Unequal participation of smallholder farmers in coffee certification programs in central kenya
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Unequal participation of smallholder farmers in coffee certification programs in central kenya

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Unequal participation of smallholder farmers in coffee certification programs in central kenya

Unequal participation of smallholder farmers in coffee certification programs in central kenya

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    Unequal participation of smallholder farmers in coffee certification programs in central kenya Unequal participation of smallholder farmers in coffee certification programs in central kenya Presentation Transcript

    • Unequal participation of smallholder farmers in coffee certification programs in Central Kenya
      Kirumba, E.G., Mithoefer, D., Gassner, A., Pinard, F.
      CAFNET PROJECT – ICRAF/CIRAD
      29th MARCH 2011
    • Introduction
      Certification offers alternative governance (Raynolds et al., 2007)
      Potential for premiums, better prices, market visibility
      8% of green coffee certified: fair trade, rainforest alliance, Utz certified e.t.c. (Giovannucci, 2010).
      Concerns about exclusion of producers & imbalances of power (Swinnen and Maertens, 2007; Sexsmith & Potts, 2009)
      In Kenya, coffee certification relatively new
      1st certification schemes in 2005: Fair trade, CAFÉ, UTZ
    • Introduction cont’d…
      Very little done on certification
      Moderate price increases, better cooperative organization, markets access (Kamau et al., 2009, Pflaeger, 2009)
      Gaps exist: What are the governance strategies? Do farmers self select or are pre-selected? What are the key determinants?
    • Materials and Methods
    • Materials and Methods cont’d ….
      Tekangu cooperative society: 3200 farmers
      Utz certification in 2008/2009 coffee season. Study done same period.
      Certified farmers: 2176, Non-certified farmers: 1024
      Sample size: 150 farmers. 75 per category
      Simple random sampling
      Finite population correction: <5%
    • Data collection: FGDs, informal interviews, questionnaires & lit
      Source: Field Survey (FGD)
      Data analysis: descriptives, inferential statistics, multi dimensional scaling (MDS), regression analysis
    • RESULTS
    • Top down strategy
      Buyers interface between coop & international buyers
      Write proposals for funding to donors
      Select cooperative : based on quality, friendship, kinship
      Convince coop officials: promise of high prices
      Idea floated during AGM, <5% attendance, passed
      Pre-selection: ‘A’ (good) and ‘B’ (poor) farmers selected
      Promoter farmers identified & trained
      Train fellow farmers
    • Suggested determinants of inclusion
    • Variable selection from suggested dets.
    • Comparisons between certified & non-certified farmers
      Key: ns= not significant; * = significant at p<0.1; ** = significant at p<0.05; ***= significant at p<0.01
    • Comparisons of certified vs. non-certified farmers
      Key: ns= not significant; * = significant at p<0.1; ** = significant at p<0.05; ***= significant at p<0.01
    • Key determinants of inclusion into certification
      Key: β (odds ratio); S.E: (standard error); Exp (β): (exponential beta); Wald: wald statistic; df: degree of freedom
    • Conclusions
      Certification focuses on ‘good’ farmers with pre-enabling conditions
      Pre-selection done to guarantee win-win situation
      Interactive participation (acceptance, ownership, sustainability)
      Training & information access for farmers – choices & self selection
    • Acknowlegement
      CAFNET project, IFRA & French Embassy for funding
      Supervision & guidance: Dagmar, Fabrice, Anja
      Farmers, Tekangu cooperative officials, buyer representatives