Transcript of "Session 6.4 es as a vehicle for synergies btwn climate change mitigation & adaptation"
Environmental services as a vehicle for
synergies between climate change mitigation
Lalisa A. Duguma*, Peter A. Minang, Dieudonne
Alemagi, Zac Tchoundjeu, Fredrik Nkeumoe
*World Agroforestry Center (ICRAF) &
ASB Partnership for Tropical Forest Margins
Strong mitigation-adaptation synergy potential sectors: Land
use sector, energy and construction (Klein et al. 2007).
Strong segregation at higher levels (e.g. global and national
level) which eventually decreases moving to the landscape and
Such segregations may be due to limited understanding of:
the interdependencies between M and A
the possible strategies to address the interdependencies
Aim: To highlight how environmental services could be a basis
for promoting synergies between mitigation and adaptation
The M A Interdependence [The Domino
In economies relying on land resources:
Failure in adaptation → mitigation efforts are in
Failure in mitigation → expensive adaptation.
1. Weak adaptation → Poor mitigation:
e.g. Forest exploitation in Suba, Ethiopia
Consider forest carbon as a proxy for mitigation
Crop failure due
to shortage of
Flooding in the
low lying areas
sources to survive
Exploitation of nearby
forests for extracting
fuel wood and timber
Clearing forests to create
Each pale symbol is a
2. Poor mitigation→ Expensive
As a result of poor mitigation:
CO2 in atmosphere
of H2O to atm.
The surface T0
sunlight hits directly
Higher costs to cool our living spaces
Shortage of irrigation water…
Poor hydrological functions as a whole
Disease prevalence may increases e.g.
• Social conflict – East
• Invasive alien species
Computer model calculation of the effect of carbon dioxide on plant physiology and global
climate if CO2 concentration grows to 700ppm.
Ecosystem services and vulnerability to
Role of ES in addressing the vulnerability
Wild foods (fruits, honey, insects, etc.)
Access to nutrition
Sources of income e.g. fishing, ornamentals,
Biochemical and natural medicines
Wild fruits, mushrooms, insects, fungi, meat, nuts
Access to sanitation
and clean water
Flood protection, storm impacts and landslides risk
Water purification; sources of freshwater
Storm protection by coral reefs
Soil formation and retention, soil moisture
retention, water regulation, pollination, pest and
disease control, climate regulation,….
Habitat and reproductions sites; pollination;
Population control e.g. prey predator balance,
control of pests and diseases
Ecosystem services and mitigation
Role of ES in promoting the mitigation actions
Regulatory and provisioning ES strongly boost
agricultural productivity – less deforestation and
Genetic materials for planting, growing medium,
nutrient cycling, nutrient regulation, etc…
Sources of genetic materials e.g. soil seed banks,
Air quality regulation;
Water supply; water regulation i.e. runoff and water
Sources of biomass fuels
Selected Ecosystem Services crucial for
mitigation and adaptation
o Pollination (animal pollinators)
75% of leading food crops (Klein et al. 2007)
79% (~ 308,006 plants) of the total plant species on earth (Ollerton et
al 2011) .
West Africa produces 56% of global stimulant crops with 90%
vulnerability to pollinator loss (Gallai et al 2009).
o Nutrient cycling (Biogeochemical processes)
Nitrogen cycle; carbon cycle; the food web
o Hydrological functions (hydrological cycle)
80% of agricultural water use comes from rainfall stored in soil
moisture – dependent on plant cover, SOM and soil microbial
community (Power 2010; Molden 2007)
Climate change mitigation and adaptation are considerably
interdependent in the land use sector.
Mitigation-adaptation linkages are often through one or more
1. Targeting ecosystem restoration/ management for better
ecosystem services provision could enhance the
opportunities for synergies in the land use sector.
2. At a landscape level, actions/strategies that enhance
multifunctionality could provide the right direction.