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Poor implementation of byelaws has been linked to limited adoption and impact of improved NRM technologies
Limited Involvement of local communities ,Poor Implementation and weak enforcement of byelaws
Under decentralization, many local governments in Uganda have initiating and reviewing byelaws with limited involvement of the local communities in the design and implementation
Policies at various levels and the Constitution of Uganda (1995) National environment Statute and the Local Government Act (1997) provides the right of the public to participate in natural resource environmental management but operationalising them is the problem
General objective: focused on social capital outcomes and conditions for sustainability of lower level policies and local policy institutions in natural resource management in Rubaya Sub County, Kabale District .
Features of social organizations (Social networks, Social Interactions, norms, social trust reciprocity, and cooperation) that facilitate coordination and cooperation and that enable people to act collectively and work for mutual benefits
Social capital is a useful way of entering into debates about civil society.
One of the 5 assets (Human, political economic and natural
Generated Social capital outcomes and sustainability conditions of lower level NRM policies on the study area( participation to self- mobilization, nature of participation in terms of defined roles and responsibilities, the extent of participation, meetings, who participates in terms of gender, wealth, location, position, Scale of participation in terms of plot, farm, household and watershed
Triggered byelaw reforms
Participatory participation and sustainability by all stake holders was ensured
Added on the already existing literature available for future scholars and other people doing
The trenches in lowlands (swamps) were used for draining the water to ease cultivation of crops such as Irish potato.
77 trenches were established on 119 plots in the hillsides in the village with tree species of Calliandra, Grivellea, Eucalyptus, Alnus, Napier grass, Kikuyu grass, setaria, and Sugar cane which control soil erosion and increase fertility .
Ratio of T:P in the locations Location Number of plots Number of trenches Ratio (T:P) Species of trees and grasses planted Hill side in the village 119 77 0.65 Calliandra, Grevillea, Eucalyptus, Alnus, Napier grass, Kikuyu grass, Setaria, sugarcane Hill side in other village 62 15 0.24 Alnus, setaria, Calliandra, Eucalyptus, Napier, sugar cane Hill top in the village 47 27 0.57 Calliandra,Eucalyptus,Napier, Sesbania Hill top in other village 25 3 0.12 Eucalyptus, Black wattle Swamp in the village 43 28 0.65 Eucalyptus, sugarcane Swamp in other village 6 0 0 None
PTF/Byelaw activities were seen as complementary to the decentralized local government structures rather than parallel .
4 communities had developed their Collective Visions and Community Action Plans for NRM byelaw support.
PTF proved to be critical in building support and mobilizing the political, social, human ,financial and technical resources needed to sustain participation of local communities in policy dialogue and action.
Conclusion and Recommendations from respondents
Increased awareness and knowledge of byelaws, changes in behaviors and attitude and compliance with collective norms that place community interests above those of individual. Community byelaws gave individual’s confidence to invest in collective action which created level of trust, sharing and cooperation amongst the communities.
Enforced NRM byelaws was an important driver of agro forestry technologies and a mechanism for dealing with conflict over the use and management of natural resources and ensure fairness especially for women and elderly with less human, financial, social and political capital .
Sustainability: Strengthening of the PTF in bye law issues, conflict management and legal issues and stronger linkage and partnership with other organizations that deal with natural resource management for more support.
Scaling up the approach to other sub-counties and other districts