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Presentation on Tree Diversity Day, 11 October 2012, at the 11th CBD Conference of Parties in Hyderabad, India

Presentation on Tree Diversity Day, 11 October 2012, at the 11th CBD Conference of Parties in Hyderabad, India

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Tree diversityday2012 jamnadass.pptx Presentation Transcript

  • 1.   Tree  Diversity  Day     Biodiversity  for  development:   human  benefits  from  tree  diversity   for  food,  health  and  nutri:on         Rio  Conven:ons  Pavilion  Programme    CBD  COP11,  Hyderabad,  India  10  October  2012     Ramni  Jamnadass  World  Agroforestry  Centre  
  • 2.     –  Ramni  Jamnadass  (ICRAF):  Introduc6on  to  the  session  and  a  brief   overview  on  benefits  of  trees  for  local  peoples  lives/livelihoods.     –  Par6cipatory  indigenous  fruit  tree  domes6ca6on  and  livelihood   impacts  in  Central  Africa          (Zac    Tchoundjeu)     –   Amy  Ickowitz  (CIFOR):  The  rela6onship  between  forest  cover  and   child  nutri6on  across  Africa.   –  Hugo  A.  H.  Lamers    (or  colleague?  Bioversity  Interna6onal):  Fruit   tree  diversity  and  conserva6on  on  farm  in  the  Western  Ghats,   India,  par6cularly  Garcinia  and  Mangifera  species.   –  Navin  Sharma  (ITC):  Bio-­‐economy  -­‐  from  sustenance  to  value   crea6on,  an  Indian  example.        
  • 3. At one time in history ………. 70% of the world’s surface was covered with forestFrom then, until recently, humans gotmost of the tree products they neededdirect from the forest…..
  • 4. this  included  firewood….  
  • 5. also  included    Dawa…  
  • 6. … and also included fruit, nuts, oil….
  • 7. But more recently dueto forest clearing, and …
  • 8. … rising human populations,
  • 9. … it is clear that wild harvesting may no longersatisfy our needs for all the tree products everytime and everywhere…….continued degradation
  • 10.          Tree    Diversity  offers  diversity  of  func:ons        Trees  for  Products   fruit   firewood   medicine   income   Sawn  wood   fodder      Trees  for  Services   Soil  fer:lity   Carbon   erosion   watershed   shade   biodiversity  
  • 11. Future of trees is on Farms…cultivation of trees is required
  • 12. ...for both the market, and home use
  • 13. Global  exports  value  for  some  agro  forestry  related  commodi:es    2001-­‐2008  (US$  ‘000)  Commodity   2001   2002   2003   2004   2005   2006   2007   2008  Coffee   8,661,842   8,462,349   9,769,085   11,810,867   15,637,891   18,256,575   22,061,510   26,800,406  Palm  oil   4,916,280   7,479,292   9,841,363   11,842,625   11,638,148   13,962,578   21,346,063   33,016,870  Citrus   7,709,475   8,598,655   10,217,484   10,924,690   11,597,821   12,661,180   15,869,879   17,689,609  Apples   3,410,183   3,852,300   4,675,737   5,354,522   5,622,449   6,410,561   8,398,383   9,320,535  Olives   2,761,684   3,085,092   3,996,924   5,989,857   6,716,176   8,049,248   7,289,693   7,754,972  Cocoa   2,208,064   3,219,631   4,200,355   4,836,469   4,954,083   4,790,227   5,708,236   7,246,038  Almonds   917,197   1,176,724   1,461,219   1,840,873   2,650,190   2,571,436   2,637,102   2,652,035  Cashew  nuts   947,931   1,066,060   1,118,091   1,604,034   1,850,100   1,757,346   2,025,783   2,735,722  Coconuts   895,924   976,193   1,210,337   1,527,598   1,876,246   1,633,117   1,996,676   2,895,301  Pears   929,469   996,744   1,166,442   1,333,622   1,548,355   1,608,812   1,931,508   2,376,579  Peaches,  nectarines   944,861   $126,284,602,000  industry     966,836   1,291,024   1,147,052   1,297,850   1,566,048   1,702,527   2,112,357  Kiwi  fruit  Natural  rubber   611,803   428,511     720,365   501,537   833,194   1,104,284   Source:  F991,985   808,637   1,241,451   AOSTAT,  2011   1,055,177   1,387,549   1,684,945   1,584,275   1,910,370   2,019,843   2,052,320  Pistachios   610,856   695,840   988,595   941,879   1,342,740   1,661,415   1,425,435   1,707,343  Plums  &  sloes   610,560   613,885   709,624   751,423   842,534   951,051   1,079,191   1,184,595  Raisins   558,066   577,380   673,286   809,938   895,637   915,796   954,722   1,285,479  Walnuts   424,313   462,340   535,894   685,925   830,099   1,010,112   1,171,124   1,270,622  Mango   428,299   401,188   578,874   585,438   646,821   778,814   918,524   1,001,681  Apricots   291,164   331,417   390,074   464,738   491,066   514,222   541,578   763,834  Papayas   124,014   130,550   161,481   201,833   185,248   182,419   186,153   188,050  Brazil  nuts   51,840   57,901   70,975   109,783   163,617   129,307   154,651   159,584  Sheanuts   10,452   12,376   22,807   8,938   7,167   18,835   30,399   42,410  Gums  natural   6,628   9,646   11,656   7,761   8,311   5,656   6,747   6,513  Kolanuts   6,932   1,808   1,668   5,241   477   600   1,916   1,904  Total  value  (US$)     38,466,348  44,396,109   54,734,826   64,881,375   73,099,654   82,507,849   100,932,445   126,284,602  
  • 14. Farmers can, however, only plant what is available•  Quality planting material needs to be developed•  Access to quality material required
  • 15. A key problem though is that for most speciesthat there has been no formal domesticationundertaken.
  • 16. Nutri:on  and  Health    Interna6onal  Forestry  Review  (2011),    Forests,  Biodiversity  and  Food  Security      
  • 17. Around  50  million  children  are  at  risk  of  vitamin  A  deficiency  in  Africa,  where  it  is  the  con6nent’s  third  greatest  public  health  problem  afer  HIV/AIDS  and  malaria,      Micronutrient  malnutri6on-­‐  hidden  hunger    
  • 18. Fruits  for  improved  nutri:on  and  health  Jus6fica6on:  •  Fruit  consump6on  very  low  in  most  developing   countries   –  Consumers  are  not  aware  of  fruits‘  values  for  health   –  High  seasonality  in  produc6on,  poor  marke6ng,  high  prices    •  Fruit  produc6on  very  low  in  sub-­‐Saharan  Africa   –  Lijle  use  of  improved,  high-­‐yielding  varie6es   –  Poor  on-­‐farm  fruit  tree  management   –  High  post-­‐harvest  losses   –  Small  number  of  na6onal  hor6cultural  scien6sts  
  • 19. Fruit  consump6on  is  too  low  in  developing  countries  Table 1: Average daily consumption of fruits (FAOSTAT, 2004).  Region Fruit consumption (g/day) EU 288 Minimum N. America 286 recommended Latin America 194 by WHO: 200 g Eastern Europe 150 Asia (developing) 99 Western Africa 90 Southern Africa 89 Central Africa 40 East Africa 36
  • 20. Edible  tradi:onally  important  tree  products  harvested  from  the  forest  as  new  domes:cated   crops  
  • 21. Contribu6on  of  fruits  to  nutri6on:  1.  High  contents  of  vitamins  C  and  A,  iron  and  calcium  Table 2: Nutrient content of selected fruits. Species   Vit  C     Vit  A     Iron     Calcium  (mg/ (mg/100  g)   (mg/100  g)   (mg/100  g)   100  g)   Adansonia   150-­‐500   0.03-­‐0.06   1.7   360   digitata   Grewia  tenax   N.A.   N.A.   7.4   610   Tamarindus   3-­‐9   0.01-­‐0.06   0.7   260   indica   Guava   230   0.03   0.3      18   Mango      28   0.04   0.1      10   Pawpaw      62   0.14   0.1      24  Sources: Freedman (1998) Famine foods. http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/FamineFoods; Fruits for the FutureSeries, ICUC; Fineli (http://www.fineli.fi/), Lukmanji & Hertzmark (2008) Tanzania Food Composition Tables
  • 22. Available  year-­‐round,  during  the  ‘hunger  gap‘   100 Zambia 80 Percentage Malawi (%) of 60 households Cropping season 40 facing food = ‘hunger gap‘   shortage 20 Harvest season   0 Tree species Oct 1 Nov 2 Dec 3 Jan 4 Feb5 Mar6 Apr 7 May8 Jun9 10 Jul 11 Aug 12 Sep Avocado (exotic) Citrus (exotic) Parinari curatellifolia Mango (exotic) Uapaca kirkiana Strychnos cocculoides Syzygium cordatum Annona senegalensis Flacourtia indica Vangueria infausta Vitex doniana Adansonia digitata Ziziphus mauritiana
  • 23. Fruits  for  income  genera6on  •  Fruit  tree  cul6va6on  offers  great  poten6al  for   income  genera6on  if  farmers  are     –  linked  to  markets   –  trained  in  fruit  tree  management   –  cul6va6ng  improved,  high  value  varie6es    •  There  is  a  high  poten6al  for  enhanced   employment,  business  development  and   income  genera6on  through  local  processing  of   fruits  
  • 24. Commercializa:on  of  diverse  AFTPs  –     A  vital  business  ini:a:ve  for  Africa  From  tradi:onal  markets  ……………….  to…………….…  new  business    
  • 25. Investment in indigenous fruit trees is anopportunity for small holder farmers and others….World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF)www.worldagroforestry.org
  • 26. Strategic Goal A:Address the underlyingcauses of biodiversityloss by mainstreaming… Aichi  targets  (targets 1…4) Strategic Goal B: Reduce the direct pres- sures on biodiversity an& promote sustainable use (targets 5…10) Strategic Goal C: Improve the status of biodiver- sity by safeguarding ecosys- (targets 11…13) tems, species and genetic div Strategic Goal D: Enhance the benefits to all from biodiversity an & (targets 14…16) ecosystem services Strategic Goal E: Enhance implementation through participatory planning, knowledge (targets 17…20) management and capacity buildi..