Tree Diversity Day Biodiversity for development: human beneﬁts from tree diversity for food, health and nutri:on Rio Conven:ons Pavilion Programme CBD COP11, Hyderabad, India 10 October 2012 Ramni Jamnadass World Agroforestry Centre
– Ramni Jamnadass (ICRAF): Introduc6on to the session and a brief overview on beneﬁts of trees for local peoples lives/livelihoods. – Par6cipatory indigenous fruit tree domes6ca6on and livelihood impacts in Central Africa (Zac Tchoundjeu) – Amy Ickowitz (CIFOR): The rela6onship between forest cover and child nutri6on across Africa. – Hugo A. H. Lamers (or colleague? Bioversity Interna6onal): Fruit tree diversity and conserva6on on farm in the Western Ghats, India, par6cularly Garcinia and Mangifera species. – Navin Sharma (ITC): Bio-‐economy -‐ from sustenance to value crea6on, an Indian example.
At one time in history ………. 70% of the world’s surface was covered with forestFrom then, until recently, humans gotmost of the tree products they neededdirect from the forest…..
Farmers can, however, only plant what is available• Quality planting material needs to be developed• Access to quality material required
A key problem though is that for most speciesthat there has been no formal domesticationundertaken.
Nutri:on and Health Interna6onal Forestry Review (2011), Forests, Biodiversity and Food Security
Around 50 million children are at risk of vitamin A deﬁciency in Africa, where it is the con6nent’s third greatest public health problem afer HIV/AIDS and malaria, Micronutrient malnutri6on-‐ hidden hunger
Fruits for improved nutri:on and health Jus6ﬁca6on: • Fruit consump6on very low in most developing countries – Consumers are not aware of fruits‘ values for health – High seasonality in produc6on, poor marke6ng, high prices • Fruit produc6on very low in sub-‐Saharan Africa – Lijle use of improved, high-‐yielding varie6es – Poor on-‐farm fruit tree management – High post-‐harvest losses – Small number of na6onal hor6cultural scien6sts
Fruit consump6on is too low in developing countries Table 1: Average daily consumption of fruits (FAOSTAT, 2004). Region Fruit consumption (g/day) EU 288 Minimum N. America 286 recommended Latin America 194 by WHO: 200 g Eastern Europe 150 Asia (developing) 99 Western Africa 90 Southern Africa 89 Central Africa 40 East Africa 36
Edible tradi:onally important tree products harvested from the forest as new domes:cated crops
Contribu6on of fruits to nutri6on: 1. High contents of vitamins C and A, iron and calcium Table 2: Nutrient content of selected fruits. Species Vit C Vit A Iron Calcium (mg/ (mg/100 g) (mg/100 g) (mg/100 g) 100 g) Adansonia 150-‐500 0.03-‐0.06 1.7 360 digitata Grewia tenax N.A. N.A. 7.4 610 Tamarindus 3-‐9 0.01-‐0.06 0.7 260 indica Guava 230 0.03 0.3 18 Mango 28 0.04 0.1 10 Pawpaw 62 0.14 0.1 24 Sources: Freedman (1998) Famine foods. http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/FamineFoods; Fruits for the FutureSeries, ICUC; Fineli (http://www.fineli.fi/), Lukmanji & Hertzmark (2008) Tanzania Food Composition Tables
Available year-‐round, during the ‘hunger gap‘ 100 Zambia 80 Percentage Malawi (%) of 60 households Cropping season 40 facing food = ‘hunger gap‘ shortage 20 Harvest season 0 Tree species Oct 1 Nov 2 Dec 3 Jan 4 Feb5 Mar6 Apr 7 May8 Jun9 10 Jul 11 Aug 12 Sep Avocado (exotic) Citrus (exotic) Parinari curatellifolia Mango (exotic) Uapaca kirkiana Strychnos cocculoides Syzygium cordatum Annona senegalensis Flacourtia indica Vangueria infausta Vitex doniana Adansonia digitata Ziziphus mauritiana
Fruits for income genera6on • Fruit tree cul6va6on oﬀers great poten6al for income genera6on if farmers are – linked to markets – trained in fruit tree management – cul6va6ng improved, high value varie6es • There is a high poten6al for enhanced employment, business development and income genera6on through local processing of fruits
Commercializa:on of diverse AFTPs – A vital business ini:a:ve for Africa From tradi:onal markets ………………. to…………….… new business
Investment in indigenous fruit trees is anopportunity for small holder farmers and others….World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF)www.worldagroforestry.org
Strategic Goal A:Address the underlyingcauses of biodiversityloss by mainstreaming… Aichi targets (targets 1…4) Strategic Goal B: Reduce the direct pres- sures on biodiversity an& promote sustainable use (targets 5…10) Strategic Goal C: Improve the status of biodiver- sity by safeguarding ecosys- (targets 11…13) tems, species and genetic div Strategic Goal D: Enhance the benefits to all from biodiversity an & (targets 14…16) ecosystem services Strategic Goal E: Enhance implementation through participatory planning, knowledge (targets 17…20) management and capacity buildi..