SEEING THE WOOD FOR THE TREES:beyond	  bio-forfication: nutrion, cooking & health
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Like this? Share it with your network

Share

SEEING THE WOOD FOR THE TREES:beyond bio-forfication: nutrion, cooking & health

on

  • 1,500 views

Presentation by Professor Tony Cunningham at CBD COP11 Event in Hyderabad, 17October2012. World Agroforestry Centre/ICRAF. Title: "Seeing the Wood for the Trees.".

Presentation by Professor Tony Cunningham at CBD COP11 Event in Hyderabad, 17October2012. World Agroforestry Centre/ICRAF. Title: "Seeing the Wood for the Trees.".

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,500
Views on SlideShare
1,041
Embed Views
459

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
7
Comments
0

9 Embeds 459

http://www.worldagroforestrycentre.org 175
http://worldagroforestry.org 158
http://www.worldagroforestry.org 103
http://www.icraf.org 10
http://worldagroforestrycentre.org 4
http://translate.googleusercontent.com 3
https://twitter.com 2
http://unjobs.org 2
http://www.icraf.com 2
More...

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

SEEING THE WOOD FOR THE TREES:beyond bio-forfication: nutrion, cooking & health Presentation Transcript

  • 1. SEEING THE WOOD FOR THE TREES:beyond  bio-­‐for,fica,on:  nutri,on,  cooking  &  health   Dr A B (Tony) Cunningham ICRAF Senior Associate & School of Plant Biology, University of Western Australia
  • 2. OVERVIEW  •  1.  Context  •  2.  Why  worry  about  what’s  used  for  cooking?  •  3.  Where  does  solid  fuel  use  for  cooking  occur?  •  4.  Common  intervenAons;  •  5.  Fuel  choices,  toxic  effects  &  agroforestry  soluAons  •  6.  Conclusions.  
  • 3. 1.  CONTEXT  •  “Hidden  hunger”  –  micro-­‐ nutrient  deficiency;  •  “nutriAon  transiAon”  &   bioforAficaAon  in  further   dietary  simplificaAon  vs.   biodiversity  in  nutriAon  (Frison   et  al.,  2004,  COP7;  Johns  and   Eyzaguirre.  2007);  •  Looking  out  of  the  frying  pan  &   into  the  fire….(or  at  fuelwood   &  charcoal  diversity)….  
  • 4. WHAT  SCALE?     CASE  STUDY:  TANZANIA  &  MALAWI  •  About  half  of  Tanzania’s  annual  consumpAon  of   charcoal  takes  place  in  Dar  es  Salaam  (c.500,000   tons/yr)  from  a  “catchment”  up  to  200  km  away   (WB,  2009);  •  Tanzania:  trade  worth  US$650  million/yr  (WB,   2009)  &  in  Malawi  c.  US$41.3  million/yr  to  four   ciAes  (=tea  industry)  (Kambewa  et  al,  2007);  Ref:  World  Bank.  2009.  Environmental  crisis  or  sustainable  development  opportunity?:  Transforming  the  charcoal  sector  in  Tanzania.    •     World  Bank,  Washington  DC.    
  • 5. 2.  BACKGROUND    •  2.4  billion  people  live  in  households  where  solid  biomass   fuels  (wood,  charcoal,  dung)  are  used  for  cooking  &  heaAng   plus  0.6  million  using  coal  (Po  et  al.,  2011);  •  About  2  million  children/yr  die  of  pneumonia.  Smoke   (=indoor  air  polluAon)  increases  risk  of  pneumonia  by  1.8  in   children  (Dherani  et  al,  2008;  Hu  et  al.,  2010;  Po  et  al.,  2011);  •  Not  all  woods  are  the  same:  toxins  in  fuelwoods  can   have  serious  health  consequences.  
  • 6. 3.  WHERE  DOES  SOLID  FUEL  USE  FOR  COOKING   OCCUR?  but  what  about  tree  diversity  &  fuelwood  &  charcoal  quality?  •  Ref:  Torres-­‐Duque  et  al.  2008.  Biomass  Fuels  and  Respiratory  Diseases.  Proc  Am  Thorac  Soc  5:  577–590  
  • 7. 4.  COMMON  INTERVENTIONS  •  improvements  of  household  venAlaAon;  •  IntroducAon  of  different  stove  designs;  •  TransiAons  to  other  energy  sources  (e.g:  rural   electrificaAon);  •  …but  charcoal  &  fuelwood  sAll  widely  used,  even   with  rural  electrificaAon.  
  • 8. CASE  STUDY:  SOUTH  AFRICA  •  electrificaAon  yet  no  significant  decrease  in  per   capita  woody  biomass  consumpAon…BUT:  •   significant  increase  in  the  Ame  spent  collecAng   fuelwood  &  more  buying  firewood;  •  larger  number  of  tree  species  collected  &  used  for   fuelwood  than  before…..so  wood  use  will  be  with  us   for  a  while….    REF:  Madubansi  M  &  Shackleton  C.M.  (2006).  Changing  Energy  Profiles  and  consumpAon  pakerns  following  electrificaAon  in  five  rural  villages,  South  Africa.    Energy  Policy.  34:4081-­‐4092      
  • 9. 5.  FUEL  CHOICES  &  TOXIC  EFFECTS  •  What  is  used  to  cook  foods  by  which  households  &   what  levels  of  exposure  to  what  types  of  smoke?;  •  Toxic  effects  of  certain  plant  species,  genera  &   families  well  known  (eg:  Spirostachys  (Africa),   Excoecaria  agallocha  (South  Asia)  which  contain  the   diterpene  excoecarin;  •  More  subtle  effects  can  be  more  insidious.  
  • 10. SMOKE  IS  NATURAL,  BUT  IS  IT  GOOD?  •  Polycyclic  aromaAc  hydrocarbons  (PAH)  (e.g:   benzopyrenes)  =  carcinogenic  (cancer  of  lungs,  pharynx  &   larynx);  •  Polycyclic  aromaAcs  &  metal  ions  in  smoke  (toxins   absorbed  into  eye  lenses,  causing  oxidaAve  change  &   cataracts);  •  Need  to  understand  mutagenicity  emission  potency  of   different  wood  species  are  used  as  fuel.    
  • 11. SEEING  WOOD,  TREES  &  LANDSCAPES  less  choice  of  fuelwoods,  parAcularly  for  poor  &  vulnerable  households  
  • 12. COMBINE  WOOD  MUTAGENIC   ASSESSMENTS  &  LOCAL  KNOWLEDGE •  mutagenic  potency  of  some  fuelwood  species  has   been  established  (e.g:  Vu  et  al.,  2012,  Portugal)  but   more  Asian  and  African  studies  needed;  •  Good  to  use  informant-­‐based  valuaAon  systems  &   local  knowledge  to  prioriAze  fuelwood  species   (Cunningham,  2001);  •  Euclea  as  an  example.    
  • 13. CASE  STUDY:  STRYCHNOS,     5  YR  FAMINE  FOOD  •  Highly  favoured  woods:  Newtonia  hildebrand9i,  Pteleopsis  myr9folia   vs.  poor  quality  woods  (e.g:  Albizia  versicolor)  (Cunningham,  1985)  
  • 14. AGROFORESTRY  &  SELECTING   “GOOD  WOODS”  •  SelecAon  for  chemotypes  with  low  toxic  levels  (e.g:   polycyclic  aromaAc  hydrocarbons)  -­‐  parAcipatory   processes  &  local  knowledge  important    
  • 15. 6.  CONCLUSION:  A  SYSTEMS  APPROACH   FOOD  &  FUELWOOD     FOOD  &  FUEL  ACCESS   AVAILABILITY   •  Social  networks;   • RestoraAon,  agroforestry  &     •   Income  to  buy  food  &  fuel;   Resource  management   •   Disease  impacts  on  capability     (malaria,  respiratory  diseases,  HIV);  •   availability  of  quanAty  &  quality     •   Direct  &  indirect  impacts     of  fruit,  fuel  &  fodder   PEOPLE’S   of  climate  on  land-­‐use     species   &  food  security. WELL  BEING   NUTRIENT          ACCESS   • Nutrient  content  of  foods   (oils,  proteins,  vitamins);     *  Opportunity  to  boil  water  &  cook  foods;     • Indirect  effects  on  human  health     &  ability  to  absorb  nutrients     (fungal  &  fuel  toxins,  water  &  sanitaAon)  
  • 16. THANK YOU