the resource. These questions have practical fieldan economic analysis of water shortage issues and related risks applications, for the management of extractable volumes or forin France. It brings together economists from the G-EAU and water pricing by regional development companies.LAMETA JRUs, IRSTEA, INRA and Montpellier SupAgro. Theproject is based upon dynamic modelling methods, econometric Contact:analysis and experimental economics. Katrin Erdlenbruch, katrin.erdlenbruch@irstea.fr For more information: https://riseco.cemagref.fr  Decree about limitation of water use in France in July 2011. Water resources: preservation and management 45
  • 46. Management of resources and uses: institutions, territories and societies > P r e v e n t i o n a n d m a n a g e m e n t o f w at e r - r e l a t e d r i s k s Systems for the allocation of agro-environmental contracts to limit the water pollution by pesticides The POPSY project “Field crops “Ecophyto2018” support policies and to propose more effective production systems, Environment, ones. Public policies” (2009-2013) is funded by ANR and coordinated by Within this project, LAMETA particularly studies the reasons the “Public economics” research why territorialised agro-environmental measures for pesticide unit of INRA Versailles-Grignon. reduction are left ahead by stakeholders in territories where It brings together economists “water” is a strong stake. It experiments new systems for and agronomists. The aim of this the allocation of individual or collective agro-environmental project is (1) to develop methods contracts, which are more effective and more motivating for for the design of ecologically- farmers (especially the vine growers of Languedoc-Roussillon). performing production systems, LAMETA also participates in a pilot experiment, with the using less pesticide, (2) to study Artois-Picardie Water Agency, of contracts allocation for the socio-economic conditions permanent green cover through auctions. ie is-Picard for the emergence, the development and the adoption Contacts: Sophie Thoyer, thoyer@supagro.inra.fr au Arto of such systems and (3) to Raphaele Preget, preget@supagro.inra.fr assess the impact of current & Laure Kuhfuss, kuhfuss@supahro.inra.fr ce de l’e© Agen  Auction advertisement for the creation of herbal covers published in the document of presentation of the “water and agriculture” programme of Agence de l’Eau Artois-Picardie. Managing spatial and temporal dynamics of these In the agriculture domain, the study environments (hydro-morphology of of plant water stress represents information to gain the watercourses, spatial distribution an important field of research for insight into and manage of habitats, etc.) while quantifying assessing agricultural production the pressures upon them. Spatial and enhancing water management. resources, environments analysis and modelling are used to Research is focused on the evaluation and territories study the natural and anthropogenic of stress indices derived from phenomena involved (sediment aerial or satellite images or close- dynamics, monitoring vegetation in up infrared and thermal infrared The “Territories, Environment, rivers, lakes and lagoons; modelling imagery, and surface temperature Remote Sensing and Spatial of pressures/status). measurements. Some research is Information” Joint Research also carried out on irrigated areas in Unit – UMR TETIS (AgroParisTech, TETIS is developing satellite and the sub-Saharan region, focused on CIRAD, IRSTEA) aims to develop airborne methods for watercourses strategies for water access and use in spatial information management monitoring. Watercourse depths a limited land setting. methods to enhance knowledge are mapped using optical imagery and management of environments and airborne LIDAR measurements, As part of an integrated approach and territories. TETIS conducts in order to feed hydro-biological to public policies for territorial conceptual, methodological and models simulating the functioning of planning and management, TETIS thematic research using an integrated habitats. Radar techniques (imagery, and the Syndicat Mixte du Bassin approach to the information chain: altimetry, interferometry) and de Thau carried out a research acquisition – notably by satellite – of associated mathematical methods project on the analysis and design spatial data; the spatio-temporal are developed in collaboration of territorial observatories. This analysis and modelling of agro- with CNES (Centre National work deals with spatial modelling environmental and territorial d’Études Spatiales) and ONERA (the of complex phenomena (urban systems; design and management French Aerospace Lab) to quantify spread, water management) and the Water resources: preservation and management of information systems; processes watercourse surface variables (width, role of information in governance for the appropriation and use of water level, slope and speed), and processes: functions and uses of spatial information by territorial deduce the hydraulic parameters of spatial representations in support of stakeholders. the bottom and estimate flow rates. territorial consultation (3D models, mapping according to stakeholders), TETIS carries out research on the TETIS is developing radar imagery collection and legitimisation of local characterisation and management (active microwave data) to quantify knowledge and know-how, analysis of aquatic environments and their soil features such as moisture – of the emergence and increasing biodiversity. Satellite imagery – information which is essential for autonomy of the territories, etc. notably with very high spatial physical modelling of hydrological TETIS is also undertaking work on resolution – supplements the field processes or for combining surface- the spatial sensitivity of methods for measurement devices and provides atmosphere parameters in a climate economic evaluation of flood risk 46 an overview of the spatial structures change setting. management policies.
  • 47. Spatialisation continental hydrological cycle into the hydrological resources and and validating these estimates by characterise the associated extreme of environmental comparison between different spatial phenomena. The study aims to analyse knowledge for the sensors, using in situ measurements the impacts of low-water level and and/or modelling. flooding phenomena on communities sustainable development and their living conditions and to of territories  The programme “Spatial data evaluate the mitigation potential. assimilation for the hydrological The project will highlight potential The “Spatial Analysis for analysis of the Amazon Basin and adaptation strategies of local Development” Joint Research Unit – short- and medium-term forecasting” inhabitants (notably on the edge of the UMR ESPACE-DEV (IRD, UM2, UAG, aims to implement a rainfall-flow Maroni river). The project proposes to UR) is developing and implementing type hydrological model tailored to define and develop many vulnerability innovative methodologies for the large tropical basins (cooperation and resilience indicators and provide spatialisation of environmental between IRD and Brazilian decision-making assistance. knowledge for the sustainable institutions and universities). development of territories, from data  The programme “Alternatives to the acquisition to the decision-making  The programme “Extreme evaluation of the ecological quality process. The aim is to contribute hydrological phenomena in French of watercourses in French Guiana: to the emergence of networks of Guiana: forecasts, impacts and the contribution of remote sensing” environment observatories for adaptation” is focused on one of the involves the regular control of the sustainable development. three large regions of the world in quality of watercourses, subjected to which the per-capita water supply increasing anthropogenic pressures ESPACE-DEV is involved in the is the highest. As a result of marked (notably linked to illicit gold mining), water domain through research seasonal variations, French Guiana in order to comply with the European and transfer programmes, notably is hampered with extreme low-water Water Framework Directive. This in cooperation with developing or flooding phenomena, which can type of surveillance of the rivers and countries: lead to breakdowns in drinking water other watercourses is difficult since supplies or severe high-water levels, it is impossible to carry out regular  The programme “Flood flows and which affects the habitats situated sampling throughout most of French mass variations: the case of the along river banks. The primary Guiana due to access constraints. This Amazon Basin” aims at estimating, objective of the project is to develop project explores new methods for through spatial measurements, operational forecasting and risk remote control of the state of sites that seasonal and inter-annual variations assessment tools for high- and low- are hard to reach. ••• in the different reservoirs of the water levels, to gain a better insight > P r e v e n t i o n a n d m a n a g e m e n t o f w at e r - r e l a t e d r i s k s Hydrological dynamics and malaria in Amazonia In close collaboration with entomologists and epidemiologists from French Guiana and Brazil, ESPACE-DEV focuses on the notion of spatiality, from the acquisition of data up to their interpretation, to develop applications and decision-support tools. A study, based on wetlands mapping, showed that at the Amazon Basin scale, rivers and flooding areas hydrological dynamics constitute one of the main natural factors controlling malarial incidence. On a smaller scale, in French Guiana, significant correlations were found between An. darlingi abundance and hydrological dynamics on two sites studied out of three, while significant correlations with precipitations are found in only one case. However, the role played by hydrological dynamics and their seasonal and annual variability on the epidemic and endemic© J.F. Faure  The Sinnamary River character of malaria depends on regions and landscapes of Water resources: preservation and management in French Guyana. Amazonia, according to still poorly understood processes. In an attempt to decipher the complexity of these processes, ESPACE- Water is generally associated with the presence of mosquitoes – DEV studies the relationship between socio-environmental factors including the species Anopheles, a malaria vector. But malaria and malaria in the region of Manaus, following a multi-scale and transmission risk depends on a set of complex biological, ecological, multi-disciplinary approach. This project, funded by the Brazilian climatic and societal mechanisms. In this respect, identifying and National Centre for Scientific and Technological Research (CNPq), modelling the transmission mechanisms in time and space, in order involves Brazilian, American and French teams. to predict the level of “health risk”, remains a challenge. Research efforts are usually mainly limited to one vector (Anopheles darlingi, Contacts: Emmanuel Roux, emmanuel.roux@ird.fr the most efficient one in Amazonia), to specific environmental, Laurent Durieux, laurent.durieux@ird.fr climatic and societal conditions, and at given temporal and spatial Naziano Filizola, naziano.filizola@gmail.com scales. Wanderli Pedro Tadei, tadei@inpa.gov.br 47
  • 48. Management of resources and uses: institutions, territories and societies > A d a p t a t i o n t o c l i m at e c h a n g e MISEEVA project: coast vulnerability to sea level rise The MISEEVA project (Marine Inundation Roussillon. This evaluation, coupled with a model of risk hazard exposure modelling and Social, spatial distribution, takes into account the impacts on Economic and Environmental both merchant and non-merchant types of goods é uli . So Vulnerability Assessment in regard to (beaches, lagoons and wetlands, ground water) and ©M global changes, 2008-11) is funded on the different associated economic sectors, for by the “Vulnerability, Environment, various scenarios of public authorities reactions Climate” ANR programme. (anticipation and/or adaptation, refusal, laisser- faire, protection, withdrawal). The aim of this project, coordinated by the BRGM LAMETA was particularly involved in the “Risks” department in Orléans, study of hazard perception by populations, of is to assess the social, economic behaviour types, and in the evaluation of public and environmental vulnerability of policies response types to better anticipate these the coastal zone marine submersion changes. hazard provoked by climate change. The EAU/NRE research unit, in partnership Contacts: Charlotte Vinchon, c.vinchon@brgm.fr with the LAMETA JRU and SOGREAH (an Cécile Hérivaux, c.herivaux@brgm.fr engineering company), has set up and tested a methodology & Hélène Rey-Valette, helene.rey-valette@lameta.univ-montp1.fr for the evaluation of economic impacts of a sea level rise  The city of Sète, France. linked to climate change, in the coming century in Languedoc- Remote sensing tools will enable Spatial Observatory of the Amazon from economic, political and linkage of the information received Basin is running to develop a social standpoints, bringing into from the observation satellites with system for monitoring water levels play both globalisation and local the biological and environmental in the Amazon Basin using radar dynamics. It focuses analysis of this features of the sites. From this altimetry. On the African continent, reconfiguration especially on the information, the representativeness of ESPACE-DEV is participating to the construction and mobilisation of downstream parts of the watercourses African environmental surveillance an array of material and immaterial will be tested with respect to their programme (AMESD), funded by resources, through a diverse range of general status. Based on this research, the African Union Commission stakeholders. ESPACE-DEV will develop a method and the European Union. One of and a network for operational the orientations of the programme For the past 20 years, ART-DEV has surveillance of the ecological quality concerns navigation monitoring in been carrying out multidisciplinary of rivers in French Guiana. the Oubangui branch of the Congo analyses of issues and challenges River and ecological monitoring of the related to water management in ESPACE-DEV is mainly based Congo Basin. the Mediterranean Basin (Maghreb, in Montpellier, with secondary Lebanon, France, and the Iberian locations in French Guiana (IRD-UAG Relationship between Peninsula). This research is focused International Campus), La Reunion on the relationships between water, Island (Université de la Réunion), water, territories territories and societies. Since New Caledonia (IRD), Brazil and societies in the 2004, it has been contributing to (National Space Research Institute), programmes launched by CNRS, Ethiopia (African Union), Gabon Mediterranean Basin the French Ministry of Environment (Agence Gabonaise d’Observations et and IRSTEA, on the “Water and d’Études Spatiales) and Madagascar. The “Stakeholders, Resources and Territories” topic (programme Territories in the Development CNRS/SHS 2004-2005 “Water, The expertise acquired by Process” Joint Research Unit – UMR Environment, Society”; programme ESPACE-DEV on the use of ART-DEV (UM3, CNRS, CIRAD) also CNRS/MSH Paris 2006-2009 to remote sensing techniques involves Universities Montpellier provide backing for researchWater resources: preservation and management for environmental monitoring I and Perpignan Via Domitia as cooperation in the humanities benefits to several cooperation associated partners and incorporates and social sciences between North and transfer programmes. Hence, the local team of CEREQ (Centre Africa and France; programme on the South American continent, d’étude et de Recherche sur les “Water and Territories” CNRS/ the GUYAMAPA programme aims Qualifications). ART-DEV mainly IRSTEA/Ministry of Environment to develop indicators to monitor conducts research in the humanities 2008-2011). Between 2003 and ecosystems, including the status of and social sciences field, while 2011, the unit was also part of the water resources, on the Oyapock favouring inter-disciplinary CNRS 2524 “Res-eau-ville” research basin, which marks the border approaches, essentially bringing group and several researchers are between Brazil and French Guiana. together geographers, economists, now collaborating with their North- Similarly, a bilateral cooperation sociologists and political scientists. American colleagues on linkages48 programme between the Brazilian ART-Dev develops research on between urban projects and riparian National Water Agency and the IRD the reconfiguration of territories ecosystems quality in Canada.
  • 49. > A d a p t a t i o n t o c l i m at e c h a n g eWASSERMed: water availability and security inSouthern Europe and the MediterraneanThe WASSERMed European project (2010-2012) studies the  Drinking water access in Tunisia.environmental and social impacts of climate change, whichthreatens water resources and uses in the Mediterranean area.Starting with an evaluation of the frequency and amplitude ofextreme precipitations and changes in surface and ground waterrun-off, the project is also interested in the multitude of economicand social factors increasing the vulnerability of hydrologicalsystems. The aim of WASSERMed is hence to contribute to: Reducing uncertainty about the impact of climate change onMediterranean hydrology, by exploiting outputs from climaticmodels, by refining existing hydrological models and by developingtools for the simulation of scenarios on each of the five selected © R. Calvezreference sites. Improving the regional evaluation of climatic effects on waterresources and uses, through scientific experiments on the five pilotsites. The project focuses on the sensitive and vulnerable sectors Among the five study sites, the catchment area of Merguellil (nearof agriculture and tourism, particularly illustrative of the conflicts Kairouan, in central Tunisia) benefits from a multitude of jointfor water allocation and use. research work carried out earlier by teams from Montpellier Providing a stronger knowledge base for water security by and Tunis, in the context of bilateral European and internationalidentifying and assessing water management policies, including projects.virtual water exchanges. This should contribute, on the short term,to improving the resilience of Mediterranean anthropo-ecosystems Contacts: Christian Leduc, christian.leduc@ird.frto hydrological changes and, on the long term, to their adaptation & Zohra Lili Chabaane, zohra.lili.chabaane@gmail.comto climate change. For more information: www.wassermed.euModelling complex their impact on agriculture and the  To develop approaches for using environment. One objective is to these tools, involving local stakeholderssystems to support improve decision-making in relation and scientists, in managementcollective renewable to the management of public assets processes ranging from collective and market organisation through apprenticeship and decision-making toresource management the development of standards negotiation;processes and by providing assistance in the  To assess the contributions of negotiation between stakeholders. these approaches, initiatives and tools so as to analyse changes in theThe CIRAD’s “Environments and Within this department, the socio-ecological systems, the role ofSocieties” department focuses on “Renewable Resources Management institutions and knowledge in theserelationships between agriculture, and Environment” Internal Research changes.natural resource management and Unit – UPR GREEN (CIRAD) aimssocial dynamics, in association to provide knowledge, methods GREEN is developing several projectswith public policy. This work is and tools based on the modelling concerning water management inundertaken on individual farm, of complex systems, to support a multi-use and multi-user setting,forest area, regional, country- collective management processes as a follow-up to a companionwide or international scales. It and to improve stakeholders’ modelling project (ComMod) forcovers innovation processes and capacity to manage their socio- resilient water resource managementcoordination between stakeholders ecological system through a concerning several Asian countriesand social groups and territories highly interdisciplinary approach (Thailand, Vietnam, Bhutan,as prime locations for regulation. (legal anthropology, agronomy, Philippines) (coordinated by GREEN Water resources: preservation and managementThis involves surveys, opinion polls modelling, etc.) in the framework of the “Challengeand inventories, representation Program on Water and Food”, seetechniques and modelling of complex The challenges are therefore page 61). The project “Managementsystems. It is based on concepts and threefold: of sub-watersheds and governancetools from different disciplines while  To develop conceptual and of rainwater and small dams” wasfocusing considerable attention technical tools to represent the socio- launched in 2010 and involves aon the humanities and social ecological systems in their multiple comparative approach to watersheds insciences. Research is concentrated dimensions (economic, social, Ghana and Burkina Faso to analyse theon collective renewable resources ecological, spatial and temporal) role of the small reservoirs that havemanagement and use – water, forests, and to consider the broad range of been installed. rangelands, wild fauna – linked to stakeholders’ viewpoints (experts andproduction. It also involves drawing non-experts) at different organisation 49up public policies and assessing levels;
  • 50. Management of resources and uses: institutions, territories and societies > A d a p t a t i o n t o c l i m at e c h a n g e CLIMAWARE: elaboration of strategies for adaptation to climate change – Case study on the management of the dams-reservoirs of the Seine Basin The CLIMAWARE project (2010-2013) This may result in real time management adaptations. brings together partners from An initial phase of work consisted in setting up a semi- Germany (Department of Hydraulic distributed hydrological model on the basin scale, Engineering and Water Resources taking into account the specificities of the various Management and Centre for tributaries. Calibrated on real time on around Environmental Systems Research 25 flow stations, the model was then fed with of Kassel University), Italia disaggregated outputs from climatic models (Istituto Agronomico Mediterraneo (temperatures and precipitations). Results di Bari) and French (IRSTEA comparison between the reference period and EPTB Seine Grands Lacs). (1961-1990) and a future middle-century period Its objective is to draw up (2046-2065) shows a downward trend of the level s strategies for the adaptation of and duration of low water. Trends for high water Lac ds water management to climate level are much less significant. Gran change. ine Se EP TB The viability of current management strategies will The French site studies the adaptation henceforth be evaluated in this context and various © of the management of dams-reservoirs in the adaptation options will be tested. Seine basin to climate change. The objective is to assess the sustainability of current management methods in the short, Contact: David Dorchies, david.dorchies@irstea.fr mid and long terms and to propose to EPTB Seine Grands Lacs For more information: www.uni-kassel.de/fb14/wasserbau/CLIMAWARE news management methods taking into account its objectives of water level regulation within the context of climate change.  The Marne reservoir-lake. > I n t e g r a t e d w at e r r e s o u r c e m a n a g e m e n t Water and hydro-systems governance in North Africa and the Near-East GRED studies water and hydro-systems governance mainly in North Africa and the Near-East and secondarily in South-East Asia and the Andes, in collaboration with various local partners and the © T. Ruf International Water Management Institute. In Egypt, GRED is interested in collective actions in the Nile delta, at the level of secondary and tertiary irrigation channels (mesqas), in the relationships of the State with its technical ministries and with farmers, as well as in the elaboration of water public policies. In Morocco, research is carried out on several scales around the governance of water and land resources. A first investigation area concerns mountain and oasis agriculture in South Morocco and focuses on the role of irrigated lands in family and farm economies. Particularly, the collective management of khettaras (draining galleries similar to qanâts in the Middle-East) is a main centre of interest.Water resources: preservation and management Another investigation area concerns the comparison of radio- concentric land systems in Saïs (South of Meknès in Morocco), in France (Montady) and in Egypt. Finally, GRED also analyses, at the regional hydrographic basin scale, a recently introduced system of hydrographic basin agencies, supposed to apply integrated management principles, as well as the implementation of the “Plan Maroc Vert” (“Green Morocco Plan”) and its impact on the irrigated area of Tadla.  Draining gallery in Contacts: Christine Recalt, christine.recalt@ird.fr Morocco. Francis Laloë, francis.laloe@ird.fr50 Thierry Ruff, thierry.ruf@ird.fr & François Molle, francois.molle@ird.fr
  • 51.  Artisanal irrigation channel in Equator. In Equator, the G-EAU research unitsupports the setting up of integrated watermanagement policies. © R. Calvez> I n t e g r at e d w at e r r e s o u r c e m a n a g e m e n tAGUANDES: water allocation © R. Calvezin the Andes hydro-systemsWater management in mountain catchments has several Scientists from G-EAU thus set up in Quito in order tospecificities such as the importance of the run-of-river develop scientific collaborations with Ecuadorian institutionsmanagement, the high number of inter-basin transfers and and university to support the current changes. Activities areagricultural water use strategies conceived on several developed on five themes: (1) state of the water resources,bioclimatic levels and structured around a well-developed spatial and altitudinal distribution and evolution during thehydraulic infrastructure. past 50 years, (2) identification and recent evolution of water demand according to different scenarios of global change,The Quito supply basin in Ecuador is an example: situated (3) failure risk of the existing water distribution system inbetween 2,000 and 5,900 meters in altitude, spreading over the Quito basin, (4) construction of simulation models for5,000 km², it is facing various complex issues representative decision-making support, for fair sharing and future planningof mountain basins. The population density is high, there is a of water resources (5) ecological impacts of hydraulicstrong demographic growth, increasing the demand for basic pumping or storage installations in mountain areas. The firstservices and reducing agricultural land use to the profit of three themes are being developed in collaboration with the Water resources: preservation and managementuncontrolled urbanisation. Water demand, involving several National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology and thecompeting sectors, greatly overpasses the available resource. National Polytechnic School. The fourth is being carried outLarge water transfers are operated from “páramos”, lands jointly with the Municipal Drinking Water and Sanitationsituated over 3,500 m in altitude, whose soils filter and Enterprise and the IRSTEA centre of Lyon, through thestore water from rainfall and glaciers melting, regulating supervision of a Master’s degree student.water flows all year long. Global warming, demographic Contacts: Patrick Le Goulven, Patrick.LeGoulven@ird.frpressure and the energy crisis lead to their overexploitation Jean-Christophe Pouget, jean-christophe.pouget@ird.frand question their sustainability. Recently, the government Roger Calvez, roger.calvez@ird.frdecided to move towards integrated management of the & Odile Fossati, odile.fossati@ird.frwater resource per hydrographic entity. 51
  • 52. Management of resources and uses: institutions, territories and societies > I n t e g r at e d w at e r r e s o u r c e m a n a g e m e n t Participative and multi-level management of water in Ghana and Burkina Faso natural resources. For instance, GREEN develops activities in the Volta area, in the context of the “Challenge Program on Water and Food” - phase 2 (see page 61), in collaboration with the International Water Management Institute and the Water Resource Commission, the Permanent Secretariat of the Support Programme for the Integrated Management of Water Resources. The main objective of the “Sub-basin management and governance of rainwater and small reservoirs” project is to facilitate the interactions between the different levels of management and decision-making in Burkina Faso and Ghana, so as to make the integrated management of water resources effective. For this purpose, a ComMod initiative is being developed by the stakeholders from local and intermediate levels together with political decision-makers. © W. Daré Through dialog, the objective is that everyone be informed about  Participatory workshop for water management in Ghana. constraints of each others, to build new modes of interaction in the production of management rules and standards. In Burkina Since 1992, the principles of integrated water management have Faso, multiple water management structures exist on different gradually been imposed in water policies. The participation of scales. GREEN therefore supports local water committees, the different stakeholders involved in decision-making processes kinds of multi-stakeholders platforms at the small catchment has become a principle in the elaboration of decentralised public level, which have been created but are not very functional yet. In policies. Multi-level water management, which is nowadays fully Ghana, where these intermediate platforms do not exist, GREEN accepted, raises questions about tools to regulate the social, is supporting the emergence of new forms of multi-stakeholders economic and ecological effects, which may be contradictory organisations likely to take into account the different management depending on the scale considered, sector prioritisation and and decision-making levels. Participative workshops are organised involved stakeholders. The difficulty is to draw up consultation for this purpose (role playing, multi-agent systems, etc.). In time, methods allowing expression of these various points of view, so innovation will reside in the implementation of new multi-scalar as to come to institutional and technical innovations which are modes of interaction between the stakeholders involved in the accepted by all. integrated management of water resources. Since 1998, within the multi-institutional Companion Modelling Contacts: Williams Daré, williams.dare@cirad.fr (ComMod) framework, the GREEN research unit has been & Jean-Philippe Venot, J.Venot@cgiar.org developing participative modelling approaches to support decision-making processes and the production of knowledge For more information: www.commod.org & www.ecole-commod.sc.chula.ac.th/pn25/index.php on the management of socio-ecological systems and renewable > I n t e g r a t e d w at e r r e s o u r c e m a n a g e m e n t AQUADEP: drinking water governance at local level The AQUADEP project studied the drinking water situation in Italy and Denmark; methodological proposals for governance at the district level. Its main objectives were the information systems and indicators. characterisation, evaluation and support of drinking water policies. It sought to gain a better knowledge of these policies AQUADEP is an interdisciplinary 3 years research project and to clarify the terms of the debate about the institutional (2008-2011), funded by the “Water and Territories”Water resources: preservation and management framework of drinking water management, notably with regard programme of the French Ministry of Environment, CNRS to territorial scale and governance. At the same time, a more and IRSTEA. It brought together 12 researchers and teachers- targeted “research-intervention” on the information and researchers from five teams (ENGEES: École Nationale du steering system of territorial governance (indicators system) Génie de lEau et de lEnvironnement de Strasbourg – IRSTEA in was developed to support operational stakeholders in their Strasbourg, G-EAU and ART-Dev in Montpellier, the “Réseaux” decision-making process. research unit of IRSTEA Bordeaux and the CERTOP research unit of CNRS/Université Paul Sabatier in Toulouse). Rémi Barbier The main outputs of the project were: a typology of drinking from ENGEES-IRSTEA has coordinated the project. water policies drawn by the Conseils Généraux (General Councils); the characterisation of local drinking water Contact: governance in a few districts representative of the various Stéphane Ghiotti, stephane.ghiotti@univ-montp3.fr situations previously identified; a comparison with the52
  • 53. > I n t e g r at e d w at e r r e s o u r c e m a n a g e m e n t IDEAUX: water, development, town planning and urbanisation policies integration for the protection of aquatic environments in France and Quebec The current landscapes evolution is characterised by an inter- These questions are central to the research project IDEAUX. penetration of territories, which poses a number of problems to Its main starting point is a critical examination of the recent water managers. The French and Quebecois public authorities are evolution of the planning paradigm in France and Quebec. The aware of the limits of the planning instruments intended to control project methodological framework is based on a comparative urban spread. The public or associative organisations in charge of approach of the processes at the heart of development policies. water policies raise questions about the scope of these policies: This Franco-Quebecois programme is based upon a partnership what is their real impact on the evolution of land use at the between the private company SOGREAH consultants (Groupe catchment level? In what ways do the town and country planning Artelia) and several French and Quebecois public organisations. policies interact with water policies? What are the conditions It is funded by the “Waters & Territories” programme (2008) of required for the “de-compartmentalisation” of policies, which are the French Ministry of Environment. so often at odds with each other, in a context of local authorities’ Contact: Alexandre Brun, abrungeographe@yahoo.fr empowerment, increased territorial competition, globalisation and as a corollary, interrogations about the role of the State in the management of natural resources? Water resources: preservation and management  The Brasserie River at 53© A. Brun Gatineau, Quebec (Canada).
  • 54. © A. Vidal The Challenge Program on Water and Food (CPWF) works on the links between water, food and poverty in developing countries. International Cooperation and PartnershipsWater resources: preservation and management54
  • 55. R esearch laboratories in the Languedoc-Roussillon region share many programmes with each other and with other scientific partners in France,Europe and the rest of the world, especially countries is a particularly useful asset. Two interfacing structures complete this web of organisations: Transferts LR, facilitating contacts between SMEs and laboratories and VERSeau Développement, mediating between scientificin the South. This has been underlined in several of the labs, public decision-makers, international institutions andprevious chapters. However, given the extensive diversity economic relays, especially the competitiveness clustersof the water sector and its crucial importance in the and water companies, most of whom are part of theday-to-day life of human societies, the labs are also open regional SWELIA organisation.to other economic and public stakeholders at regional,national and international level. Hosting the leading The second set of partnerships pursues scientific goalsFrench scientific community of multi-disciplinary water with scientific associations having chosen to set up theirspecialists, the region has seen the arrival or emergence headquarters in Montpellier and/or in which the regionalof several joint organisations fostering many discussions scientific community is highly involved. This is the case ofand exchanges. These organisations can be grouped into the International Water Resource Association (IWRA)two categories: those working in the economic sector and the International Association of Hydrological Sciencesand involved in policy-making – the State, its agencies and (IAHS), at the international level, and of the Associationlocal authorities – and those representing and managing Française pour l’Eau, l’Irrigation et du Drainage (AFEID), atscientific activities at national or international level. the national level. Furthermore, two major international organisation programmes are entirely or partlyActions with the economic sector are being developed coordinated from Montpellier: the Challenge Programmewith the support of local authorities and the government on Water and Food of the CGIAR (Consultativethrough two competitiveness clusters: the “Water” Group for International Agricultural Research) and theand “Risks” clusters. The regional water sector is International Hydrology Programme (IHP) of UNESCO.especially rich in innovative SMEs, while at the same timebenefiting from the expertise and representativeness Pierre Chevallier & Marie Mojaiskyof major French groups whose international presence (Association VERSeau Développement) Water resources: preservation and management 55
  • 56. International Cooperation and Partnerships Contact details AFEID French Association for Water, Irrigation and Drainage President: François Brelle Contact: François Brelle afeid@irstea.fr http://afeid.montpellier.cemagref.fr “Water” high internationalisation, and to changing regulations, the cluster competitiveness cluster has adopted a global outlook. 2015 will see the term of the European Both at regional and international Water Framework Directive and levels, the quality and quantity of it is also the deadline to achieve available water resources depend on the United Nations Organisation’s global changes, with a rise of climatic Millennium Development Goals. By Association VERSeau Développement uncertainty and anthropogenic 2015, the ambition of the “Water” President: Pierre Chevallier pressures to produce more food, competitiveness cluster is to effectively pierre.chevallier@ird.fr energy, etc. These considerations contribute to the “better management Director: Yunona Videnina led to the creation of a technology- of water resources and uses subjected yv@verseaudeveloppement.com http://verseaudeveloppement.com centred, worldwide “Water” to global changes” through new, competitiveness cluster. The main more suitable and integrated water goal of this cluster is to assess and products/services. manage water resources, both from the quantitative and qualitative The “Water” cluster was approved points of view, using the associated in May 2010 by the French Inter- CGIAR eco-technologies, for the benefit of ministerial Committee on Local Consultative Group for International all uses: drinking water supplies, Development. It includes the Agricultural Research sanitation, farming and industrial Languedoc-Roussillon, Midi-Pyrénées uses, energy and leisure activities. and Provence-Alpes-Côte-d’Azur CPWF Challenge Program on Water and Food regions. It leads the coordination Director: Alain Vidal Thus, the “Water” Competitiveness with the two other water clusters in a.vidal@cgiar.org Cluster is active at different levels, France: HYDREOS (continental water www.waterandfood.org linked to the various stages of the management) in Alsace and Lorraine water cycle (from water drawing to regions and DREAM (water and CRP5 its return to the natural environment environments) in Centre region. CGIAR Research Programme “Water, after different uses). Four strategic Land and Ecosystems” areas are targeted: The “Water” cluster seeks to createWater resources: preservation and management Director: Simon Cook  Identification and use of water value through innovative projects in s.cook@cgiar.org resources. the field of water use and management  Concerted management and uses (economic growth, employment, in contexts with high pressure on creation and development of water resources. SMEs, SMIs and intermediate-sized FRIEND  Reuse of water from all sources. enterprises). It gathers skills, questions Flow Regimes From International  Institutional and societal and answers, in order to provide and Experimental Network Data approaches in terms of stakeholders suitable solutions to the many issues (UNESCO) and decisions. relating to water resource management. Contact: Gil Mahé gil.mahe@ird.fr It promotes the involvement of water http://armspark.msem.univ-montp2.fr In order to fit to markets of water stakeholders in international water56 products/services and water market dynamics. ...continued on page 58 demand, characterised by a  
  • 57.  Coastal Monitoring. © S. Pistre“Risks” cluster: (floods, accidental pollution, winter the integration of new know-how storms, etc.). and skills in regional companies.designing pragmatic It networks with all economicsolutions to risk- Two other projects, linked to flooding development stakeholders. and submersion, have recentlymanagement problems received support from FUI. The first Several Transferts LR actions project, KRHU (standing for “karst, concern water and involve researchThe “Local Vulnerability and Risk runoff and humidity”), led by Predict laboratories and firms of all sizes,Management” cluster, also referred to Services, seeks to improve karstic some of which belong to theas the “Risks” cluster, has supported flooding forecasts by providing SWELIA group (group of companiesthe emergence of collaborative on-call services (forecasters, analysts, working in the water sector) and/Research and Development projects etc.) with a crisis management tool or are members of the “Water”since 2005 in the Provence-Alpes- based on relevant ground saturation competitiveness cluster. TheCôte dAzur and Languedoc- and karst indicators. The second association’s actions target:Roussillon regions. This cluster project, LITO-CMS, led by BRL  The knowledge, prevention andaddresses issues linked to chronic Ingénierie, focuses on forecasting management of hydrological, healthand accidental hazards in specific and real-time management of and water pollution risks;areas, from prevention to post-crisis coastal flooding and submersion. It  The concerted managementmanagement, and hence covers all aims to alleviate local authorities’ of water resources (includingstages of the risk wheel. current lack of available and precise unconventional resources) and their information about tidal surge risks. uses, weather forecasting tools andMany projects labelled by the “Risks” The impact of tidal surges on coastal combinations of indicators for thecluster (and funded by national, river flows is not taken into account characterisation and monitoring ofregional and local organisations), in current services. water bodies and events;deal with the risk of flooding. For  The water treatment, purificationexample, the HYDROGUARD project Transferts LR: and sanitation by-products reuse(see page 42), developed by the SME processes;ESECO System and supported by the fostering water  Transport networks;French Inter-ministerial Single Fund innovation in the  Water and energy.(FUI), aims to develop a reliable, Languedoc-Roussillon Water resources: preservation and managementautonomous and automatic system Pilot experiments are carried out infor monitoring waterways and the region laboratories, technology halls (LBE,coastline. This system will allow local EMA, UM2), specialised institutesauthorities to ensure sustainable Created in 2005 by the regional (Risk Sciences Institute in Alès) ormanagement of water bodies and authority and the government, private centres of excellence (IBMareas. It relies on an infrastructure and today supported by Europe Water management) in Languedoc-fitted with equipments to monitor and local general councils, Roussillon. Methodologies areand continuously check the water the Transferts LR association often developed in real operatingresource and coastal erosion. Such contributes to the competitiveness conditions, on site or in a publicequipments are able to make local of Languedoc-Roussillon firms facility. They involve the Frenchforecasts based on scientific models, through innovation and technology Water Agency, the government officeshence providing information transfer. Its main activity is to foster concerned and local authorities’ 57particularly useful upon crisis innovation, technology transfer and technical service providers. •••
  • 58. International Cooperation and Partnerships Transferts LR provides concrete, VERSeau Développement: Contact details multi-disciplinary and lasting support for the setting up and an interfacing and performance of innovative dedicated coordination technological projects. It takes part to firms’ early project design, association IAHS it establishes relations with the International Association concerned research laboratories, Founded in 1983, the VERSeau for Hydrological Sciences it sets up and monitors projects. Développement association gathers President: Pr. Gordon Young The products/services developed members from research organisations, Contact: Éric Servat eric.servat@univ-montp2.fr have regional, national and industries and local authorities, http://iahs.info European applications. It belongs working together to foster projects to the “Europe Enterprise” network focusing on water management (over 600 members), which is (institutional, technical and legal particularly helpful when looking for aspects). European partners and setting up business meetings with specialised VERSeau Développement aims IWRA companies in other European to strengthen and improve water International Water Resources districts. Transferts LR provides management through key missions: Association scientific advice to project funders  Carrying out consultation and Director:Tom Soo for technical evaluation of the facilitation missions between the Contact: office@iwra.org projects. scientific, industrial and public www.iwra.org partners; The dynamic approach of the  Contributing to the running region’s very small and small to and promotion of scientific and “Water for All” Chair medium-sized enterprises and technological networks; (ParisTech, Suez Environment Foundation) the synergy between research  Putting to good use the results of Director: Jean-Antoine Faby laboratories and major groups research or development programmes; Contact: opt@engref.agroparistech.fr give rise to tangible, integration-  Helping with the implementation of www.agroparistech.fr/-OpT-EaupourTous-.html focused projects offering high added public water policies; value and meeting users’ needs.  Performing expert studies and They correspond to substantial providing advice and training. investments (amounting to between tens of thousands and several These missions are accomplished million Euros), and are carried through activities of management and “Water” Competitiveness Cluster out with the support of French coordination of networks and projects Pôle de compétitivité EAU regional authorities (notably the and programmes in the field of water, President : Michel Dutang Languedoc-Roussillon region), Oséo, through the provision of expertise, the Director General:Yannick Ponton the European Regional Development organisation of events, etc. Contact: info@pole-eau.com Fund and the government (FUI www.pole-eau.com fund, EcoIndustrie and ANR). VERSeau Développement gives support to local authorities (and government Between November 2010 and offices) for the design and setting up of November 2011, this support public policies, to local companies and targeted ten collaborative projects industries working in the water sector “Local Vulnerability and Risk (with a duration of 24 to 36 months and to research and training institutes. Management” Competitiveness Cluster and investments of 1.2 to 4 million To do so, it carries out expert studies, Pôle de Compétitivité Risques Euros), headed by consortiums search for partners, supervision ofWater resources: preservation and management President: Joël Chenet trainees and leads projects such as of various sizes concerned with Contact: Guillaume Riou the development of water eco- the promotion of the Languedoc- guillaume.riou@pole-risques.com www.pole-risques.com technologies, water management Roussillon sanitation network quality (approved by the “Water” cluster), charter. risks of flooding and tidal submersion (approved by the “Risks” VERSeau Développement calls for Transferts LR cluster), and marine environment its international experience for President: Christophe Carniel biodiversity monitoring (approved the implementation of European Contacts: Jean-Michel Clerc clerc@transferts-lr.org by the “Sea” cluster). Other projects, cooperation projects, especially in led outside the clusters, concern the Mediterranean basin, Central & Christian Drakides water treatment, protection of water Europe, Caucasia and Central Asia, drakides@msem.univ-montp2.fr abstraction systems, and reuse of for the support of the decentralised58 www.transferts-lr.org treated waste water. cooperation of the Hérault General
  • 59.  On-site water analysis. © N. ArnaudCouncil (in Tunisia and Morocco) of water issues through education, (Brazil) in 2011 and focused onand for the animation of scientific research and information “adaptable water management”. Theinternational networks. exchange among countries next edition will be co-organised in and across disciplines. IWRA is 2014 with the University of GranadaIn 2008, VERSeau Développement deeply committed to the sound (Spain).organised the XIIIth World Water management of water resourcesCongress of IWRA (International thanks to a better understanding of Since 1975, “Water International” isWater Resources Association, see page the physical, ecological, chemical, the IWRA’s official journal, published59) in partnership with the Institut institutional, social and economic by an international publisher sinceLanguedocien de Recherche sur aspects of water. 2008. The journal is a key source oflEau et lEnvironnement and ENJOY information in terms of researchMontpellier, and in association with To this end, the association: and international policy on waterinternational private, scientific and  Provides an international forum resources. Articles and technicalinstitutional stakeholders. VERSeau for water resource issues; memos in “Water International”has also hosted the executive office of  Performs advanced research on focus on water management, policyIWRA since April 2010. water resources; and governance and target a broad  Promotes water education notably inter-disciplinary readership. TheIWRA: International by improving global access to journal keeps members informed relevant data and information; and connected to a network ofWater Resources  Enhances the quality of knowledge academic and operating membersassociation used in decision-making; across the entire world by Water resources: preservation and management  Improves exchanges of publishing important informationIWRA is an international network information and expertise; from conferences, reviews, books,of multidisciplinary experts on  Networks with other organizations discussions, etc.water resources. This non-profit, to advance common interests andnon-governmental, educational goals. IWRA recognises the majororganisation was established in contribution to water management1971. IWRA provides a global Since 1973, the IWRA World Water made by organisations, professionalsforum for professionals, students, Congress has been held every three and researchers. This is why,individuals, corporations and years in different cities across the during the IWRA World Waterinstitutions concerned with the world. Each edition has a central Congress, individuals, authors andsustainable use of the world’s water theme linked to current water issues. organisations receive awards for theirresources. The objective of IWRA Thus, the XIV th World Water Congress contribution to improving the state 59is to improve the understanding was organised in Porto-de-Galinhas of water resources in the world. •••
  • 60. International Cooperation and Partnerships IAHS: International AFEID: Managing and the French Ministry of Foreign Association of water for sustainable and European Affairs within the framework of public aid for Hydrological Sciences agriculture development. The International Association of The French Association for In France, AFEID works on common Hydrological Sciences, IAHS, is Water, Irrigation and Drainage themes with the Scientific and a scientific organisation serving (AFEID) is a non-profit, general- Technical Association for Water hydrological sciences and the interest association created in and the Environment, the Société international community of 1954. AFEID represents French Hydrotechnique de France (French hydrologists. Founded in 1922, expertise on issues of water Hydrotechnical Association) and the association has over sixty supply and rural development. Its the French Water Academy with the national committees and over members are individual experts and support of the French Ministry of 5,000 individual members from organisations: farming professionals, Ecology, Sustainable Development, 130 countries. IAHS goal is to regional development structures, Transport and Housing and the promote hydrology as an earth research organisations, R&D offices, French National Agency for Water and science and a founding pillar associations and foundations. Aquatic Environments. of water management. Its main activities are to initiate and AFEID offers an ideal forum for The association’s organisation is based coordinate international research exchanging ideas about water on a technical committee divided on hydrological issues, to provide supply and rural development into thematic working groups that a medium for discussing and issues. The association contributes guide the association’s thinking and publishing hydrological research, to debates on water-related farming work: the right water quality for the to support hydrological sciences in and environmental challenges by right use; environmental engineering developing countries and to train regularly organising regional or for restoring waterways; economic, hydrologists. national meetings and international financial and fiscal instruments conferences. for water management; the future The association’s ten international of water under global changes commissions focus on various AFEID is the French chapter of pressure; participatory management aspects of the hydrological cycle, the International Commission on of irrigation and co-engineering; on water resources and on specific Irrigation and Drainage (ICID). experience sharing about irrigation technologies. IAHS publishes the It takes part in the commission’s system management; underground “Hydrological Sciences Journal” in working groups and annual water resources management. English and French (8 issues a year) conferences, and contributes to and conference proceedings as part publications of ICID “Irrigation Research on water in of the “Red Book Series” (350 volumes and Drainage” review. As part agricultural productionWater resources: preservation and management published). Many Montpellier-based of the Partenariat Français pour hydrologists have become involved l’Eau (French Water Partnership), systems at CGIAR in IAHS and continue to work for the AFEID helps to prepare and expose association. Currently, for example, the French position before major Since 2010, Montpellier has hosted Éric Servat (HSM) is the President authorities and at international the headquarters of the Consortium of the International Commission conferences, especially World Water of the CGIAR (Consultative Group on on Surface Water, Frédérique Seyler Forums. International Agricultural Research). (Espace-DEV) is the Vice-President CGIAR is a strategic partnership of the International Commission AFEID is committed to an gathering 64 public and private on Remote Sensing and Gil Mahé approach based on technical donors, supporting 15 international (HSM) is an associate member of the cooperation together with the centres working in collaboration with International Commission on Water Agence Française de Développement hundreds of government, civil society60 Resources Systems. (French Development Agency) organisations and private businesses
  • 61.  Modern irrigation techniquesin the Tafilalet palm grove, Morocco. © T. Rufaround the world. Currently, The CPWF has always produced and institutions, especially withresearch on water in agricultural many innovations, notably in ten respect to benefit-sharing.production systems is mainly “pilot” basins including the Andesaddressed through two CGIAR and São Francisco in South America; Below is a summary of some of theprogrammes: the CPWF (Challenge the Limpopo, Nile and Volta in major findings of this study:Program on Water and Food), Africa; the Ganges, Indus, Karkheh,  There is only a limited connectionrunning since 2002 and the “Water, Mekong and Yellow River in Asia. between poverty and water. TheLand and Ecosystems” programme, These basins cover 13.5 million km² challenge is much more complex thanimplemented in 2012. and accommodate roughly water scarcity alone. Water scarcity 1.5 billion people, half of whom are leads to populations competing forCPWF: Challenge Program on among the poorest in the world. water and to the unequal sharing ofWater and Food the products and services from basins In 2011, the CPWF published the (water, food, energy and regulation ofSince 2002, the CPWF has been conclusions of a vast study on water, ecosystem services).exploring the link between water, food and poverty in these ten basins.  Considerable gains in farmingfood and poverty in developing According to Simon Cook, director productivity can be achieved in rain- Water resources: preservation and managementcountries. This programme of the CRP5 programme, “the most fed agriculture zones, especially infosters innovation in the field of surprising discovery is that, in spite Africa. The CPWF has observed thatwater, with the goal of reducing of the pressure exerted on our basins only 4% of available water in thesepoverty, improving food security, today, there are some relatively direct areas is used for agriculture andstrengthening rural communities ways to meet our development needs breeding. With modest improvementsand maintaining ecosystem and alleviate the poverty of millions in Sub-Saharan Africa, two to threeservices. To fulfil this objective, the of people without exhausting our times more foodstuffs could beCPWF uses a novel research and most precious natural resource”. produced. Similarly, an increase indevelopment approach that brings productivity is not only dependenttogether scientists, development Indeed, there are enough resources on improving technology, but also onspecialists, policy makers and rural to meet the population needs up improving markets (infrastructures,communities in various water until 2050, but the path towards access, etc.). ••• 61basins. sustainability depends on policies
  • 62. International Cooperation and Partnerships  Traditional irrigation system in Tunisia. © R. Calvez  Farmers are increasingly exposed Institute), this programme relies FRIEND: Flow Regimes to risks linked to irregular climatic on the resources of the 15 CGIAR conditions and to market instability. centres and many external partners from International and  It is important that new as part of an integrated approach Experimental Network technologies and policies strengthen to research on the management of farmers’ resilience (their ability natural resources. The programme Data to deal with difficult situations notably focuses on three critical by adapting or transforming their issues: water scarcity, land FRIEND is the flagship programme of activities) and improve their degradation and ecosystem services. UNESCO’s International Hydrological productivity. Underlying these primary issues are Programme (IHP). It is shared  Water management is usually other all-pervasive questions: food between roughly ten regional groups based on a sector’s needs without security, poverty reduction, nutrition across the world and involves over taking into account the fact that and health. 100 participating countries. The water is used for other purposes goal is to promote collaborative (agriculture, industry, etc.). The programme will examine how international research in order to  Water resources should be changes in external factors influence develop a better understanding of managed at basin level, rather production systems and the way hydrological variability and similarity than at country or sector level. in which management responses across time and space through the This institutional split can indeed to these changes in turn affect mutual exchange of data, knowledge generate conflicts and unfair ecosystem services: what are the and techniques at regional level. The policies. New approaches to benefit- impacts on natural resources with advanced knowledge of hydrological sharing should be identified rather respect to the basin and landscape? processes and flow regimes than focusing only on allocating How can this information be used gained through FRIEND helps to water to different sectors. to improve decisions in terms of improve the methods applicable land and water management and in water resources planning and CRP5: The CGIAR Research policies? management. Programme “Water, Lands and Ecosystems” The programme addresses five The major research topics studied in strategic research themes: each FRIEND group vary according According to forecasts, the earth’s  Irrigated systems to regions and mainly concern population will reach 9 billion  Rain-fed systems erosion and sediment transport, inhabitants by 2050. Agricultural  Harvesting and reuse of resources eco-hydrology, low flows and production will obviously have to  Hydrological basins underground waters, hydrological be intensified to meet the increased  Information systems modelling, the impact of global food demand. However, it will not be change on flow regimes and waterWater resources: preservation and management possible to intensify agriculture to And two cross-cutting themes: resources. A shared database has the detriment of our environment,  Ecosystem services been set up in each regional group without the risk of producing  Institutions and governance and is accessible to associated an irreversible impact on the researchers, via the websites ecosystems underpinning farming. Each theme aims to promote the developed. Various activities have This is the challenge underlying resilience of the ecosystems while been developed as part of FRIEND the CGIAR’s “Water, Lands and increasing the services they provide under the aegis of UNESCO: Ecosystems” programme: how can we and minimising externalities. scientific workshops, international increase farming productivity while The objective is to improve the conferences, training, scientific preserving the environment and adaptation of agricultural and discussions, etc. reducing the poverty of millions of pastoral production systems rural families? Coordinated by IMWI to current environmental and Hydrologists of the regional scientific62 (International Water Management anthropogenic changes. community take part to this major
  • 63. international programme. Jean- management of urban water and water services. Another of the chair’s François Boyer (HSM) coordinates sanitation services, can prevent the roles is to create a network of auditors the databases of several regional Millennium Development Goals and professionals largely involved in groups: MEDFRIEND (Mediterranean from being reached in the poorest all stages of the training course. basin), FRIEND-AOC (Central and countries. Based on this observation, Western Africa), and FRIEND AMIGO a “Water For All” education and The chair is also involved in setting (Latin America and the Caribbean). research chair was set up by the Suez up an international reference centre HydroSciences Montpellier (Éric Environnement Foundation and by linking the training course to Servat then Gil Mahé) has been in ParisTech in June 2009. a research programme dedicated charge of the overall coordination to developing access to water and of MEDFRIEND since 1999. HSM Hosted by Institut de France and sanitation. The centre’s scientific has also been in charge of the managed by two of the ParisTech structure and content are designed technical and financial coordination schools (AgroParisTech and Mines to tie in with the Mines ParisTech of FRIEND-AOC for almost ten ParisTech), the chair was born and AgroParisTech research units years and continues to act as a key from a wish to initiate a long-term (Scientific Management Centre, UMR partner for this community of African partnership on the development of G-EAU, etc.). The research axes focus researchers. Finally, Éric Servat access to water and sanitation in on: chaired the FRIEND Inter-Group developing, emerging or transitional  Facilitating universal and Coordination Committee from 2002 countries. sustainable access to water and to 2006 and continues to sit on the sanitation services; committee together with Gil Mahé. The “Water For All” chair promotes  Analysing the conditions for the spread of knowledge, know- accessing these services; how and operational practices for  Studying the governance of drinking The “Water for All” Chair managing urban drinking water water and sanitation services in for universal access to and network sanitation in these developing and emerging countries.  water and sanitation countries. To do so, the chair delivers an AgroParisTech International Thousands of cities with several Executive Master training course thousand inhabitants suffer from in Montpellier (see page 68), badly managed urban water alternatively in French and English. services. Lack of knowledge, It aims at strengthening managers’ especially with respect to the skills and initiating changes in urban Water resources: preservation and management Ressources en eau : préservation et gestionF. Boyer © IRD  Water is a rare 63 resource in Niger.
  • 64. Topics covered by the research teams (January 2012) T he different research units 1. The resource: identification, Each team’s “main” topics are and teams appearing in this functioning, mobilisation indicated in (•) in the table below. document are listed in the 2. Conservation and restoration of table below. water quality Page: research unit presentation 3. Management of water resource and uses: institutions, territories and societies Units page 1 2 3 UMR ART-Dev – Actors, Resources and Territories in the Development Process (CNRS, UM3, Cirad, UM1, UPVD) 48 • Genevieve Cortès UMR EMMAH – Mediterranean Environment and Agro-Hydrosystems Modelling (Inra, UAPV) 14 • • Liliana Di Pietro UMR ESPACE-DEV – Spatial Analysis for Development (IRD, UM2, UAG, UR) 47 • • Frédéric Huynh UMR G-EAU – Water Management, Stakeholders, Uses (AgroParisTech, Irstea, Ciheam-IAMM, Cirad, IRD, Montpellier SupAgro) 40 • • • Patrice Garin UMR GM – Montpellier Geosciences (CNRS, UM2) 10 • Jean-Louis Bodinier UMR GRED – Governance, Risk, Environment, Development (IRD, UM3) 42 • Francis Laloë UMR HSM – Montpellier HydroSciences (CNRS, IRD, UM1, UM2) 8 • • • Éric Servat UMR IEM – European Membrane Institute (CNRS, ENSCM, UM2) 26 • Philippe Miele UMR ITAP – Information-Technology-Environmental Analysis-Agricultural Practices (Irstea, Montpellier SupAgro) 28 • • • Tewfik Sari UMR LAMETA – Montpellier Laboratory of Theoretical and Applied Economics (CNRS, Inra, Montpellier SupAgro, UM1) 44 • Jean-Michel Salles UMR LISAH – Laboratory for the study of Interactions between Soils, Agrosystems and Hydrosystems (Inra, IRD, Montpellier SupAgro) 13 • • • Jérôme Molénat UMR TETIS – Territories, Environment, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information (AgroParisTech, Cirad, Irstea) 46 • • • Jean-Philippe Tonneau UMS OREME – Mediterranean Environmental Research Observatory (CNRS, IRD, UM2) 13 • Nicolas Arnaud UPR GREEN – Management of Natural Resources and the EnvironmentWater resources: preservation and management (Cirad) 49 • Martine Antona UPR EAU/NRE – Water: New Resources and Economics (BRGM) 16 • • Jean-Christophe Maréchal UPR LBE – Environmental Biotechnology Laboratory (Inra) 29 • Jean-Philippe Steyer UPR LGEI – Industrial Environment Engineering Laboratory (EMA) 12 • • • Miguel Lopez-Ferber US Analysis – Water, Soils and Plants Analyses64 (Cirad) 31 • Daniel Babre
  • 65. Agropolis Internationaltraining and educationin the field of “Water”A gropolis International, through its affiliated institutions, universitiesand engineering schools (and with over 80 degree programmes (from the baccalaureate – high school leaving certificate – 2-years post-secondary to 8-years post- The tables below outline the training-education courses related to “Water”. They specify the diploma levels, the title of the training andspecialised vocational training secondary: technician, engineer, the institutions where it is delivered.institutes) offers a complete bachelor’s degree (licence), master’s,range of training programmes, specialised master’s, PhD, etc.). Programmes entirely focused on the theme of “Water” Level Degree Title Institutions Licence Life and Earth Sciences - Earth and Water focus UAPV (BSc) Bac +3 Licence(3-years post- professionnelle UM2, Montpellier secondary) (BSc with Automated Management of Water Treatment Systems SupAgro, professional EPLEFPA (Lozère) scope) AgroParisTech, IAMM, Water – “Water and Society” Speciality Montpellier SupAgro, UM1, UM2, UM3 AgroParisTech, Master Water – “Water and Agriculture” Speciality Montpellier SupAgro, (MSc) UM2 Bac +5(5-years post- Water – “Water and Resources” Speciality UM2 secondary) Water – “Contaminants, Water and Health” Speciality UM1, UM2 Hydrogeology, Soils and Environment UAPV Ingénieur Agronomy Engineer - Option “Management of Water, Montpellier SupAgro (Engineering Cultivated Lands and the Environment” degree) Polytechnic Engineer - Water Sciences and Technologies UM2 Mastère Water management AgroParisTech Bac +6 spécialisé(6-years post- secondary) (Specialised Water for All AgroParisTech MSc) Programmes focused on other themes having a water component Level Degree Title Institutions DUT Biological Engineering, Option Environmental Engineering UPVD Bac +2 (University(2-years post- diploma of Chemistry: Chemical Analysis Applied to the Environment UM2 Water resources: preservation and management secondary) technology) Geography UM3 Biology UNîmes Licence Geosciences, Biology, Environment UM2 (BSc) Earth & Environmental Sciences UPVD Bac +3 Biology, Ecology UPVD(3-years post- secondary) Sustainable Management and Planning of Territories and Resources UPVD Licence professionnelle Chemical Analysis Applied to the Environment UM2 (BSc with Environmental Impacts and Risks Professions UNîmes professional Dismantling, Waste and Depollution, scope) UNîmes 65 Control of Industrial Risks Professions
  • 66. Agropolis International training and education ...programmes focused on other themes having a water component Level Degree Title Institutions Engineering and Territorial Management UM1, UM2, UM3 Rural Societies, Territories and Natural Resource Management in the IAMM Mediterranean Agricultural Management and Territories IAMM, UM3 ICTS for the Environment UM2 Territories and Societies, Planning and Development UM3 Master Sustainable Development and Planning UM3 (MSc) Geosiences UM2 Ecology-Biodiversity, specialities: Biodiversity Evolution, UM2, Montpellier Environment and Sustainable Development SupAgro Bac +5 (5-years post- Marine Geosciences and Aquatic Environments UPVD secondary) Water - speciality: Coast and Sea Management UM3, UM2, UM1 European Master Sustainable Development in Agriculture Montpellier SupAgro, (AGRIS MUNDUS) 5 European universities Risk Management and Environment EMA Engineer in International Agri-Development ISTOM Ingénieur Chemistry and Bioprocessing for Sustainable Development (Green Montpellier SupAgro (Engineering Chemistry – Sustainable Chemistry) degree) Agronomy Engineer, “Water and Water Engineering” Major AgroParisTech Agri ICT - Information & Communication Technologies Montpellier SupAgro Territories and Resources: Public Policy and Stakeholders Montpellier SupAgro Mastère Bac +6 spécialisé (6-years post- Industrial Safety and Environment EMA secondary) (Specialised MSc) AgroParisTech, Integrated Systems in Biology, Agronomy, Geosciences, Montpellier SupAgro, Bac +8 Doctorat Hydrosciences, Environment (ED 477 SIBAGHE) (8-years post- UM1, UM2 secondary) (PhD) Territories, Time, Societies and Development (ED 60 TTSD) UM3 Sciences and AgriSciences (ED 536 SAS) UAPV Short non-degree programmes Institution Title Flood prevention and dynamic flood slowing structures (5 days) Hydrosystems: hydromorphology, hydroecology, environmental assessment (4 days) Financial instruments to reinforce and develop water and sanitation services (4 days) Human resource management in water and sanitation services (4 days) Strategic planning for water and sanitation services (12 days)Water resources: preservation and management AgroParisTech Engineering of existing river embankments (5 days) Water quality and health (4 days) Principles and tools of water and sanitation services management (4 days) Greenways and blueways: land use planning tools (4 days) Preparation for the negotiation of a public service delegation contract for water or sanitation (4 days) Montpellier SupAgro Reuse of waste water for irrigation (21 hours) DU Technician specialised in aquaculture66 UM2 DU Project and Operations Manager in aquaculture and halieutics
  • 67. Field experimentswith the students ofthe Water Master. masters & Graduate schools © H. Jourde linked to the theme of water according to the type of internship: Higher Education / Research; Focus on in a laboratory (research orientation) Water Supervision and Analysis; some Master’s degrees or in a company/organisation Ecotoxicological and Health Risks; (professional orientation). The five Water Quality department in private centred on water or public structures; Agronomy. specialities offered are:  Water and agriculture “Water” Master: a unique  Contaminants, water and health Students are selected at the M1 degree with five specialities  Water and society level from applicants with a 3-year  Water and coasts university degree or equivalent in Water resources: preservation and management Thanks to its unique disciplinary  Water and resource (either HYDRE different fields (sciences, geography, diversity, Montpellier has one of the “Hydrology, Risk, Environment” law, economics, health...). Enrolment best research and higher education pathway or H3E “Qualitative in M2 is reserved in priority for potentials in Europe in the field of and Quantitative Hydrogeology, students who have successfully water. The partner institutions in the Environment” pathway). completed the M1, then to applicants city (UM1, UM2, UM3, Montpellier from other Master programmes, SupAgro, AgroParisTech, CIHEAM- The main openings after this degree depending on availabilities and on IAMM) offer training programmes programme lie in the following prerequisites. Entry at the M1 or covering all aspects related to fields of activity: Water and M2 level is also open to employees water. For the five specialities Environmental Sciences; Regional as part of a vocational training proposed in the “Water” Master, the Management; Public Policy; programme. ••• final orientation of the student is Consultancy, Mediation, Evaluation; 67 chosen in the second year of master Environmental Law, Insurance;
  • 68. Agropolis International training and education “Hydrogeology, Soils, and Master is jointly accredited with the Environment” Master programme La Réunion University (UR). The partners from the UR’s Department The Master “Hydrogeology, Soils and of Earth Sciences are in charge of Environment” (HSE) is proposed specific courses and participate in in continuity with the educational the supervision of internships. programmes delivered at the Avignon University (UAPV) since the early “Water for All” Master: capacity 80s, in water sciences research building for future managers and engineering. The aim of this Master is to train practitioners In order to train and build the able to understand the water capacities of future managers of resource in its setting (impact of urban water and sanitation services Contacts and addresses land use change on the resource) in developing, emerging and and in its relationship with the soil transition countries, the “Water for “Water” Master (UM1, UM2, UM3, Montpellier SupAgro, (quantitative and qualitative role of All” chair proposes an international AgroParisTech, Ciheam-IAMM) this interface and vulnerability with executive master’s “Water for Manager: Séverin Pistre regard to pollution). To this end, the All”. This training programme mastereau@msem.univ-montp2.fr acquisition of knowledge is focused (delivered in French and English) www.master-eau.um2.fr on three topics: offers confirmed professionals “Hydrogeology, Soils and Environment”  Functioning of the non-saturated in this sector tools, methods and (HSE) Master zone; technologies to: (UAPV, UR)  Functioning of aquifers;  Drive changes in these services; Manager: Vincent Marc  Modelling.  Assess the technical, social and vincent.marc@univ-avignon.fr financial sustainability of their http://agrosciences.univ-avignon.fr/fr/ Long-standing relationships with services; mini-site/miniagro/master-hydrogeologie- laboratories, research units and  Elaborate strategies to improve et-environnement.html companies working in the water them. “Water for All” Specialised Master and environmental sectors have (OpT) made it possible to put together a This 12-month training programme, (AgroParisTech, Mines-ParisTech) teaching team comprising 40% of delivered by the AgroParisTech Manager: Jean-Antoine Faby Contact: opt@engref.agroparistech.fr the teachers from outside the UAPV: centre in Montpellier, is based on an www.agroparistech.fr/International- professionals from public water operational partnership with: Executive-Master-OpT,2132.html and environmental management  The company that defines the organisations, engineering firms mission of its auditor; “Integrated Systems in Biology,Agro- nomy, Geosciences, Hydrosciences, or companies specialised in the  The auditor that builds the action Environment” Graduate school protection or exploitation of the plan satisfying the defined mission; (ED 477 SIBAGHE) water resource, as well as researchers  The training team, including (UM2, AgroParisTech, Montpellier SupAgro, UM1) from affiliated public bodies. In terms professionals, which trains and Director: Bernard Godelle of research, the Master is linked to supports the auditors throughout godelle@univ-montp2.fr the EMMAH JRU, that is part of the their mission in Montpellier during www.sibaghe.univ-montp2.fr UAPV “Sciences and Agrisciences” the teaching periods and back “Territories,Time, Societies and graduate school (see page 69). The in their service to carry out their Development” Graduate school HSE Master has both professional mission. (ED 60 TTSD) and research orientations. TheWater resources: preservation and management (UM3, UM1, Montpellier SupAgro, IRD, ENSA) pursuit of a Ph.D. thesis or entrance Moreover, to provide a better Director: Denis Brouillet understanding of all the operational into the professional world depends denis.brouillet@univ-montp3.fr on the type of internship chosen (in issues, this cooperative education Secretariat: Dominique Basty a research lab or in a professional programme alternates training dominique.basty@univ-montp3.fr organisation). periods in Montpellier with periods www.univ-montp1.fr/recherche in the auditor’s organisation, plus an Students are selected at the M1 level internship in an equivalent reference “Sciences and Agri-Sciences” Graduate school after a bachelor’s degree in Earth service in Europe. (ED 536 SAS) Sciences or Environmental Sciences. (UAPV) They automatically integrate M2 if The students are recruited at the Director: Philippe Obert the M1 is successfully completed. 5-year post-graduate level, at the68 secretariat-ed@univ-avignon.fr Additional students may be recruited suggestion of their company or http://ed536.univ-avignon.fr in M2. The second year of the supervisory authority.
  • 69. >Graduate schools  The 2010-2011 students of the “Water for All” Master. © Chaire Eau pour TousA doctoral programme lasts three yearsand involves producing and presentinglaboratory research work. All studentsregistering in a doctoral programme areattached to a graduate school. Graduateschools comprise research units or school must successfully complete  Physical characteristics andlaboratories working on major sets of two scientific training modules resources (natural or technological) ofthemes. and two professional modules. The rural or urban areas, etc. graduate school manages thesis In the field of water, the graduateTheir mission is two-fold: firstly, to registrations, ensures PhD student school hosts PhD candidates focusingensure direct scientific support to the supervision, verifies that the thesis their theses on governance andPhD students, and secondly, to provide charter is respected, and organises resource management, access to wateradditional training, such as seminars, the thesis courses and professional and use conflicts, amongst others.scientific conferences or training guidance.modules throughout the 3 years. The “Sciences and Agri-Sciences”aim of these modules is to improve the In the field of water, the graduate Graduate School (SAS, ED536)scientific education of the PhD students school hosts PhD candidatesand to better prepare their professional focusing their theses on the The graduate school ED536 SASfuture. Three graduate schools are functioning of hydrosystems, water (Sciences and Agri-Sciences)concerned by the theme of water. quality, use dynamics and resource encompasses research units in and risk management. Both the the field of “Sciences, Technology, quantitative and qualitative aspects Health” from the University of are examined, sweeping through Avignon (UAPV) and INRA PACA a large spectrum of disciplines (Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur). SAS ranging from hydrogeology to thus federates research teams at the microbiology. local level in complementary fields,Graduate schools linked linked to biology, physics, chemistry, “Territories, Time, Societies and mathematics, agrisciences, water andto the theme of water Development” Graduate school computing. (TTSD, ED60)“Integrated Systems in Its research potential is based on 15Biology, Agronomy, Geosciences, The graduate school ED60 TTSD recognised research units, gatheringHydrosciences, Environment” (Territories, Time, Societies and 151 teachers and researchers, ofGraduate School (SIBAGHE, ED477) Development) is located at UM3. which 80 research supervisors. The It encompasses 10 research geographic proximity of the researchThe graduate school ED477 centres from different institutes in units making up the graduateSIBAGHE (Integrated Systems in Montpellier: UM3, UM1, Montpellier school (university and INRA) and itsBiology, Agronomy, Geosciences, SupAgro, IRD, and École Nationale interdisciplinary nature are essential Water resources: preservation and managementHydrosciences, Environment) is Supérieure d’Architecture de to the school’s ambitions.part of UM2 in the Life and Earth Montpellier (ENSA). TTSD gathersSciences section. It has a joint 65 research supervisors, 280 PhD In the field of water, the graduateaccreditation with Montpellier students of which 32 % are foreigners school hosts Ph.D. candidatesSupAgro, UM1 and AgroParisTech. and offers PhD in 13 fields. Some of focusing their theses on the the main lines of research are: functioning of hydrosystems, plantThere are roughly 400 PhD students  Rural areas, sustainable ecophysiology, water quality, etc. in the SIBAGHE graduate school, development, risk prevention and thewhich has 40 affiliated research conservation of natural areas;units, 450 approved research  Relationships between societiessupervisors and several associated (human groups, institutions,external research teams. Each PhD companies, etc.) and the environment 69student in the SIBAGHE graduate (territories, resources, etc.);
  • 70. List of acronyms and abbreviations AFEID Association Française pour l’Étude de l’Irrigation Inra Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique et du Drainage INSA Institut National des Sciences Appliquées AISH Association Internationale des Sciences Hydrologiques INSU Institut National des Sciences de l’Univers AMESD African Monitoring of Environment for Sustainable IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Development IRD Institut de Recherche pour le Développement ANR Agence Nationale de la Recherche Irstea Institut national de Recherche en Sciences et Technologies ART-Dev Acteurs, Ressources, Territoires pour le Développement pour lEnvironnement et lAgriculture BRGM Bureau des Ressources Géologiques et Minières (former Cemagref) CEA Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique ISTOM Ecole supérieure dagro développement international et aux Énergies Alternatives ITAP Information – Technologie – Analyse environnementale– CEFREM Centre de Formation et de Recherche sur les Procédés agricoles Environnements Méditerranéens IWMI International Water Management Institute CERTOP Centre d’étude et de Recherche Travail Organisation IWRA International Water Ressource Association Pouvoir JRU Joint Research Unit CGIAR Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research LAMETA Laboratoire Montpelliérain d’Economie Théorique et Appliquée Ciheam Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes LBE Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l’Environnement CIID Commission Internationale des Irrigations et du LGEI Laboratoire de Génie de l’Environnement Industriel Drainage LCA Life Cycle Assessment Cirad Centre International de Recherche Agronomique pour le LISAH Laboratoire d’étude des Interactions Sols– Agrosystèmes– Développement Hydrosystèmes CNES Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales LR Languedoc-Roussillon CNPq National Council for Scientific and Technological LSBB Laboratoire Souterrain Bas Bruit Development (CNPq) NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration CNRS Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique NGRI National Geophysical Reseaprch Institute CPWF Challenge Program on Water and Food NRE Nouvelles Ressources et Economie CRP5 CGIAR Research Programme 5 NSZ Non Saturated Zone DPSIR Driving forces, Pressures, State, Impacts, Responses OMERE Observatoire Méditerranéen DU Diplôme dUniversité de l’Environnement Rural et de l’Eau ECOSYM Laboratoire écologie des systèmes marins côtiers OREME Observatoire de Recherche Méditerranéen de ED École Doctorale l’Environnement ELSA Environmental Lifecycle & Sustainability Assessment PACA Provence - Alpes - Côte dAzur EMA école des Mines d’Alès R&D Recherche et Développement EMMAH Environnement Méditerranéen et Modélisation SCHAPI Service Central d’Hydrométéorologie et d’Appui des Agro-Hydrosystèmes à la Prévision des Inondations ENSA école Nationale Supérieure d’Architecture de Montpellier SME Small and Medium Entreprises ENSCM école Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Montpellier SMI Small and Medium Industries EPLEFPA Etablissement Public Local dEnseignement et de SOERE Systèmes dObservation et dExpérimentation Formation Professionnelle Agricole au long terme pour la Recherche en Environnement EPTB Établissement Public Territorial de Bassin TETIS Territoires, Environnement, Télédétection et Information Spatiale ESPACE-DEV Espace pour le Développement UAG Université des Antilles et de la Guyane FP7 European Union 7th Framework Programme UAPV Université d’Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse FRIEND Flow Regimes From International UM1 Université de Montpellier 1 and Experimental Network Data UM2 Université de Montpellier 2 FUI Fond Unique Interministériel UM3 Université de Montpellier 3 G-EAU Gestion de l’Eau, Acteurs, Usages UMR Unité Mixte de Recherche GM Géosciences Montpellier UMS Unité Mixte de ServiceWater resources: preservation and management GRED Gouvernance, Risque, Environnement, Développement UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific GREEN Gestion des Ressources naturelles renouvelables et and Cultural Organization ENvironnement UNîmes Université de Nîmes HSM HydroSciences Montpellier UPR Unité Propre de Recherche IAHS International Association of Hydrological Sciences UPS Université Paul Sabatier (Toulouse) IAMM Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier UPVD Université de Perpignan Via Domitia ITCS Information and Communication Technologie Sciences UR Université de la Réunion IEM Institut Européen des Membranes US Unité de Service Ifremer Institut Français de Recherche pour l’Exploitation de la Mer WDM Water Demand Management INPT Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse WFD Water Framework Directive70 WHO World Health Organisation
  • 71. This document was published with the support of the French government and Languedoc-Roussillon Region. Member organizations and partners of Agropolis International involved in this Dossier: AgroParisTech BRGM Ciheam-IAMM Cirad CGIAR CNRS EMA ENSCM Inra IRD enscm CHIMIE Montpellier Irstea ISTOM Montpellier SupAgro Pôle de compétitivité EAU Pôle de compétitivité Risques Transferts LR UAPV UM1 UM2 UM3 UNîmes UPVD VERSeau Développement Director in Chief: Bernard Hubert Scientific Coordinators: Thierry Rieu (AgroParisTech) Agropolis International Scientific Coordinators and Illustrations: ARTS, LETTRES, LANGUES, Mélanie Broin, Paul Luu & Michel Soulié SCIENCES HUMAINES ET SOCIALES Scientific Editor: Isabelle Amsallem (Agropolis Productions) Communication: Nathalie Villeméjeanne Participated in this issue: Karine Alary, Patrick Andrieux,Martine Antona, Sandra Ardoin-Bardin, Nicolas Arnaud, Marc Audibert,Pierre-Alain Ayral, Daniel Babre, Jean-Stéphane Bailly, Pierre Balzergue, Dominique Basty, Christelle Batiot-Guilhe, Véronique Bellon-Maurel, Nicolas Bernet, Jean-Louis Bodinier, Fabien Boulier, Sami Bouoarfa, François Brelle, Stéphan Brosillon, Denis Brouillet, Alexandre Brun, Fourteen dossiers published in the same collection, including: Roger Calvez, Corinne Casiot, Philippe Cattan, Emmanuelle Celier, Flavie Cernesson, Zohra Lili Chabaane, Isabelle Chaffaut, Kostantinos Chalikakis, Cédric Champollion, Jean Chéry, Pierre Chevallier, James Clarkes, Jean-Michel Clerc, Simon Cook, Geneviève Cortès, Charles Danquigny, Williams Daré, Aurélia Decherf, André Deratini,Benoît Dewandel, Liliana Di Pietro, David Dorchies, Christian Drakidès, Laurent Durieux, Michel Dutang, Christophe Emblanch, Katrin Erdlenbruch, Jean-Christophe Fabre, Jean-Antoine Faby, Hélène Fenet, Naziano Filizola, Perrine Fleury, Sébastien Fonbonne, Odile Fossati, Jochen Froebrich, Patrice Garin, Stéphane Ghiotti, Bernard Godelle, Catherine Gonzalez, Philippe Gouze, Alain Grasmick, October 2007 December 2008 June 2009 February 2010 Frédéric Grelot, Olivier Grünberger, Jérôme Hamelin, Cécile Hérivaux, 68 pages 68 pages 52 pages 68 pages Marina Héry, Frédéric Huynh, Frédéric Jacob, Anne Johannet, Hervé French / English French / English French / English French / English Jourde, Pascal Kosuth, Laure Kuhfuss, Philippe Lagacherie, Nathalie Lalande, Serge Lallemand, Lucile Lallié, Francis Laloë, Patrick Le Goulven, Christian Leduc, Véronique Leonardi, Xavier Litrico, Miguel Lopez-Ferber, Gil Mahé, Vincent Marc, Jean-Christophe Maréchal, Gilles Massardier, Jean-Claude Menaut, Philippe Miele, Chantal Miralles, Marie Mojaisky, Jérôme Molénat,Roger Moussa, Philippe Obert, Kenji Osé, Charles Perrin, Séverin Pistre, Water resources: preservation and management Yannick Ponton, Jean-Christophe Pouget, Raphaëlle Preget, Laurent Prévot, Christian Puech, Damien Raclot, Christine Recalt, Pierre Renault, Hélène Rey-Valette, Thierry Rieu, Guillaume Riou, Véronique Rousseau, Emmanuel Roux, Philippe Roux, Denis Ruelland, Stéphane Ruy, Nathalie Saint-Geours, Jean-Michel Salles, Tewfik Sari, Sophie Sauvagnargues, Michel Seranne, Éric Servat, Tom Soo, February 2010 June 2010 July 2010 August 2011 Raphael Soubeyran, Jean-Philippe Steyer, Wanderli Pedro Tadei, 28 pages 48 pages 68 pages 84 pages French / English French / English French / English French / EnglishMaxime Thibon, Sophie Thoyer, Bruno Tisseyre, Jean-Philippe Tonneau, Marie-George Tournoud, Jean-Philippe Venot, Michael Victor, Alain Vidal, Yunona Videnina, Marc Vinches, Charlotte Vinchon, Marc Voltz Les dossiers d’Agropolis International Illustrations: we thank the INDIGO pictures library (IRD) The Dossiers d’Agropolis International series is a deliverable of Agropolis International that is produced within the scope and all contributors to this Dossier of its mission to promote expertise of the scientific community. Each Dossier is devoted to a broad scientific theme, and includes a clear overview that is a ready reference for all Layout and computer graphics: Olivier Piau (Agropolis Productions) laboratories and teams associated with Agropolis International that are conducting research on the target theme. info@agropolis-productions.fr 71 This series is meant to boost the awareness of our different partners on the expertise and potential available within Printing: Les Petites Affiches (Montpellier, France) our scientific community, but also to facilitate contacts for the development of scientific and technical cooperation ISSN: 1628-4240 • Copyright: February 2012 and exchange.
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