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Potential Role of Exotic Poplar in Increasing Tree Cover
as an Alternative for Forest Restoration in India

Kulvir S. Bang...
Forest Cover

Area in km2

Geographical Area (%)

Very Dense Forest

83,471

2.54

Moderately Dense Forest

320,736

9.76
...
Growing Stock in Forest
Total Growing stock

6,047.15 m m3

Inside of Forest area

4,498.73 m m3

Outside the forest area
...
Demand and Supply of Wood (million m3)
Particulars

1996 2001 2006

2010 2020

Wood demand

64

73

82

95

153

Output fr...
National Forest Policy (1988) directed the wood
based industrial units to meet their future raw
material

requirements

th...
Agroforestry provides significant
social,
economic
and
environmental
benefits,
particularly in countries like India
with s...
• Agroforestry can improve the lives of
resource-poor rural populations by providing
increased
income,
diversification
and...
Poplar (Populus deltoides): Poplar (introduced in 1950) is
one of the most preferred agroforestry species in fertile
and i...
Sugar cane with Poplar
Turmeric in poplar
Fruit trees with Poplar
Turmeric and Fruit trees with Poplar
Buy-back arrangement of the Farm Forestry
Project, which was implemented by the
Western India Match Company Ltd.
(WIMCO) f...
Populus deltoides is widely grown on a
rotation of 6-8 years.
A well drained & irrigated, deep and fertile
soil is suita...
Rows are to be planted in north-south direction to
provide maximum sunlight to agricultural crops.
G3, G48, L34, S7C15, ...
Production Potential of poplar
Maximum Production Potential

Average Production Potential

50 m3/ha
30-35 m3/ha

A progres...
Deciduous nature of poplar allows agricultural
crops to grow with lesser adverse affect.

During first two years, sugarc...
 Poplar replaced Eucalyptus (with crash in prices)
in nineties due to the following advantages:
 It has faster biomass g...
But poplar was no more popular during 2001-2005
Farmers were forced to sell their produce at throwaway prices
anywhere between Rs.70 and Rs.155 as compared to
Rs.350-550 ...
Marketing of poplar
Poplar wood has four rates ( Rupees per 100 Kg) depending on Girth.

Year

Over
(>60 cm)

Under
(45-60...
Poplar wood pieces, measuring girth above 60 cm and are
free from knots, usually fetch maximum price followed by
wood piec...
Market should be handled cautiously for getting
maximum sale price. Presence of knots in
selling stock can drastically red...
Average wood production of a poplar tree with
girth of 100 cm is about 750 Kg
Over
(above 60 cm)

Under
(45-60 cm)

Sokta
...
Impact of Market on Poplar plantation trend
The poplar based agroforestry plantations had been increasing at a
very faster...
Poplar wood has four rates ( Rupees per 100 Kg) depending on Girth.
Year

Over (>60
cm)

Under (45-60 cm) Sokta (30-45 cm)...
Year

Over (>60 cm) Under (45-60 cm) Sokta (30-45 cm)

Dandi (<30 cm)

86-90

539

330

239

63

91-95

465

270

216

60
...
After investing over six or seven
years, farmers see their dreams
coming apart.
Farmers were forced to sell their produce at throwaway
prices anywhere between Rs.70 (1.14 US$) and Rs.155
(2.55US$) as co...
The low market price of poplar wood discouraged the farmers with the
result the farmers were compelled to deviate from pop...
Latest figure given in literature suggested that poplar plantations
in the country occupy an area of about 312,000 ha at a...
Income Potential of Exotic Poplar
Six to eight years old poplar trees, with girth measuring
1 m at breast height (1.37 m),...
Conclusions
• Forests have very low growing stock (61.72 m3/ha) & MAI (<1m3 per ha).
•

Poplar based Agroforestry is the e...
Wheat with
Poplar

Turmeric and Fruit trees with Poplar

Turmeric with
Poplar

Thanks…
Session 6.6 potential role of exotic poplar in increasing tree cover, india
Session 6.6 potential role of exotic poplar in increasing tree cover, india
Session 6.6 potential role of exotic poplar in increasing tree cover, india
Session 6.6 potential role of exotic poplar in increasing tree cover, india
Session 6.6 potential role of exotic poplar in increasing tree cover, india
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Transcript of "Session 6.6 potential role of exotic poplar in increasing tree cover, india"

  1. 1. Potential Role of Exotic Poplar in Increasing Tree Cover as an Alternative for Forest Restoration in India Kulvir S. Bangarwa Professor Department of Forestry CCS Haryana Agricultural University Hisar-125 004, India
  2. 2. Forest Cover Area in km2 Geographical Area (%) Very Dense Forest 83,471 2.54 Moderately Dense Forest 320,736 9.76 Open Forest 287,820 8.75 Total Forest Cover 6,92,027 21.05 Tree Cover 90,844 2.76 Total Forest & Tree Cover 7,82,871 23.81 2
  3. 3. Growing Stock in Forest Total Growing stock 6,047.15 m m3 Inside of Forest area 4,498.73 m m3 Outside the forest area 1,548.42 m m3 Growing stock 61.72 m3/ha MAI in Forests <1 m3 per ha Per capita forest 0.08 ha/person
  4. 4. Demand and Supply of Wood (million m3) Particulars 1996 2001 2006 2010 2020 Wood demand 64 73 82 95 153 Output from forests 12 12 12 12 12 Output from plantations 41 47 53 58.5 88.7 Deficit 11 14 17 25.7 52.3 4
  5. 5. National Forest Policy (1988) directed the wood based industrial units to meet their future raw material requirements through partnerships with farmers. • Supply of planting stock • Technical extension services • Buy-back arrangements developing
  6. 6. Agroforestry provides significant social, economic and environmental benefits, particularly in countries like India with subsistence agriculture, low and degraded forest cover and high deforestation rate.
  7. 7. • Agroforestry can improve the lives of resource-poor rural populations by providing increased income, diversification and sustainability of agriculture and food security. • It can reduce the pressure on natural forests, and has a potential to bridge the gap in demand and supply of forest products.
  8. 8. Poplar (Populus deltoides): Poplar (introduced in 1950) is one of the most preferred agroforestry species in fertile and irrigated lands in northern India. Poplar has gained considerable importance in agroforestry, mainly due to its deciduous nature, fast growing habit, adaptability to different environmental conditions and silvicultural systems and above all high industrial demand.
  9. 9. Sugar cane with Poplar
  10. 10. Turmeric in poplar
  11. 11. Fruit trees with Poplar
  12. 12. Turmeric and Fruit trees with Poplar
  13. 13. Buy-back arrangement of the Farm Forestry Project, which was implemented by the Western India Match Company Ltd. (WIMCO) from 1984 to 1990 that promoted the poplar based Agroforestry plantations.
  14. 14. Populus deltoides is widely grown on a rotation of 6-8 years. A well drained & irrigated, deep and fertile soil is suitable for poplar. One year old bare rooted saplings are used for transplanting in January-February with a spacing of 8 x 3 m2 or 7 x 3.5 m2 or 6 x 4 m2.
  15. 15. Rows are to be planted in north-south direction to provide maximum sunlight to agricultural crops. G3, G48, L34, S7C15, Uday, Kranti and Bahar are superior clones of poplar. WSL 22, WSL 27, WSL 32, WSL 39, WSL-A26 and WSL-A49 are new clones. Maximum production potential plantation : 50 m3/ha/year of poplar
  16. 16. Production Potential of poplar Maximum Production Potential Average Production Potential 50 m3/ha 30-35 m3/ha A progressive farmer in Yamunanagar District of Haryana achieved the maximum production potential of poplar with 65 m3/ha/year. He harvested the 965 poplar trees from two hectare land with average girth of about 100 cm in six years.
  17. 17. Deciduous nature of poplar allows agricultural crops to grow with lesser adverse affect. During first two years, sugarcane is best. Third year onwards shade-loving crops like turmeric can be grown successfully. Wheat during the winter and fodder crops during summer season are better.
  18. 18.  Poplar replaced Eucalyptus (with crash in prices) in nineties due to the following advantages:  It has faster biomass growth.  It is more compatible with agricultural crops.  Leaves get decomposed & help in maintaining soil nutrients.  It was easily saleable and fetches better prices.  It is easily propagated through cuttings.
  19. 19. But poplar was no more popular during 2001-2005
  20. 20. Farmers were forced to sell their produce at throwaway prices anywhere between Rs.70 and Rs.155 as compared to Rs.350-550 per 100 Kg. • Farmers were compelled for pre-mature felling of poplar. • Sale price of 6-8 years old poplar tree with a girth of 1 m was lower down to about Rs.500-600 per tree in 2004.
  21. 21. Marketing of poplar Poplar wood has four rates ( Rupees per 100 Kg) depending on Girth. Year Over (>60 cm) Under (45-60 cm) Sokta (30-45 cm) Dandi (<30 cm) Average 509.26 318.08 242.41 86.02 Lowest 155 85 70 70 Highest 1150 900 680 300
  22. 22. Poplar wood pieces, measuring girth above 60 cm and are free from knots, usually fetch maximum price followed by wood pieces with girth between 45 and 60 cm, between 30 and 45 cm and less than 30 cm, respectively (the price of poplar wood decreases as girth decreases). Poplar wood is used for peeling by making wood pieces with the length of 1.0 m, 1.3 m, 2.0 m and 2.6 m.
  23. 23. Market should be handled cautiously for getting maximum sale price. Presence of knots in selling stock can drastically reduce the sale price of wood. Therefore, knot can be kept out from the sale stock by selecting length measuring 1.0 m, 1.3 m, 2.0 m and 2.6 m of wood pieces depending upon position of knot.
  24. 24. Average wood production of a poplar tree with girth of 100 cm is about 750 Kg Over (above 60 cm) Under (45-60 cm) Sokta (30-45 cm) Dandi (Below 30 cm) 45 per cent 18 per cent 12 per cent 25 per cent
  25. 25. Impact of Market on Poplar plantation trend The poplar based agroforestry plantations had been increasing at a very faster rate all over northern India up to year 2000. Prior to crash in poplar sale price, 10 million trees were planted annually in 0.02 million hectares of lands with an average density of 400-500 trees per ha. But poplar was no more popular among farmers during 2001-2004 because the prices of their produce touching an all time low.
  26. 26. Poplar wood has four rates ( Rupees per 100 Kg) depending on Girth. Year Over (>60 cm) Under (45-60 cm) Sokta (30-45 cm) Dandi (<30 cm) 2001-3 250 150 110 65 2004 155 85 70 70 2005 280 225 180 75 2006 500 350 220 100 2013 1150 900 680 300
  27. 27. Year Over (>60 cm) Under (45-60 cm) Sokta (30-45 cm) Dandi (<30 cm) 86-90 539 330 239 63 91-95 465 270 216 60 96-00 337 210 163 61 00-05 237 147 110 68 06-10 696 426 317 136 11-13 1100 833 643 233
  28. 28. After investing over six or seven years, farmers see their dreams coming apart.
  29. 29. Farmers were forced to sell their produce at throwaway prices anywhere between Rs.70 (1.14 US$) and Rs.155 (2.55US$) as compared to Rs.350-550 (5.70-9.0 US$) per 100 Kg. Farmers were compelled for pre-mature felling of poplar. Sale price of 6-8 years old poplar tree with a girth of 1 m was lower down to about Rs.500-600 (8.0-9.8 US$) per tree in 2004.
  30. 30. The low market price of poplar wood discouraged the farmers with the result the farmers were compelled to deviate from poplar based agroforestry plantations. Accordingly nursery growers also reduced the production of poplar saplings in their nursery. Rates and demand of poplar wood were start increasing by the end of 2004 and farmers were again attracted towards poplar based agroforestry plantations. Extent of poplar plantation was start increasing with faster rate.
  31. 31. Latest figure given in literature suggested that poplar plantations in the country occupy an area of about 312,000 ha at a notional density of 500 trees per ha and they are managed at a 6-8 years rotation. Therefore, annual planting of poplar might be 80 million poplar trees covering about 0.04 mha. Till 2000 During 2001-04 2005 0.02 m ha. Decreasing fast 2006-2012 Lowest or nil Rising at fast 2013 0.04 m ha.
  32. 32. Income Potential of Exotic Poplar Six to eight years old poplar trees, with girth measuring 1 m at breast height (1.37 m), fetches about Rs 4000 per tree and net income from poplar plantations can be expected to be Rs 200000 (3500 US$) per hectare. In this way poplar plantation is the economically excellent alternative in increasing tree cover.
  33. 33. Conclusions • Forests have very low growing stock (61.72 m3/ha) & MAI (<1m3 per ha). • Poplar based Agroforestry is the economically excellent alternative for replacement (double return) of wheat-Rice rotation in increasing tree cover. • Assured market is essential for adoption of new technology. • Market should be handled cautiously for getting maximum sale price. Market trend decides increase/decrease of adoption.
  34. 34. Wheat with Poplar Turmeric and Fruit trees with Poplar Turmeric with Poplar Thanks…
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