Unequal participation of smallholder farmers in coffee certification programs in Central Kenya<br />Kirumba, E.G., Mithoef...
Introduction<br />Certification offers alternative governance (Raynolds et al., 2007)<br />Potential for premiums, better ...
Introduction cont’d…<br />Very little done on certification<br />Moderate price increases, better cooperative organization...
Materials and Methods<br />
Materials and Methods cont’d ….<br />Tekangu cooperative society: 3200 farmers<br />Utz certification in  2008/2009 coffee...
Data collection:  FGDs, informal interviews, questionnaires & lit<br />Source:  Field Survey (FGD)<br />Data analysis:  de...
RESULTS<br />
Top down strategy <br />Buyers interface between coop & international buyers<br />Write proposals for funding to donors<br...
Suggested determinants of inclusion<br />
Variable selection from suggested dets.<br />
Comparisons between certified & non-certified farmers<br />Key: ns= not significant; * = significant at p<0.1; ** = signif...
Comparisons of certified vs. non-certified farmers <br />Key: ns= not significant; * = significant at p<0.1; ** = signific...
Key determinants of inclusion into certification<br />Key: β (odds ratio); S.E: (standard error); Exp (β): (exponential be...
Conclusions <br />Certification focuses on ‘good’ farmers with pre-enabling conditions<br />Pre-selection done to guarante...
Acknowlegement<br />CAFNET project, IFRA & French Embassy for funding<br />Supervision & guidance: Dagmar, Fabrice, Anja<b...
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Unequal participation of smallholder farmers in coffee certification programs in central kenya

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Unequal participation of smallholder farmers in coffee certification programs in central kenya

  1. 1. Unequal participation of smallholder farmers in coffee certification programs in Central Kenya<br />Kirumba, E.G., Mithoefer, D., Gassner, A., Pinard, F.<br />CAFNET PROJECT – ICRAF/CIRAD<br />29th MARCH 2011<br />
  2. 2. Introduction<br />Certification offers alternative governance (Raynolds et al., 2007)<br />Potential for premiums, better prices, market visibility<br />8% of green coffee certified: fair trade, rainforest alliance, Utz certified e.t.c. (Giovannucci, 2010). <br />Concerns about exclusion of producers & imbalances of power (Swinnen and Maertens, 2007; Sexsmith & Potts, 2009)<br />In Kenya, coffee certification relatively new<br />1st certification schemes in 2005: Fair trade, CAFÉ, UTZ<br />
  3. 3. Introduction cont’d…<br />Very little done on certification<br />Moderate price increases, better cooperative organization, markets access (Kamau et al., 2009, Pflaeger, 2009)<br />Gaps exist: What are the governance strategies? Do farmers self select or are pre-selected? What are the key determinants?<br />
  4. 4. Materials and Methods<br />
  5. 5. Materials and Methods cont’d ….<br />Tekangu cooperative society: 3200 farmers<br />Utz certification in 2008/2009 coffee season. Study done same period.<br />Certified farmers: 2176, Non-certified farmers: 1024<br />Sample size: 150 farmers. 75 per category<br />Simple random sampling<br />Finite population correction: <5%<br />
  6. 6. Data collection: FGDs, informal interviews, questionnaires & lit<br />Source: Field Survey (FGD)<br />Data analysis: descriptives, inferential statistics, multi dimensional scaling (MDS), regression analysis<br />
  7. 7. RESULTS<br />
  8. 8. Top down strategy <br />Buyers interface between coop & international buyers<br />Write proposals for funding to donors<br />Select cooperative : based on quality, friendship, kinship<br />Convince coop officials: promise of high prices<br />Idea floated during AGM, <5% attendance, passed<br />Pre-selection: ‘A’ (good) and ‘B’ (poor) farmers selected<br />Promoter farmers identified & trained<br />Train fellow farmers<br />
  9. 9. Suggested determinants of inclusion<br />
  10. 10. Variable selection from suggested dets.<br />
  11. 11. Comparisons between certified & non-certified farmers<br />Key: ns= not significant; * = significant at p<0.1; ** = significant at p<0.05; ***= significant at p<0.01<br />
  12. 12. Comparisons of certified vs. non-certified farmers <br />Key: ns= not significant; * = significant at p<0.1; ** = significant at p<0.05; ***= significant at p<0.01<br />
  13. 13. Key determinants of inclusion into certification<br />Key: β (odds ratio); S.E: (standard error); Exp (β): (exponential beta); Wald: wald statistic; df: degree of freedom<br />
  14. 14. Conclusions <br />Certification focuses on ‘good’ farmers with pre-enabling conditions<br />Pre-selection done to guarantee win-win situation<br />Interactive participation (acceptance, ownership, sustainability)<br />Training & information access for farmers – choices & self selection<br />
  15. 15. Acknowlegement<br />CAFNET project, IFRA & French Embassy for funding<br />Supervision & guidance: Dagmar, Fabrice, Anja<br />Farmers, Tekangu cooperative officials, buyer representatives<br />

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