Social capital outcomes and sustainability of natural resource management lower level policies in kabale district, south western uganda

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  • 1. S ocial capital outcomes and sustainability of Natural resource management lower level policies in Kabale District, South Western Uganda Rick Kamugisha
  • 2. Land degradation and Collective action
  • 3. NRM issues in the Highlands of SW UG
    • Decline of soil fertility and yields
    • Land degradation and erosion
    • Weak infrastructure and institutions
    • High population growth and densities
    • Limited capacity to manage NR
    • Several conflits of various dimensions.
  • 4. Policy Issues
    • Poor implementation of byelaws has been linked to limited adoption and impact of improved NRM technologies
    • Limited Involvement of local communities ,Poor Implementation and weak enforcement of byelaws
    • Under decentralization, many local governments in Uganda have initiating and reviewing byelaws with limited involvement of the local communities in the design and implementation
    • Policies at various levels and the Constitution of Uganda (1995) National environment Statute and the Local Government Act (1997) provides the right of the public to participate in natural resource environmental management but operationalising them is the problem
  • 5. General objective of the study .
    • General objective: focused on social capital outcomes and conditions for sustainability of lower level policies and local policy institutions in natural resource management in Rubaya Sub County, Kabale District .
  • 6. Social Capital
    • Features of social organizations (Social networks, Social Interactions, norms, social trust reciprocity, and cooperation) that facilitate coordination and cooperation and that enable people to act collectively and work for mutual benefits
    • Social capital is a useful way of entering into debates about civil society.
    • One of the 5 assets (Human, political economic and natural
  • 7. Specific objective
    • Determine the outcomes of the development and implementation of lower level NRM policies
  • 8. Significance of study.
    • Generated Social capital outcomes and sustainability conditions of lower level NRM policies on the study area( participation to self- mobilization, nature of participation in terms of defined roles and responsibilities, the extent of participation, meetings, who participates in terms of gender, wealth, location, position, Scale of participation in terms of plot, farm, household and watershed
    • Triggered byelaw reforms
    • Participatory participation and sustainability by all stake holders was ensured
    • Added on the already existing literature available for future scholars and other people doing
  • 9. Research questions
    • What are the outcomes of lower level natural resource management policies Implementation in terms of changed NRM practices in Rubaya Sub County?
    • Does the strengthening of social capital through local institutional development lead to consensus on ways of implementing Policy without discriminating against the poor?
    • What capabilities and conditions need to be developed to enable participation in lower level policies?
    • What forms of institutional partnerships are needed to support the future continuity and sustainability of community based NRM lower level policies
  • 10. Hypothesis
    • Social Capital is necessary for Sustainability of NRM lower level policies
    • Participation of institutional partnerships will lead to sustainability of lower level NRM policies
    • Social Capital is not necessary for Sustainability of lower level NRM policies
    • Participation of lower level NRM policies of Institutional partnership will not lead to sustainability lower level NRM policies
  • 11. Area of study
    • Kitooma Habugarama)
    • Mugandu (Kagyera)
    • Buramba
    • (Muguli B and Karambo)
  • 12. Research Methodology
    • Research design
      • Participatory Action Research
      • Case study - PLDA
    • Sampling techniques:
      • Purposive sampling – Key informants,PTF and HoD
      • simple random sampling - Farmers
      • stratified sampling – Farmers, Dept heads, PTF
    • Sample size: 100 respondents,
      • 74 farmers
      • 21 policy task force members,
      • 5 Local governments departments from Agriculture, Environment, Production planning
  • 13. Data collection Methods
    • Secondary data:
      • Literature reviews
      • Internet and text books
    • Primary Data:
      • Structured interviews
      • Key Informant interviews
      • Focus group discussions
      • Observations
      • Field data and observations
      • Success stories
  • 14. Data Analysis
    • Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) computer Programme
    • Descriptive methods
      • Frequency, %age, Tables, Charts
    • Historical/Trend analysis
    • Successful story analysis
  • 15. Results and Discussions
    • 6 Bylaws were formulated, reviewed, harmonized ,signed and approved
      • 4 VPTF and 1 SPTF
    • Focused on 3 bylaws
      • Trench making
      • tree planting and
      • Controlled grazing
  • 16. Community Social Cohesion
    • Strong attachment to groups – Social cohesion
    • Norms, rules of engagement , trust, Membership fee ranging shs 100 and 200 per month
      • 41% belonged two groups only
      • 58% belonged to three groups while
      • 75% belonged to one group only
      • -1% belonged to no group at all.
    • Group activities: Byelaw related work, savings and credit, burial arrangements and purchase of domestic items
  • 17. Community Participation
    • Planning and review meetings
    • Trainings
    • Exchange visits for social learning
    • Collective action on farm and demonstrations
  • 18. Positive Outcomes as perceived by respondents
    • Increased yields per unit area of cultivated land harvest 1:3
    • Positive change in gender relationship on farm, indicating improvement in social capital and reduced conflicts.
    • Integration of PTF and byelaw plans into local development plans.
  • 19.
    • Change in attitude and behavior /Interactions
    • Flow of information on NRM, and Agric through use of established Village Information centres (VICES) and telecentres
    • Reduced soil and water erosion compared to 2002 (soil erosion, low production on farm) as a result of trenches, agro forestry trees and elephant grass and sugar cane”.
  • 20. Outcomes Agroforestry technologies and grasses promoted on different slopes to stabilize the soils
  • 21.
    • Eucalyptus:
    • -Few (3.6%) trees planted on farm boundaries
    • -Drain water and nutrients in the soils
    • -Mostly planted in abandoned land
    • 53% planted Grevillea and Calliandra species on crop land, farmland and homesteads for SFI and fodder
  • 22.
    • The trenches in lowlands (swamps) were used for draining the water to ease cultivation of crops such as Irish potato.
    • 77 trenches were established on 119 plots in the hillsides in the village with tree species of Calliandra, Grivellea, Eucalyptus, Alnus, Napier grass, Kikuyu grass, setaria, and Sugar cane which control soil erosion and increase fertility .
  • 23. Ratio of T:P in the locations Location Number of plots Number of trenches Ratio (T:P) Species of trees and grasses planted Hill side in the village 119 77 0.65 Calliandra, Grevillea, Eucalyptus, Alnus, Napier grass, Kikuyu grass, Setaria, sugarcane Hill side in other village 62 15 0.24 Alnus, setaria, Calliandra, Eucalyptus, Napier, sugar cane Hill top in the village 47 27 0.57 Calliandra,Eucalyptus,Napier, Sesbania Hill top in other village 25 3 0.12 Eucalyptus, Black wattle Swamp in the village 43 28 0.65 Eucalyptus, sugarcane Swamp in other village 6 0 0 None
  • 24. Negative outcomes as perceived by respondents
    • (43%) - was a slight increase in the rate or extent to which norms and byelaws were being broken while
    • (10%)-tremendous increase in the rate in which norms and byelaws were being broken
    • Conflicts/ hatred
    • High costs of making trenches ( 7000 UGX per trench Negative attitude to trench making
  • 25. Negative outcomes Cont’d
    • (60% ) trench making and tree planting byelaw violated
    • ( 70%()of males than females (about 45%) -byelaws were being violated
    • Reasons for Violation:
    • - Cost of tools and seed,
    • -limited knowledge and skills,
    • -old age and physical weakness,
    • -limited awareness of byelaws
    • -limited involvement and support of the
    • local leader’s in the Implementation .
    • Reduced sprit of helping each other(NRM activities-Trench making, Land Shortage especially where to plant trees,
    • High cost of tree seeds/Lack of seed/Seedlings and theft of trees escalated by distant plots from the homesteads
  • 26. Sustainability conditions
    • PTF had strong and recognized leadership
    • PTF/Byelaw activities were seen as complementary to the decentralized local government structures rather than parallel .
    • 4 communities had developed their Collective Visions and Community Action Plans for NRM byelaw support.
    • PTF proved to be critical in building support and mobilizing the political, social, human ,financial and technical resources needed to sustain participation of local communities in policy dialogue and action.
  • 27. Conclusion and Recommendations from respondents
    • Increased awareness and knowledge of byelaws, changes in behaviors and attitude and compliance with collective norms that place community interests above those of individual. Community byelaws gave individual’s confidence to invest in collective action which created level of trust, sharing and cooperation amongst the communities.
    • Enforced NRM byelaws was an important driver of agro forestry technologies and a mechanism for dealing with conflict over the use and management of natural resources and ensure fairness especially for women and elderly with less human, financial, social and political capital .
    • Sustainability: Strengthening of the PTF in bye law issues, conflict management and legal issues and stronger linkage and partnership with other organizations that deal with natural resource management for more support.
    • Scaling up the approach to other sub-counties and other districts
  • 28. Acknowledgements
    • Farmers in Rubaya Sub-county, Kabale District
    • Kabale District local government leadership
    • Policy Task Forces
    • ECAPAPA, IDRC and AUSaid for financial support on NRM byelaw and land care work
    • NRSP/DFID for funding Policy action research
    • ICRAF for funding me on this Research work for M.A
    • Mbarara University of science and Technology
    • The Almighty God and
    • My family