Unequal participation of smallholder farmers in coffee certification programs in central kenya

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Unequal participation of smallholder farmers in coffee certification programs in central kenya

Unequal participation of smallholder farmers in coffee certification programs in central kenya

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  • 1. Unequal participation of smallholder farmers in coffee certification programs in Central Kenya
    Kirumba, E.G., Mithoefer, D., Gassner, A., Pinard, F.
    CAFNET PROJECT – ICRAF/CIRAD
    29th MARCH 2011
  • 2. Introduction
    Certification offers alternative governance (Raynolds et al., 2007)
    Potential for premiums, better prices, market visibility
    8% of green coffee certified: fair trade, rainforest alliance, Utz certified e.t.c. (Giovannucci, 2010).
    Concerns about exclusion of producers & imbalances of power (Swinnen and Maertens, 2007; Sexsmith & Potts, 2009)
    In Kenya, coffee certification relatively new
    1st certification schemes in 2005: Fair trade, CAFÉ, UTZ
  • 3. Introduction cont’d…
    Very little done on certification
    Moderate price increases, better cooperative organization, markets access (Kamau et al., 2009, Pflaeger, 2009)
    Gaps exist: What are the governance strategies? Do farmers self select or are pre-selected? What are the key determinants?
  • 4. Materials and Methods
  • 5. Materials and Methods cont’d ….
    Tekangu cooperative society: 3200 farmers
    Utz certification in 2008/2009 coffee season. Study done same period.
    Certified farmers: 2176, Non-certified farmers: 1024
    Sample size: 150 farmers. 75 per category
    Simple random sampling
    Finite population correction: <5%
  • 6. Data collection: FGDs, informal interviews, questionnaires & lit
    Source: Field Survey (FGD)
    Data analysis: descriptives, inferential statistics, multi dimensional scaling (MDS), regression analysis
  • 7. RESULTS
  • 8. Top down strategy
    Buyers interface between coop & international buyers
    Write proposals for funding to donors
    Select cooperative : based on quality, friendship, kinship
    Convince coop officials: promise of high prices
    Idea floated during AGM, <5% attendance, passed
    Pre-selection: ‘A’ (good) and ‘B’ (poor) farmers selected
    Promoter farmers identified & trained
    Train fellow farmers
  • 9. Suggested determinants of inclusion
  • 10. Variable selection from suggested dets.
  • 11. Comparisons between certified & non-certified farmers
    Key: ns= not significant; * = significant at p<0.1; ** = significant at p<0.05; ***= significant at p<0.01
  • 12. Comparisons of certified vs. non-certified farmers
    Key: ns= not significant; * = significant at p<0.1; ** = significant at p<0.05; ***= significant at p<0.01
  • 13. Key determinants of inclusion into certification
    Key: β (odds ratio); S.E: (standard error); Exp (β): (exponential beta); Wald: wald statistic; df: degree of freedom
  • 14. Conclusions
    Certification focuses on ‘good’ farmers with pre-enabling conditions
    Pre-selection done to guarantee win-win situation
    Interactive participation (acceptance, ownership, sustainability)
    Training & information access for farmers – choices & self selection
  • 15. Acknowlegement
    CAFNET project, IFRA & French Embassy for funding
    Supervision & guidance: Dagmar, Fabrice, Anja
    Farmers, Tekangu cooperative officials, buyer representatives