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Presentation on Tree Diversity Day, 11 October 2012, at the 11th CBD Conference of Parties in Hyderabad, India

Presentation on Tree Diversity Day, 11 October 2012, at the 11th CBD Conference of Parties in Hyderabad, India

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    Tree diversityday2012 ganesan.pptx Tree diversityday2012 ganesan.pptx Presentation Transcript

    • Tree  Diversity  Day   11  October  2012,  1030  –  1830  hrs,  Rio  Pavilion  CBD  COP  11     at the 11th Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD COP 11)Agroforestry  as  strategy  in  dryland  restoration:   experiences  in  India     Rengaian  Ganesan   Ashoka  Trust  for  Research  in  Ecology  and  the  Environment  (ATREE)   Bangalore  
    • India  with  diverse   About  69  percent  (228  million  ha)  of  India  is    forests  and  equally   •  dry  land  –  arid,  semi-­‐arid  and  dry  sub-­‐humid  diverse  vegetation   •  heavily  populated  types     •  livelihood  and  food  security    Out  of  17000  species  of  flowering  plants  2863  species  are  trees        
    • Three  major  programs  on  tree  diversity  at  ATREE    1.  Mapping  and  monitoring  tree  diversity  and  estimating  value  of  ecosystem   services    2.  Understanding  and  enhancing    the  role  of  tree  diversity  in  livelihoods  ,  using   participatory  approaches.    3.  Restoring  tree  diversity,  also    using  participatory  approaches   picture  
    • MONITORING TREE DIVERSITY AND ESTIMATING VALUE OF ECOSYSTEM SERVICES Changing plant species composition and growth rates – Indicators of climate change Permanent Monitoring Plot
    • Multiple  drivers  leading  to  interspecific  competitive  interaction  –    that  shapes  the  population  structure  of  Phyllanthus  emblica   Hemi-­‐Lantana   parasite,  Grazing   Natural  death   Fire       Drought  (2002-­‐2004)   Invasives   Effective  management  for  conservation   Hemi-­‐parasite  plants   requires  disentangling  the  effects  of   Grazing  in  Lantana-­‐free  area   different  drivers  to  identify  those  most     responsible  for  species  decline.   Invasives,  Hemi-­‐parasite  plants  –   Forest  management  practices  
    • Native  shade  trees,  Pollinators  and  Organic  Coffee    At  farm  scale   Shade  management   Rustic  shade   Native  shade  trees   Silver  oak   Natural  farming     dominated  shade   as  a  way  of  life         Sophisticated   0rganic     farming   with   certification   (niche  for   large  farmers)  Shade     Sun  –   loving  coffee                                    Coffea  arabica  to  Coffea  canephora    
    • Linkage  between  trees  in  forest  fragments  and  Orange  Plantations-­‐     serviced  by  wild  pollinators      Forest  fragments  and  Orange  Plantations-­‐  Pollination  service   NTFP  from  forest  patches  –   Persea  odoratissima  &  Machilus  edulis   Urbashi.P  &  Soubadra,M.  
    • Trees  in  water  shed  management       Jagdish  Krishnaswamy  
    • Restoring  tree  diversity,  also    using  participatory  approaches  Bandipur  Tiger  reserve,  Karnataka  •  restore  arid  degraded  forest  in  wildlife  corridor  •  Livelihood  availability  of  forest  resources,    •  water  table  for  downstream  agricultural  lands    
    • 2.  Understanding  and  enhancing    the  role  of  tree  diversity  in  livelihoods  ,  using  participatory  approaches.    How  do  farmers  value  the  trees?     Sacred  tree  –Aglaia  courtalensis  •  Timber  •  Fodder  •  Leaf  manure  •  Bio-­‐pesticide  •  Fuelwood  •  Money  •  Sacredness   Wild  Avocado  fruits  –  Persea  odoratissima  Lopped  Ficus  trees  in  farmlands  for  fodder,  minor  timber  (e.g.,poles)  
    • Tree  lopped  for  leaf  manure  Fruits    of  Indian  gooseberry-­‐  Phyllanths  emblica   Fuelwood  from  trees  in  farmland   Fodder  from  trees  in  the  farmland    
    • Rock  bee  hives   Ecological  Services     Refugia  –     Pollinators   Wind  breakers   Soil  binders   Nutrient  &  water  cycling      Fruit  bats   Dryland  farming  =  tree-­‐based  farming    
    • Tree  diversity  in  livelihoods  -­‐  using  participatory  approaches       Forest  fringe  villages  around  Protected  Area-­‐       Can  we  help  improve  the  condition  (biodiversity)     of  these  dry  forests  and  also  meet     Bandipur   the  fuelwood  requirements     Tiger  Reserve   of  the  dependent  community?       Bannarghatta   National  park   Kalakad-­‐Mundanthurai  Tiger  reserve   •  The  boundary  in  most  places  is   sharp  -­‐  Intensive  Wetland  Farming   •  Limited  Fuel  wood  and  Fodder   sources   Kalakad  Mundanthurai     Tiger  Reserve   Twigs  of  Ipomoea  fistulosa  –  as  Fuelwood  
    • How  much  was  the  biomass  requirements  of  these   villages  and  can  we  raise  the  fuelwood  source   outside  the  forest?    17  months  of  census  fuel  collectors  on  regular  paths  -­‐  28  tons  of  forest  fuel  wood  /  month    for  three  villages    Amounts  to  about  300  tons  per  year  and  is  removed  from  a  large  area  of  forest  roughly    about  10  sq  km.    
    • HOW TO MEET FUELWOOD DEMANDS FROM OUTSIDE THE FORESTS?Diverse  native  and  exotic  fast  growing   multiple  purpose  tree  species    54  tree  species  –  18  fuelwood  ,  16  species   fodder,  16  fruits,  rest  timber    Top  5  species  constituted  55%  of  the  basal   area  of  which  4  are  fuelwood  species    Within  4  years  247  m2  basal  area  of  trees–  42  %  basal  area  contributed  by  4  fuelwood    species    
    • Biomass generation in homestead -Fuelwood, FodderThree Year trees in backyard of 5 sq m,700 kgs of fuelwood in addition to timber US$100 Income  generation   Women  Self-­‐Help  Group  Nursery     Gmelina  arborea,  Cassia  fistula,    
    • COMMON DRYLAND TREESOF KARNATAKABilingual  field  guide  
    • Acknowledgements  FORD  Foundation  Sir  Dorabji  Tata  Trust  Dept.  Biotechnology,  Govt.  of  India  S.M.Sehgal  Foundation