Reflections on ICRAF’s programme (GRP1) What can be achieved by tree domestication? SCIENCE WEEK 2011 Roger Leakey, James Cook University, Australia and International Tree Foundation, UK
Regional Programme presentations <ul><li>Eastern Africa : </li></ul><ul><li>Pleased to hear of the new focus on drylands and tree x pasture x livestock vis à vis drought and food security. Big opportunities for GRP1 but issues of social conflict between sedentary / nomadic lifestyles. </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge : How can agroforestry help nomadic herdsmen? Similarities and differences with the Sahel and Tanzania? </li></ul>
Regional Programme presentations The regions all appear to have specific research strengths and somewhat different agendas. In one sense this is not surprising as they differ in their biophysical and socio-economic environments. However, when notionally they are involved in similar research (e.g. tree domestication), it seemed that they did not follow similar strategies or use similar techniques and would benefit from cross-fertilization. 1. Is there a need for more in depth interaction (staff visits and exchanges) between regions? – eg. WCAfrica x Southern Africa x SE Asia x Latin America for high value indigenous fruits – Participatory Domestication, Vegetative propagation, etc. 2. Similarly, there seems to be opportunities to learn from each other about marketing, processing and adding value to AFTPs.
Inter-Regional cooperation In some cases comparative studies would be beneficial – eg. Land tenure and rights issues. To what extent are they constraints to tree domestication and agroforestry? There seem to be contradictory statements in the literature. If they are site specific, are there any lessons which can be learned? Others? – PES, AF impacts.
Inter-Regional Cooperation <ul><li>General need to broaden the experience of staff across the Centre – Sabbaticals (1-2 months) in other regional teams? </li></ul><ul><li>Information : </li></ul><ul><li>SE Asia : New opportunity from linkages with the new “Crops for the Future Research Centre” based in Kuala Lumpur. </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd Underutilized Crops Conference (June-July 2011). Next meeting 2015. ICRAF needs to be better represented in the programme. </li></ul>
GRProgramme presentations <ul><li>GRP1. </li></ul><ul><li>Genetics of wood properties and calorific value a good example of the use of laboratory techniques in characterization of traits for selection. </li></ul><ul><li>The links to environmental parameters extend the importance and scientific value of the work, as well as its relevance to adaptation to climate change. </li></ul><ul><li>Tree-to-tree variation in wood characteristics are probably very large, but do the markets warrant a clonal approach to domestication? </li></ul>
Greater assessment of the food, nutrition, medicinal properties <ul><li>I would like to see a much wider range of techniques brought into the programme to characterize other important traits for selection in order to meet new market opportunities: eg. Proximate analysis, mineral / vitamin analysis, anti-nutrients, fatty acids, essential oils and resins, organoleptic analysis, physico-chemical analysis of foods, NIR analysis, anti-inflammatory properties, etc. ( Currently this work is done outside ICRAF projects). </li></ul><ul><li>Some of this may be possible in-house while others will require strategic partnerships. </li></ul>
GRProgramme presentations <ul><li>The ideotype concept still does not seem to have been brought into ICRAF – for example there is a need for this in thinking about how to deliver cultivars of Allanblackia spp. to the food industry. </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘ideotype’ is a way of bringing together a range of different traits in a cultivar such that it would match the needs of a particular market. </li></ul>
Characterization of Fatty Acid Content Atangana AR, van der Vlis E, Khasa DP, van Houten D, Beaulieu J, and Hendrickx H (2011) Tree-to-tree variation in stearic and oleic acid content in seed fat from Allanblackia floribunda from wild stands: potential for tree breeding. Food Chemestry 126: 1579-1585. Data for only one species? – few sites? Allanblackia spp.
The Ideal AB? High oil yield Few big fruit / many nuts v. Many smaller fruits / few nuts? Fatty acid profile (100% Oleic and Stearic acid O:S ratio)
In fruit and nut trees this approach allows the development of numerous single-purpose ideotypes targeting different markets, even within individual species . Hierarchy of Ideotypes 1 3 2 LEVEL Pulp Juice Skin Beer and wine Distilled liquor Nutritional value Tas te Processing quality Fruit Flesh Nut Shell Kernel Food Taste Nutritional value Oil Medicinal products Cosmetics Edible oils
GRProgramme presentations <ul><li>Use of molecular tools to answer important questions about the capture and use of genetic diversity in agroforestry trees. </li></ul><ul><li>David Neale provided stimulus on what could be done to characterize the important alleles responsible for phenotypic variation in wild populations of AFTP species. </li></ul><ul><li>---- </li></ul><ul><li>Already we are seeing that these techniques can be used to validate our Domestication Strategy? </li></ul>
Superior trees ( ● ) from were found to be unrelated. c.f. Assogbadjo et al., 2009. Agroforestry Systems 75: 157 – 165. Effect of Cultivar Development on Genetic Diversity Pauku, R.L., Lowe, A. and Leakey, R.R.B. 2010. Domestication of indigenous fruit and nut trees for agroforestry in the Solomon Islands. Forests, Trees and Livelihoods 19: 269-287. Over 80% of diversity available at the village level
Post-harvest processing and marketing of ATFPs DOMESTICATION COMMERCIALIZATION GRP1 GRP3 GRProgramme presentations Domestication needs the support of commercialization and commercialization needs the outputs of domestication. Therefore they should run in parallel.
Post-harvest processing and marketing of ATFPs DOMESTICATION GRP1 GRP3 GRProgramme presentations COMMERCIALIZATION
AFTP Processing, Value Adding and Trade Drying Transformation Bottling Packaging for better quality, longer shelf-life and wider scale and out-of-season trade. Business and employment for poverty alleviation
Commercialization of fruits Value-adding: Example of mango in Australia Processing, packaging and marketing
Commercialization, value addition and trade How is ICRAF’s Domestication programme promoting this commerce?
Dennis’s Eye Opener <ul><li>Allanblackia may be the greatest domestication opportunity. Unfortunately it has also turned out to be the most challenging species that we’ve encountered. </li></ul><ul><li>Resolution of constraints: </li></ul><ul><li>Plagiotropism </li></ul><ul><li>Rooting capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Propagation of mature trees </li></ul><ul><li>After lunch I am hoping to hear what progress has been made to overcome these ‘teething problems’. </li></ul>
Effects of Vegetative Propagation on Tree Size and Time to Fruiting (from Orthotropic shoots) ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Years to first fruiting 15 6 2 15
Overcoming problems of plagiotropism Some species (eg. Allanblackia spp.) are posing problems of plagiotropic growth from cuttings and grafts Leakey, R.R.B. (1990). Nauclea diderrichii : rooting of stem cuttings, clonal variation in shoot dominance and branch plagiotropism. Trees 4 , 164-169. Epigenetic control of branch growth? Which buds are ‘programmed? as branches? When does this occur?
Effects of Vegetative Propagation on Tree Size and Time to Fruiting (Plagiotropic shoots) ● REPLACE THIS WITH ERECT GROWTH BY USING ORTHOTROPIC SHOOTS ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Years to first fruiting 15 6 2 15 15 Years to first fruiting ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●
Phase Change and Rooting Ability Pauku, R.L., Lowe, A. and Leakey, R.R.B. 2010. Domestication of indigenous fruit and nut trees for agroforestry in the Solomon Islands. Forests, Trees and Livelihoods 19: 269-287 . Is it possible to develop physiologically young shoots in an ontogenetically mature tree crown? Guys who got it wrong got FRS!
Clonal Trials of AFTP Cultivars <ul><li>Comparison, confirmation, quantification, description of interesting/promising cultivars </li></ul>EXPERIMENTS? PUBLICATIONS? Breakout Group – Urgent need
Where are we going? We need a ‘ new wave of domestication ’ to meet the needs of poor people, diversify farming systems, and promote socially and environmentally sustainable production systems. Leakey, R.R.B. 2011. Participatory Domestication of Indigenous Fruit and Nut Trees: New crops for Sustainable Agriculture in Developing Countries. In: Biodiversity in Agriculture: Domestication, Evolution and Sustainability . Harlan II Symposium, University of California, Davis, 14 - 18 September 2008. Jared Diamond (1997) in “ Guns, Germs and Steel” says that domestication has been the precursor of settled, politically centralized, socially stratified, economically complex and technologically innovative societies (= the Developed World). A ‘New Wave’ of domestication
Cycle of Land Degradation Impacts on poverty, malnutrition and hunger The ‘Vicious Cycle’ (Reardon and Vosti, 1995) Environmental Degradation Poverty
The Three Steps of Agroforestry <ul><li>Rehabilitation </li></ul><ul><li>Domestication </li></ul><ul><li>Commercialization </li></ul>GRP1, GRP2, GRP3
The Three Steps of Agroforestry <ul><li>Rehabilitation </li></ul><ul><li>Domestication </li></ul><ul><li>Commercialization </li></ul>Evergreen Agriculture
Tree Domestication in the Big Picture Recognize that low yields are due to poor crop husbandry and poverty. We need to fill the ‘ Yield Gap’. Need a focus on natural resource rehabilitation and agroecological functions Need a focus on livelihoods – income generation and nutrition Leakey, RRB (in press). Addressing the causes of land degradation, food / nutritional insecurity and poverty: a new approach to agricultural intensification in the tropics and sub-tropics. In: UNCTAD Trade and Environment Review 2011/2012 (ed. U. Hoffman), UNCTAD, Geneva, Switzerland. . AFTPs RES/PES GENERATE INCOME BNF STEPs 2+3 Focus of AF DIVERSIFY STEP 1
Filling the Yield Gap Solution Leakey, R.R.B. 2010. Agroforestry: a delivery mechanism for Multi-functional Agriculture. In: Handbook on Agroforestry: Management Practices and Environmental Impact , 461-471, Ed. Lawrence R. Kellimore, Nova Science Publishers. Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology Series, ISBN: 978-1-60876-359-7. Step 2+3 Step 1 Yield Gap Solution Crop yield (tonnes per hectare) +3
Filling the Yield gap: Changes in land use Large area of low yield food crop Smaller area of high yield food crop + area of cash crops
AF in Multifunctional Landscapes The development of diversified and functional landscapes producing multiple AFTPs within a mosaic that includes patches of productive food cropping on the best land and trees crops on marginal and vulnerable land should deliver environmental resilience and livelihood benefits. GRP4, GRP5, GRP6
GRP1 – The ‘Flag-tree’ project ‘DOMESTICATION’ IS CENTRAL TO ICRAF OVERALL STRATEGY GRP6 GRP3 GRP 4 GRP 5 GRP 2 GRP 1 OUTPUTS