What’s	  cooking	  on	  farms?	      CBD	  COP	  11	        17	  Oct	  2012	    Domes.ca.on	  of	  indigenous	  fruit	  tr...
Domes.ca.on	  of	  Agroforestry	  Trees	  in	             Cameroon	                                        100	  CFA	     ...
Quan.fica.on	  of	  Important	  Traits	                                                                                    ...
Nutri.onal	  benefits	  of	  indigenous	  fruits	  Species              Dacroydes Irvingia                            Maize...
Tree-­‐to-­‐tree	  varia.on	  in	  Vitamin	  E	  and	  	                                                        an.-­‐nutr...
Cycle	  of	  Land	                                                    Degrada.on	  and	                                   ...
Filling	  the	  Yield	  Gap	  (tonnes per hectare)                       Solution    Crop yield                           ...
Filling	  the	  ‘Yield	  Gap’Step 1: Restore soil fertility using leguminous trees that fix nitrogen                      ...
Filling	  the	  ‘Yield	  Gap’Step 2. Integrating traditionally important trees on-farm            	  	  Par.cipatory	  Tre...
Par.cipatory	  tree	  domes.ca.on	  Process	  •  PRA	  for	  priority	  seTng	  •  Capacity	  building	  /	  mentoring	  i...
Filling	  the	  ‘Yield	  Gap’ Step 3. Commercialization, value addition and trade             Commercializa.on	  of	  AFTP...
Filling	  the	  ‘Yield	  Gap’	  Step 3. Commercialization, value addition and trade (2)	                     Stall-­‐fed	 ...
A	  Generic	  Model	  of	  Agroforestry	  –	  Highly	  adaptable	                                                    STEP ...
Mul.func.onal	  Agriculture	                                                    RRC’s	                                    ...
Tree	  Domes.ca.on	  is	  Transforming	  	  People’s	  Lives	                                                       I’m bu...
Living with the Trees                                                   of Life                                           ...
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What’s cooking on farms? CBD COP 11 - 17 Oct 2012 Domestication of indigenous fruit trees for sustainable intensification

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Domesticating useful indigenous tree species, growing them widely on farms, and processing marketable products from them can help alleviate malnutrition and poverty.

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What’s cooking on farms? CBD COP 11 - 17 Oct 2012 Domestication of indigenous fruit trees for sustainable intensification

  1. 1. What’s  cooking  on  farms?   CBD  COP  11   17  Oct  2012   Domes.ca.on  of  indigenous  fruit  trees  for  sustainable   intensifica.on  Tree-­‐enriched  farms  diversified  and  intensified       Tradi2onally  and  culturally  important     tree  species  (foods/medicines)     cul2vated  and  domes2cated    for  social     and  economic  benefits  (value-­‐adding,     processing  and  trade)   Roger  Leakey   Interna.onal  Tree  Founda.on  and  ICRAF   www.interna.onaltreefounda.on.org   www.worldagroforestrycentre.org  
  2. 2. Domes.ca.on  of  Agroforestry  Trees  in   Cameroon   100  CFA   200  CFA   100  CFA   100  CFA   100  CFA   200  CFA   100  CFA   200  CFA   250  CFA   100  CFA   200  CFA   25  CFA   50  CFA   50  CFA   Dacryodes edulis
  3. 3. Quan.fica.on  of  Important  Traits   Medicinal   Fruit  morphology   200 proper2es   Kernel mass 150 Shell mass Flesh massMass (g) 100 50 0 Individual trees %a-santalol 50.0 Essen2al  oils   Edible  oils  and   12 faGy  acids   45.0 stearine (mg) oleine (mg) 40.0 10 35.0 8 30.0 Mass (mg) % a-santalol 6 25.0 20.0 4 15.0 2 10.0 5.0 0 1 4 7 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34 37 40 43 46 49 52 55 58 61 64 67 70 73 76 79 82 85 0.0 Individual trees
  4. 4. Nutri.onal  benefits  of  indigenous  fruits  Species Dacroydes Irvingia Maize Rice Cassava edulis fruit gabonensis grain grain tuber (88% dm) kernels (86% dm) (30-35%dm) (88% dm)Carbohydrates 14 26-39 66-76 46-59 24-31Fats/oils 32 51-72 2-6 1-2 <1Protein 26 7.4 5-14 4-8 1Fibre 18 1 1-3 1-4 1-2 Data  on  micronutrients,  faGy  acids,  etc.  in  Leakey  1999,     Food  Chemistry  64,  1-­‐14.    
  5. 5. Tree-­‐to-­‐tree  varia.on  in  Vitamin  E  and     an.-­‐nutrient  contents     Figure 10. Tocopherol content of Canarium indicum kernels from individual trees in East New Britain, Papua New Guinea alpha tocopherol beta tocopherol delta tocopherol gamma tocopherol 35 30 25Tocopherol mg per g 20 15 10 5 0 Rabaul DoY 3 DoY 2 Pomio Pomio Rabaul Rabaul Rabaul Rabaul DoY 7 Rabaul DoY 8 12. Antioxidant5and Phenolic content Figure Rabaul Rabaul DoY DoY 6 DoY 1 DoY 4 of Canarium indicum kernels from individual 3 2 1 7 1 5 4 6 2 8 trees in East New Britain, Papua New GuineaCanarium  indicum  (Galip   7 Antioxidant capacity Phenolic content Antioxidant in mg ascorbate equivalents per gnut)  in  Papua  New  Guinea   6 Phenolics in mg catechin equivalents per g 5 Content 4 3 2 1 0 Individual trees
  6. 6. Cycle  of  Land   Degrada.on  and   Social  Depriva.on       POVERTY LAND DEGRADATION Loss  of  crop  yield   To address the problem we must resolve bothCGIAR Research Program CRP1.1 Dryland Systems issues at the same time
  7. 7. Filling  the  Yield  Gap  (tonnes per hectare) Solution Crop yield Step 2+3 Solution Yield Gap Step 1
  8. 8. Filling  the  ‘Yield  Gap’Step 1: Restore soil fertility using leguminous trees that fix nitrogen Yields can be raised from <1 tonne/hectare to around 4-5 tonnes per hectareThis also partially restores theecological health of soils
  9. 9. Filling  the  ‘Yield  Gap’Step 2. Integrating traditionally important trees on-farm    Par.cipatory  Tree  Domes.ca.on   1 2
  10. 10. Par.cipatory  tree  domes.ca.on  Process  •  PRA  for  priority  seTng  •  Capacity  building  /  mentoring  in  communi2es  (hor2cultural  skills,  nursery   management,  agroforestry  prac2ces,  community  development,  use  of   microfinance,  business  development)  •  Support  for  village  tree  nurseries    •  Farmers  drive  their  own  ini2a2ves        •  Benefit  flows  direct  to  farmers  •  Community  empowerment    Urgent  needs  •  BeGer  IPR  protec2on  of  farmer  developed  varie2es/cul2vars  •  BeGer  compliance  with  Access  &  Benefit  sharing  agreements  to  protect   commercial  innova2ons  
  11. 11. Filling  the  ‘Yield  Gap’ Step 3. Commercialization, value addition and trade Commercializa.on  of  AFTPs  –     A  vital  business  ini.a.ve  for  reduc.on  of  poverty  in   Africa  From  tradi.onal  markets  ……………….  to…………….…  new  business    
  12. 12. Filling  the  ‘Yield  Gap’  Step 3. Commercialization, value addition and trade (2)   Stall-­‐fed  tree  fodder  (Embu   Kenya)  from  400m  hedge  of   Calliandra  calothyrsus  could   produce  enough  feed  for  two   cows  (90  kg  per  day)  in  the  dry   season  (3  months).  This  raised   the  milk  yield  by  over  300  litres  (=   3  kg  of  homegrown  tree  fodder   was  equivalent  to  1  kg  of   purchased  dairy  ‘concentrate’).    
  13. 13. A  Generic  Model  of  Agroforestry  –  Highly  adaptable   STEP 11.  Rehabilita2on     Higher crop yields and(BNF:  Improved  fallows,   some foodintercropping,  Evergreen  Agriculture,   securityetc.)     STEP 2 Food security Diversified2.  Domes2ca2on   agroecosystem Income and domestic self sufficiency(Diversifica2on  and  intensifica2on)     Improved   Improved tree products nutrition and health       STEP 33.  Commercializa2on   Product Employment. Income(Value-­‐adding  and  trade)   processing. Entrepreneurism. Value-adding. Trade. Empowerment Market chain development. Delivery  of   Gender equity Mul2func2onal   Improved infrastructure Agriculture   Education
  14. 14. Mul.func.onal  Agriculture   RRC’s   $  (Cameroon  -­‐  485  villages  /  7100  Farmers  +  Entrepreneurs,  Traders,  Microfinance)  
  15. 15. Tree  Domes.ca.on  is  Transforming    People’s  Lives   I’m buying Agroforestry fertilizers I’ve improved has and have a I’ve decided my house and improved cow to be a built a well our lives nursery man and My family stay in my are healthier village and going to schoolMy kids areeating fruits and veg I’m processing and trading AFTPs
  16. 16. Living with the Trees of Life   Towards  the     Transforma.on       of     Tropical     Agriculture   “.…  a  very  engaging  read….”         www.rogerleakey.com   by  Roger  RB  Leakey   rogerleakey@b2nternet.com     hGp://bookshop.cabi.org   www.cabi.org  Published  by  CABI  (2012)  
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