+

Oil palm and Agroforestry Systems:
coupling yields with environmental
services, an experiment in the
Brazilian Amazon

...
+
+
+
+ Conventional Monocrop vs. Diversified
Oil Palm + Agroforestry Systems?

Conventional oil palm
monocrop system

Oil palm ...
+

Hypotheses
 Oil

palm planted with agroforestry systems
might provide significant increases in soil C
stock and nutrie...
+

An experiment in Tomé-Açu, Pará State
+

Dendê Project: Oil palm + AFS
 Project

Partners: NATURA (major Brazilian
cosmetics company, EMBRAPA (Nat’l ag. Resear...
+

Oil Palm + AFS overall design:


3 x 6-hectare plots = total 18 ha



Double rows oil palm (9 x 7.5m)

+ cacao interc...
+

Key species planted in AFS
TREES
açaí

(Euterpe oleracea),
cacao (Theobroma cacao),
bacaba (Oenocarpus
bacaba),
ipê...
+
Low Biodiversity Oil
Palm AFS (T1)

High Biodiversity Oil
Palm AFS (T2)
mecanical prep

High Biodiversity Oil
Palm AFS (...
+

Layout of biodiverse AFS + OP

Source: Castellani (2011)
+

Land use history on Demonstration
Plot:
 10

yr old secondary growth used
previously through conventional slash and
bu...
+

Management techniques


Removing (weeding) vegetation from around oil palm (3-5
times/year)



Pruning/copacing of “f...
+

Study methods: soil C stocks
 Calculated

soil C stock in young (3-yr old)
oil palm + AFS on one 6-ha plot
 Soil

sam...
+

Study methods: soil C stocks


Soil samples taken August 2010 (yr 3):


0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30, and 30-50 cm, using ...
+

Reference areas compared
 1)

10-15 yr old adjacent secondary growth
forest;
 Average canopy height: 15m
 Average de...
+

Preliminary findings:
Soil carbon stocks
Soil Carbon Stocks in 3 systems
conventional AFS

10-15 yr regrowth

AF + OIL ...
+

Overview - other key findings
 Oil

palm yields (FFB) OP + AFS greater than
monocrop OP at same age (4.5 yrs) under si...
+

Andrew Miccolis comments:
“Although we don’t have direct evidence yet, intensive slash and
mulch (coupled with organic ...
+ Conclusions (preliminary)


Oil palm + Agroforestry systems outperformed adjacent
secondary growth and conventional agr...
+

Thank you!
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Session 6.6 oil palm & agroforestry systems, brazilian amazon

1,108
-1

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,108
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
20
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Session 6.6 oil palm & agroforestry systems, brazilian amazon

  1. 1. + Oil palm and Agroforestry Systems: coupling yields with environmental services, an experiment in the Brazilian Amazon Andrew Miccolis ICRAF Brazil Authors: Miccolis, A., Vasconcelos, S., Castellani, D., Carvalho, V.; Kato, O.; Silva, A. Presented by: Jonathan Cornelius (ICRAF)
  2. 2. +
  3. 3. +
  4. 4. +
  5. 5. + Conventional Monocrop vs. Diversified Oil Palm + Agroforestry Systems? Conventional oil palm monocrop system Oil palm + agroforestry experiment, Year 5, Tomé Açu, Pará, Brazil. Photo: Debora Castellani
  6. 6. + Hypotheses  Oil palm planted with agroforestry systems might provide significant increases in soil C stock and nutrient cycling through management practices, such as intensive pruning and mulching, and thus contribute to climate change mitigation  Diversified oil palm agroforestry systems might provide a socially, economically and environmentally feasible alternative to monocrop systems in the context of smallholders
  7. 7. + An experiment in Tomé-Açu, Pará State
  8. 8. + Dendê Project: Oil palm + AFS  Project Partners: NATURA (major Brazilian cosmetics company, EMBRAPA (Nat’l ag. Research agency, CAMTA (Tomé Açu Farmers’Cooperative), FINEP 3 Demonstration plots (6 ha each) = total 18 ha  Oil palm + around 17 species in biodiverse systems
  9. 9. + Oil Palm + AFS overall design:  3 x 6-hectare plots = total 18 ha  Double rows oil palm (9 x 7.5m) + cacao intercropped between OP  4 main treatments per plot:  Biodiverse = around 17 species/ha (+regrowth), wider spacing for AF strips (21 m)  Fertilizing species (6-7 species/ha), focus on leguminous species, 15 m AF strips Rows of AFS (21, 18, 15 m), depending on plot and treatment  Treatment definitions  1) “biodiverse” - mechanized preparation (TRITUCAP)  2) “biodiverse” - manual prep.  3) “fertilizing species” manual prep  4) fertilizing species mechanized preparation
  10. 10. + Key species planted in AFS TREES açaí (Euterpe oleracea), cacao (Theobroma cacao), bacaba (Oenocarpus bacaba), ipê (Tabebuia spp.), jatobá (Hymenaea courbaril) and ucúuba (Virola surinamentis), pracaxi (Pentaclethra macroloba) gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium), ingá (Inga edulis), Bio-mass producing, (“Fertilizing”) species pig beans (Canavalia ensiformis), pidgeon peas (Cajan cajanus), mucuna (Mucuna cinereum), mexican sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia), puerária (Pueraria phaseoloides), banana (Musa sp), crotalaria (Crotalaria spectabilis), cassava (Manihot esculenta) Lianas Black pepper (Piper nigrum) Passionfruit (passiflora sp.)
  11. 11. + Low Biodiversity Oil Palm AFS (T1) High Biodiversity Oil Palm AFS (T2) mecanical prep High Biodiversity Oil Palm AFS (T3) manual prep
  12. 12. + Layout of biodiverse AFS + OP Source: Castellani (2011)
  13. 13. + Land use history on Demonstration Plot:  10 yr old secondary growth used previously through conventional slash and burn for rice, cassava, maize, cowpeas  Above-ground biomass: 55.3 +/- 0.9 Mg ha-1  Periodic fires  Nutrient-deficient soils
  14. 14. + Management techniques  Removing (weeding) vegetation from around oil palm (3-5 times/year)  Pruning/copacing of “fertilizing” species for mulching and sunlight for secondary species: cacao, açai palm, bacaba palm, black pepper  Cut and carrying mulch around oil palm trees and secondary species (cocoa and others)  Organic fertilization in planting holes and compost from CAMTA factory (mostly fruit residues) as mulch
  15. 15. + Study methods: soil C stocks  Calculated soil C stock in young (3-yr old) oil palm + AFS on one 6-ha plot  Soil samples under: high biodiversity (T1 and T2) low biodiversity (T3) and different land preparation methods (mechanized vs. manual)  5 randomly selected plots (22.5 x 18m for AFS + oil palm), covering 2 rows of OP and 1 row of AFS
  16. 16. + Study methods: soil C stocks  Soil samples taken August 2010 (yr 3):  0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30, and 30-50 cm, using auger probes.  Samples from different positions in OP + AFS: (a) under oil palm canopy, (b) in-between oil palm trees, and (c) from AFS area.  Soil from Conventional AFS and Secondary Growth forest sampled without a defined spatial pattern.  Composite samples of three soil cores taken at random for each combination of treatment, sampling position, and depth.  All samples air-dried, ground, and passed through 2-mm sieve. About 120 g of each sieved sample was used for particle size and chemical analyses (Embrapa 1997).
  17. 17. + Reference areas compared  1) 10-15 yr old adjacent secondary growth forest;  Average canopy height: 15m  Average density: 520 trees ha-1(>10cm DAB)  2) 9 yr old “conventional” agroforestry system (w/out oil palm)  Replaced black pepper monoculture  20x20m plots in these 2 reference areas
  18. 18. + Preliminary findings: Soil carbon stocks Soil Carbon Stocks in 3 systems conventional AFS 10-15 yr regrowth AF + OIL PALM 0 Series 1 10 AF + OIL PALM 73.5 20 30 40 10-15 yr regrowth 60 Obs: AF+ Oil Palm: 71-76 Mg C ha-1 Source: Carvalho et al 2014 (in print) 50 60 70 conventional AFS 57 80
  19. 19. + Overview - other key findings  Oil palm yields (FFB) OP + AFS greater than monocrop OP at same age (4.5 yrs) under similar conditions Plot 1 (81 pl/ha) Plot 2 (99 pl/ha) Plot 3 (99 pl/ha) 8 tons ha-1 yr-1 6.4 tons 8.7 tons  OBS: Data based on actual harvests in year 4.  Monocrop oil palm around 143 pl/ha. Avg. yields: 5 tons ha-1 yr-1 (yr 4) Source: Castellani et al 2013   Biodiversity indicators Greater plant species diversity in OP+AFS than in monocrop OP around same age (3yrs) (Kato et al 2011)  Greater bird species diversity and richness indices (Thom et al 2011) than in monocrop systems at same age (3yrs) 
  20. 20. + Andrew Miccolis comments: “Although we don’t have direct evidence yet, intensive slash and mulch (coupled with organic fertilization techniques), leading to improved soil properties and fertility is probably responsible for this astonishingly higher productivity per plant at this age. OBS: Monocrop oil palm around 143 pl/ha. Avg. yields: 5-6 tons ha-1 yr-1 (YR 4) according to literature from Brazil”
  21. 21. + Conclusions (preliminary)  Oil palm + Agroforestry systems outperformed adjacent secondary growth and conventional agroforestry systems in C stocks  Mexican sunflower (Tithonia) stood out among “fertilizing species”, provided very high nutrient contents (dry mass) under these conditions, met design criteria (pruning frequency, biomass production)  Use of fertilizing species through pruning and mulching reduced inputs and helped increase oil palm yields and c stocks  Preliminary data (soil C, nutrient, yields) suggests oil palm + AFS might be more sustainable alternative to monocrop systems and play important role in climate change mitigation, recovering degraded lands  Need for more research to draw direct linkages between management practices and nutrient cycling, c stocks,
  22. 22. + Thank you!

×