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  • 1. Agroforestry Program in South Asia V.P. Singh, Regional Coordinator for South Asia New Delhi, India
  • 2. South Asia Program contextAgroforestry is:• A specialized way of farming practiced on the farm (outside forests)• Revolves around high value low volume systems, value addition, employment and income generation opportunities• South Asia Program focuses on enhancing native systems, on innovating approaches and systems and their applications• All projects are of intra-regional and inter- regional importance
  • 3. ICRAF- SOUTH ASIA Concentrates on challenges of: Poverty (low and unstable income) Hunger, poor nutrition and health Social disparity & inequality; gender, social classes Land degradation, climate change, ecosystem servicesDevelops protocols for integrating trees inthe farming system and for value additionand market linkages for products Implements projects through partners
  • 4. South Asia operates through• Multiple partnerships• National agriculture / forestry R&D systems• Ecology/ commodity / product based coordinated projects and networks• Focusing on national capacity building• Accessing national capacity strengths• Resource and credit sharing
  • 5. Ecology Network Hilly and Indo- Semi Arid Costal Mountainous Gangetic and Arid Humid Zones areas Plains Regions Timber/ Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Afghanistan, Bangladesh,F Other Wood Bangladesh, India, Nepal India, Pakistan India, Maldives Bhutan, India, Pakistan,u Products Nepal, Sri Lankael Climate Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Change Bangladesh, India, Nepal, India, Pakistan India, Sri Lanka,& Bhutan, India, Pakistan Maldives Nepal, PakistanF Medicinal Bangladesh Bangladesh, India, Pakistan India,o Bhutan, India, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Productsd Nepal Pakistan Maldivesde Fruits& nuts Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, India , Nepal, India, Maldivesr Nepal, Sri Lanka Pakistan
  • 6. South Asia Priorities and Focus• Improved germplasm and high quality planting material supply systems• Agroforestry intensification and diversification• Agroforestry product demand, market and value chain analysis• Impact assessment and value tagging of major agroforestry systems
  • 7. South Asia priorities and focus---• Land degradation assessment and rehabilitation of degraded lands• Climate change mitigation and adaptation, carbon finance• Bioenergy / bio-fuels policy, technical advancements and practical solutions• Inter-regional partnerships
  • 8. Sustainable tree seed and seedlingsupply systems--- • Established networking for regional tree domestication • Carried out planting material production and supply inventory, need and gap analysis in India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka • Assessed the public and private planting material supply systems in India and Bangladesh
  • 9. Sustainable tree seed and Seedling supply systems---• Initiated programs for improving the supply in Bangladesh, India and Sri Lanka• Included planting material supply aspects in the agroforestry curricula• Drafted planting material production guidelines
  • 10. Improved on-farm productivity of trees andagroforestry systems • Constraint to AF adoption analysed (north-western vs. eastern India) and generic extension material for accelerating adoption developed • Integration of fruit, tuber and spices in timber systems studied in-terms of nutrient and water balance • Substitution of poplars and eucalypt with other sp. being explored
  • 11. Improved on-farm productivity of trees and agroforestry systems• High density Rejuvenating Old Mango Trees through Heading plantation of fruits back and Management Techniques A.K. Singh*,IARI; V.P. Singh** & Devashree Nayak**, ICRAF, New Delhi, India Introduction Aged trees, 45 years and older ones are susceptible to disease and insect pests, less responsive to inputs and management, and as a result have very low productivity, and limit inter cropping because of closed canopy. Options for increasing orchard productivity are: a) total uprooting or selective thinning and replanting Objectives (expensive, time consuming and legally cumbersome Reinvigorate orchard productivity through economical and option) time saving means b) rejuvenating trees through differential pruning / Reduce initial investment and enhance farm income heading back and proper management (a preferred Prolong tree life and enhance productivity option). Methodology Identified old, non-responsive, lowly productive but apparently healthy looking trees in the orchard Physically inspected and noted each tree canopy and light passing through it for deciding the level of canopy opening: total, partial, central or peripheral canopy Canopy opening opening Pruned the selected trees, and provided them adequate nutrients and water in the tree basin and protection from pests by applying paint on the pruned surfaces Managed orchard weeds and insect pests and mulched the inter- tree spaces . Emergence of shoots Precautions Prune / head back in suitable weather conditions or with good irrigation facilities Practice slant cut using sharp edge tools Apply copper oxychloride paint on the cut surface immediately after heading back Results Rejuvenated trees Harvested timber value equivalent to 4 - 5 fruit crops; valued at Indian Rs 2400-7500 per tree depending on the level of canopy opening 1st year: Emergence of new shoots only, no fruits 2nd year: A good canopy and mature buds; fruiting in some branches 3rd year onwards a bumper mango crop; 8-12 ton / ha against average 6 ton / ha of productive orchard Tree life extended atleast for another 20 years. Conclusion Flowering & Fruiting in rejuvenated trees The techniques have been proven successful in mango, guava, chikoo (sapota) and amla (Indian gooseberry) Possibility of intercropping cereals, low canopy fruit trees, timber species and rhizomatous & tuber crops Visiting farmers are successfully adopting the techniques For further information: * aksingh36@yahoo.com; ** v.p.singh@cgiar.org; d.nayak@cgiar.org
  • 12. Impact assessment of major agroforestry systems • Ongoing in the following areas: -- Timber based (poplar and eucalypt) in north- western India -- Fruit based systems: • Mango in Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and Karnataka, • Guava in Uttar Pradesh, • Pomegranate in Maharashtra, and • Custard apple in Rajasthan
  • 13. Mapping of trees outside the forests: Dominant Species (country level analysis) Species (% trees) Mangifera indica 8.91 Azadirachta indica 4.36 Cocos nucifera 4.29 Acacia arabica 3.87 Prosopis cineraria 3.26 Borassus flabelliformis 1.79 Phebalium columi 1.20 Bassia (Madhuca) latifolia 1.09 Ficus sp. 0.66 Tamarindus indica 0.62
  • 14. Mapping of trees at Village (Micro) Level in Lucknow District, UP, India Boundary Plantation Block Plantation
  • 15. Improving tree product marketing for small holdersTwo main studies being conducted in this area: Value chain analysis and new product development for custard apple, aonla, bael, and some MADP plants, A study of leaf meal feed and fodder market in India
  • 16. Reducing land health risk and rehabilitation of degraded lands through agroforestry • Extent of eroded (Rajasthan), surface mined (UP), mine tailing (Orissa) and sand deposits (Assam) monitored, • Soils analyzed and calibrated with the spectral signatures for large scale soil loss assessment, • Public and private rehabilitation efforts of degraded lands through agroforestry being compiled, • Rehabilitation of degraded lands through agroforestry being studied
  • 17. Regenerating degraded lands through agroforestry Before After
  • 18. Agroforestry systems for climate change adaptation and mitigation• Held an international workshop for mainstreaming climate change research in agriculture,• Identified and described . farmers coping and adaptation strategies to climate variability,• Organized a network for developing adaptation mechanisms to extreme events• Carbon and nitrogen dynamics in temperate and tropical soils under different in-situ temp. regimes is being studied
  • 19. Benefiting small holders through carbon sequestration and finance Vivekananda Parvatiya Krishi Anusandhan• Assembled a tool box Sansthan, Almora, for carbon Uttarakhand accounting, Maharana Pratap Orissa University University of• Orientated NARS on Agriculture and . World Agroforestry  Center (ICRAF), of Agriculture and Technology, Technology, carbon assessment Udaipur, Regional Office for  Bhubaneswar, Orissa South Asia,  and finance Rajasthan New Delhi mechanisms, Consortium Leader• Network project Central Research Institute for operating at four sites OUTREACH,  Dryland• Convergence sought Agriculture, Bangalore,  Hyderabad, Andhra Karnataka with MNREGA, IFFDC, Pradesh IFAD, GIZ,DONONE, Ambuja Cements and other programs
  • 20. Bioenergy / bio-fuels policy, technicaladvancements and practical solutions• Conducted a complete life cycle analysis of producing bio- diesel from jatropha and compared it with other sources,• Published a number of journal papers and a booklet, and guided one Ph. D and two M S students,• Prepared a national level bio-fuel policy document through lead economists, and plan to organize a national / regional debate on this issue
  • 21. Developing policies and incentives for agroforestryAgroforestry Policy:--- StateAgroforestry Policy for Chhatishgarh, India drafted and the National Agroforestry Policy for Sri Lanka being done,--- Contributing to the development of an International Agroforestry Policy,Modification of state legislature:---Tree felling, transit and selling regulations, Chhatishgarh, India--- State Agroforestry Authority established in Chhatishgarh, India
  • 22. Staffing• Four full time new staff: Dr. C. Ravikumar (carbon finance), Dr. Kabita Bhardwaj (fruits), Dr. Babita Bohra (fodder); one position is being arranged for interviews• Two part time staff: Dr. Giashuddin Miah (Liaison for Bangladesh), Dr. Buddhi Marambe (home gardens mgt, Sri Lanka)• Two consultants: Dr. Dinesh Marothia (impact assessment), Dr. S.S. Baghel (planting materials production and certification protocols and guidelines)
  • 23. Recently realized and New opportunities:Realized:• Core support from ICAR, $150 K• US $ 1.5 m on Livelihoods and carbon finance, NAIP/ World Bank, India• Bangladesh Taka 16 m on Climate change and livelihoods, NATP / World Bank, Bangladesh• Sri Lankan Rupees 1.6 m on Bio-fuels, Science FoundationIn Principle approved projects:• Euros 300 k on Sand Dune Stabilization, GIZ, India• Can $ 1.2 m on Alleviation of poverty and malnutrition in agro-biodiversity hot spots with MSSRF and Uni. Alberta from IDRC / CIDA• US $ 2.0 on Water Augmentation with MSSRF and Uni. Nebraska from Indo-USA S&T Forum
  • 24. Realized and New opportunities---- New projects and programs: • Climate Resilient Agri., Climate Change Fund, India, $1.5-2.0 (CN submitted) • Climate change and carbon sequestration, India, $1.9 m, World Bank, India (CN approved, first draft being developed) • Bio-energy, IFAD, $ 1.5- 3.0 (has been submitted) • Negotiations in progress with DANONE, Ambuja Cements and J.K. Industries for buying carbon credits under their CSR • Established program in Bangladesh, August, 2010 • New MoU signed with Sri Lanka, March, 2011 • Launching of the Asian Network on Evergreen Agriculture scheduled on 14 May, 2011.
  • 25. Recently realized and New opportunities:● Africa- India bridge started: 44 Scholarships for MS and Ph. D in 2010; 125 for 2011 100 post- doc fellowships in 2010; 17 in Agri. Six soil & tissue analysis lab. Germplasm exchange got moving Training and skills enhancement of ICRAF staff to be sponsored by ICAR• Hosting arrangements for the next World Agroforestry Congress (Feb. 2014) started● South-East Asia bridge approved, and potential areas, including agroforestry, climate change and watershed management tentatively identified with ICAR
  • 26. Thank you