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RESTORING RIPARIAN VEGETATION –
A PROMISING MEANS TO ENSURE CLEAN WATER
Kamal Melvani,
Neo Synthesis Research Centre, Sri ...
SURFACE WATER
Riparian zones
can be broadly
defined as the
land that
adjoins or
directly
influences a
body of water
(Price & Lovett 2002...
Structure and characteristics of riparian lands
Riparian ecosystems:
• Shade and lower stream temperatures
• Filter and sorb pollutants
• Provide areas for sediment depos...
Major components of riparian vegetation that affect stream water chemistry

(Dosskey et al. 2010)
Soil Organic Matter is a
biomembrane that filters
pollutants,
reduces
sediment load in rivers,
degrades
contaminants,
and ...
Processes through which major components of vegetation
in riparian ecosystems affect stream water chemistry

(Dosskey et a...
• Deep rooted trees in biologically active zones
remove Nitrates in shallow ground water.
Hydraulic residence time critica...
• However, riparian forests have low net dissolved P
retention (Dosskey et al. 2010).
• Non nutrient chemicals absorbed fr...
Riparian zone destruction
Illicit felling, dumping ground for garbage and erosion

Lemastota Oya, Haputale
Restoration
•

Riparian forest buffer systems (RFBS)
reduce Non Point Source pollution after it leaves
source area but bef...
Vegetated riparian zones can
strongly influence the chemical
contents of adjacent
streams, particularly through the
remova...
Maragala Oya, Maragalakanda, Moneragala

RESTORATION WITH COMMUNITY
Riparian forest buffers for gullies in forest
gardens on Maragalakanda, Moneragala

Arumugam’s forest garden
Arumugam’s gully restored

Before

After

Jane Nona’s garden
Podisingho’s garden with Spathyphyllum patini planted on stream bank
Maha Oya, sub catchment
in Great Valley, Deltota
Planting in year 1

RESTORATION WITH PRIVATE COMPANY
Contour
Restoration of the riparian zone of Lake Richmond through Landcare
CLEARING GULLY

PLANTED
GULLIES

PLANTING GULLY
Gully C - School

Gully D

Gully E

Around the
Lake

Total plants

Ankenda
Hana
Heen Aratta
Maha Aratta
Green Bamboo
Yello...
Ground Water
Bioremediation

Kalmunai
Kalpitiya
2003

Dense planting round
the well with deep
rooted, native trees
forming a ‘root mat ’
below the surface to
uptake
the
c...
0
Feb ' 4
April '04
June '4
August '04
Sept '4
October' 04
Nov '4
December' 04
Jan' 5
February'5
March'5
April'5
May'5
Jun...
Electrical Conductivity at 250C over time
References
Chin, DA 2012, Water-Quality Engineering in Natural Systems : Fate and Transport
Processes in the Water Environ...
Thank you!
Session 6.5 restoring riparian vegetation
Session 6.5 restoring riparian vegetation
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Transcript of "Session 6.5 restoring riparian vegetation"

  1. 1. RESTORING RIPARIAN VEGETATION – A PROMISING MEANS TO ENSURE CLEAN WATER Kamal Melvani, Neo Synthesis Research Centre, Sri Lanka, email: neosynth@sltnet.lk
  2. 2. SURFACE WATER
  3. 3. Riparian zones can be broadly defined as the land that adjoins or directly influences a body of water (Price & Lovett 2002) Paradeke Oya, Gampola
  4. 4. Structure and characteristics of riparian lands
  5. 5. Riparian ecosystems: • Shade and lower stream temperatures • Filter and sorb pollutants • Provide areas for sediment deposition • Promote microbial decomposition of organic matter and nutrients • Minimize stream bank erosion • Provide habitat for biodiversity • Open wildlife corridors • Enhance infiltration replenishing groundwater • Increase reservoir life (Chin 2012)
  6. 6. Major components of riparian vegetation that affect stream water chemistry (Dosskey et al. 2010)
  7. 7. Soil Organic Matter is a biomembrane that filters pollutants, reduces sediment load in rivers, degrades contaminants, and is a major sink for atmospheric CO2 and CH4 (Lal, 2004)
  8. 8. Processes through which major components of vegetation in riparian ecosystems affect stream water chemistry (Dosskey et al. 2010)
  9. 9. • Deep rooted trees in biologically active zones remove Nitrates in shallow ground water. Hydraulic residence time critical (Melvani, 2011). • Nitrate removal minimal when water moves to regional groundwater and emerges as base flow(Dosskey et al. 2010). • For sediment borne P retention, fine sediment control coupled with use of vegetation, can increase P uptake into plant tissue (Dosskey et al. 2010)
  10. 10. • However, riparian forests have low net dissolved P retention (Dosskey et al. 2010). • Non nutrient chemicals absorbed from soil by plant roots. Heavy metals (e.g., Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb), metalloids (e.g., As, Se), and other elements (e.g.: B, Cs, Sr) (Dosskey et al. 2010). • Riparian buffers could reduce electrical conductivity (Melvani, 2011).
  11. 11. Riparian zone destruction Illicit felling, dumping ground for garbage and erosion Lemastota Oya, Haputale
  12. 12. Restoration • Riparian forest buffer systems (RFBS) reduce Non Point Source pollution after it leaves source area but before it reaches the stream • important on 1st and 2nd order streams where intense interaction between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems occurs • slope of the RFBS main factor limiting the effectiveness of sediment removal • use of native vegetation a key factor (Lowrance & Vellidis 2004).
  13. 13. Vegetated riparian zones can strongly influence the chemical contents of adjacent streams, particularly through the removal of nutrients in runoff from agricultural uplands
  14. 14. Maragala Oya, Maragalakanda, Moneragala RESTORATION WITH COMMUNITY
  15. 15. Riparian forest buffers for gullies in forest gardens on Maragalakanda, Moneragala Arumugam’s forest garden
  16. 16. Arumugam’s gully restored Before After Jane Nona’s garden
  17. 17. Podisingho’s garden with Spathyphyllum patini planted on stream bank
  18. 18. Maha Oya, sub catchment in Great Valley, Deltota
  19. 19. Planting in year 1 RESTORATION WITH PRIVATE COMPANY
  20. 20. Contour
  21. 21. Restoration of the riparian zone of Lake Richmond through Landcare
  22. 22. CLEARING GULLY PLANTED GULLIES PLANTING GULLY
  23. 23. Gully C - School Gully D Gully E Around the Lake Total plants Ankenda Hana Heen Aratta Maha Aratta Green Bamboo Yellow Bamboo Thel Keena Cassia Star apple Pinna Thebu Tree fern Erabadu Mora Kotadimbula Forest species Goraka Wild Ginger Rathu Kenda Wild Impatiens Beeriya Wild Tobacco Bukenda Nika dawula Sapu Malaboda Kududawla Dawul Kurundu Forest bamboo Heen Bowitiya Pavatta Karanda Nelu Damba Alubo Heen Damba Gadumba Sawan Idala Gully C Aconychia pedunculata Agave rigida var. sisalana Alpinia calcarata Alpinia zerumbet Dendrocalamus giganteus Bambusa vulgaris Calophyllum tomentosum Cassia spectabilis Chryssophyllum cainito Clerodendrum chinense Costus specious Cyathea sp. Erythrina lithosperma Euphoria longana Ficus hispida Forest species Garcinia quaesita Hedychium coronarium Homolanthus populifolius Impatiens sp. Litsea ovalifolia Lobelia nicotianifolia Macaranga indica Meliosma pinnata Michelia champaca Myristica dactyloides Neolistea fuscata Neolitsea cassia Ochlandra stridula Osbeckia lanata Pavatta indica Pongamia pinnata Strobilanthes sp. Syzygium assimile Syzygium sp. Syzygium umbrosum Trema orientale Wendlandia bicuspidata Total Plants Established Gully B - Lake Down area Common Name Gully b - Upper Lake area Scientific Name Gully a1 Upper Lake area o Planting in micro watershed 4,724 trees and plants in 39+ native and indigenous species were planted in the micro watershed of Lake Richmond. 10 8 8 4 67 76 30 25 15 97 23 103 41 10 33 75 1 6 16 7 2 5 28 40 72 62 37 33 11 12 2 7 324 8 218 308 6 3 210 1 2 13 19 1 3 0 22 444 10 510 347 2 126 18 134 3 90 161 172 216 15 40 6 53 667 93 3 19 1 6 4274 1 13 2 1 1 12 1 20 84 1 2 2 2 4 1 3 34 1 84 44 12 1 2 7 87 85 1 1 30 10 6 29 21 15 3 9 83 1 2 3 5 2 1 1 1 1 6 3 89 14 13 5 15 10 4 13 40 61 4 1 1 59 21 90 3 1 3 1 1 365 581 1 290 31 4 67 13 2 11 8 20 38 1 42 16 60 15 27 25 30 4 13 8 17 4 26 7 12 4 4 8 27 44 63 78 53 3 29 60 4 26 51 33 1 6 2 430 1193 70 62 11 58 3 97 31 121 1 170 83 6 19 2 1 150 13 1 7 1 2 690 11 63 14 1 344 11 105 5 1 381
  24. 24. Ground Water
  25. 25. Bioremediation Kalmunai Kalpitiya
  26. 26. 2003 Dense planting round the well with deep rooted, native trees forming a ‘root mat ’ below the surface to uptake the contaminants.
  27. 27. 0 Feb ' 4 April '04 June '4 August '04 Sept '4 October' 04 Nov '4 December' 04 Jan' 5 February'5 March'5 April'5 May'5 June'5 July'5 August'5 Sept'5 Oct'5 Nove'5 Dec'5 Jan'6 Feb'6 March'6 April'6 May'6 June'6 July'6 Aug'6 Sept'6 Oct'6 Nov'6 Dec'6 Jan'7 Feb'7 March'7 April'7 May'7 June'7 July'7 Aug'7 Sept'7 Oct'7 Nov'7 Dece'7 Jan'8 Fed'8 March'8 April'8 May'8 June'8 July ' 8 August'8 Sept'8 Oct'8 Nov'8 Dece'8 Jan'9 Concentration of N-N03 in mg/l Concentration of N-No3 over time 80 70 60 50 Lower Well 40 30 20 Upper Well 10 Concentration of Nitrate Nitrogen over time
  28. 28. Electrical Conductivity at 250C over time
  29. 29. References Chin, DA 2012, Water-Quality Engineering in Natural Systems : Fate and Transport Processes in the Water Environment, 2 edn, Wiley, New York. Dosskey, MG, Vidon, P, Gurwick, NP, Allan, CJ, Duval, TP & Lowrance, R 2010, 'The Role of Riparian Vegetation in Protecting and Improving Chemical Water Quality in Streams1', JAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 261-77. Lal, R 2004, 'Soil Carbon Sequestration Impacts on Global Climate Change and Food Security', Science, vol. 304 no. 5677 pp. 1623-7. , R & Vellidis, G 2004, 'Riparian forest buffers: hype? Or the silver bullet for NPS pollution control?', Resource: Engineering & Technology for a Sustainable World, vol. 11, no. 10, p. 7+. Melvani, K 2011, 'Bioremediation of Nitrates in Ground Water', M.Sc. thesis, University of Peradeniya Price, P. and Lovett, S. 2002, ‘Managing riparian land’, Fact Sheet 1, Land & Water Australia, Canberra
  30. 30. Thank you!
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