Factors Influencing the
Adoption of Improved
Rubber Agroforestry
System by Rubber
Smallholder Farmers in
Indonesia

Dudi I...
I. Background
Indonesia has the
world’s largest area
of rubber (Hevea
brasiliensis)
plantations (3.5
million ha) and is th...
• Indonesia’s rubber plantations are
mainly dominated by smallholder
farmers (<5 ha) which make up
for 86% of the 3.5 mill...
• 64% rubber area still under
traditional mixed system using
unselected rubber seedlings
(jungle rubber), with low latex
p...
Multifunction of Rubber Agroforest
Jungle rubber VS Monoculture

Jungle Rubber
590 kg/ha/year

Intensive moultur
Intensive Monoculture
1065-1310 kg/ha/year
1...
Rubber Agroforestry System

Jungle rubber
Unselected seedling
Unmanaged
Trees/fruits
Environmental services
Low productivi...
Background (continued)
Rubber Agroforestry System
• Intensive monoculture rubber with high yielding
rubber clones offers h...
Objective
RAS technology is becoming popular
among smallholder rubber farmers, but its
adoption is still slow and limited;...
Locations of Study

10
Respondents & Data Collections
• 8 Villages (223 rubber farmers)
• Smallholder Farmers (Adopters
and Non adopters)
• Quest...
Data Analysis
• model :

12
6. Results
Jambi
Factors

West Kalimantan

Incentives

β
3.709***

Sig.
0.0001

Exp(B)
40.817

β
3.453**

Sig.
0.003

Exp(...
Factors in adoption
 Incentives; Government
support

The rubber farmers
have limitations in
capital and
establishment of
...
Factors in adoption
 Income
The positive and significant
signs for income indicated
the higher the level of
income the mo...
Demonstration Plots
• the adoption of clonal rubber is higher
for farmers who had observed
successful demonstration plots...
Land (Scarcity of
land)
• a decreased land area increased their
eagerness to adopt clonal rubber in order to
increase lan...
Conclusions & Recommendations
 The logit analyses show the significant factors that influencing the









adoption...
Acknowledgment
1.
2.
3.
4.

Rubber farmers in the study areas
Researchers and staffs at World Agroforestry (ICRAF) Indones...
I2. Recomendations

Terima kasih – Thank you
Shukria

20
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Session 6.2 factors influencing the adoption of improved rubber agroforestry

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Session 6.2 factors influencing the adoption of improved rubber agroforestry

  1. 1. Factors Influencing the Adoption of Improved Rubber Agroforestry System by Rubber Smallholder Farmers in Indonesia Dudi Iskandar, Bruce Manley, Laxman Joshi, Betha Lusiana Agency for The Assessment and Application of Technology, University of Canterbury, New Zealand World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Bogor, Indonesia World Congress on Agoforestry 2014, New Delhi, India
  2. 2. I. Background Indonesia has the world’s largest area of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations (3.5 million ha) and is the world’s second largest natural rubber producing country (2.7 million tons in 2007) 2
  3. 3. • Indonesia’s rubber plantations are mainly dominated by smallholder farmers (<5 ha) which make up for 86% of the 3.5 million hectares of rubber’s area • 7 million farmers in Kalimantan and Sumatera depend on rubber for their livelihood
  4. 4. • 64% rubber area still under traditional mixed system using unselected rubber seedlings (jungle rubber), with low latex productivity but provision of multiple products and services. 4
  5. 5. Multifunction of Rubber Agroforest
  6. 6. Jungle rubber VS Monoculture Jungle Rubber 590 kg/ha/year Intensive moultur Intensive Monoculture 1065-1310 kg/ha/year 1065-1310 kg/ha/year (Penot; 1995)
  7. 7. Rubber Agroforestry System Jungle rubber Unselected seedling Unmanaged Trees/fruits Environmental services Low productivity Rubber Agroforestry High yield seedlings Semi intensive Trees/fruits High productivity Rubber monoculture High yield seedling Intensive Rubber only High productivity High capital & Labour 7
  8. 8. Background (continued) Rubber Agroforestry System • Intensive monoculture rubber with high yielding rubber clones offers higher latex productivity but requires high capital and labour input. • Improved Rubber Agroforestry System (RAS) developed and promoted by the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) incorporates clonal rubber in traditional agroforestry setting improves latex productivity while maintaining benefits of traditional system. 8
  9. 9. Objective RAS technology is becoming popular among smallholder rubber farmers, but its adoption is still slow and limited; farmers cite multiple reasons for this. The objective of the study is to identify the factors that influencing the adoption of improved rubber agroforestry system by Rubber Smallholder Farmers in two provinces in Indonesia. 9
  10. 10. Locations of Study 10
  11. 11. Respondents & Data Collections • 8 Villages (223 rubber farmers) • Smallholder Farmers (Adopters and Non adopters) • Questionnaires survey • Field observation 11
  12. 12. Data Analysis • model : 12
  13. 13. 6. Results Jambi Factors West Kalimantan Incentives β 3.709*** Sig. 0.0001 Exp(B) 40.817 β 3.453** Sig. 0.003 Exp(B) 31.601 Income - - - 0.081** 0.015 1.084 Demonstration plots 2.275** 0.001 9.725 - - - Land - - - -0.449** 0.008 0.638 Constant -3.021*** 0.0001 0.049 0.718 0.395 2.051 -2Log-likelihood 102.87 52.96 Model chi-square 65.33 (P<0.0001) (Level of significance) 30.3 (P<0.0003) Level of correct prediction 89% 82% 13
  14. 14. Factors in adoption  Incentives; Government support The rubber farmers have limitations in capital and establishment of clonal rubber needs higher costs, therefore they depend on incentives from the government. 14
  15. 15. Factors in adoption  Income The positive and significant signs for income indicated the higher the level of income the more the likelihood of rubber farmers applying clonal rubber. Introduction of improved technology such as clonal rubber is important for rubber smallholders’ farmers 15
  16. 16. Demonstration Plots • the adoption of clonal rubber is higher for farmers who had observed successful demonstration plots. • farmers are influenced by exhibitions of demonstration plots • the more farmers observe and are involved in demonstration plots, the greater their chance of adopting clonal rubber because they acquire more knowledge and more confidence to adopt clonal rubber. 01/02/11
  17. 17. Land (Scarcity of land) • a decreased land area increased their eagerness to adopt clonal rubber in order to increase land productivity. • Adoption of clonal rubber for higher yield on a small parcel of land was one of the alternatives to increase rubber yield • to increase their income from the limited area of land. 01/02/11
  18. 18. Conclusions & Recommendations  The logit analyses show the significant factors that influencing the     adoption of clonal rubber are availability of incentives, demonstration plots, higher income and scarcity of land. This study suggests that the farmers with incentives and higher incomes will be more capable of buying clonal seedlings, fertiliser and pesticides therefore more opportunity to adopt clonal rubber. Adoption and application of clonal rubber for higher yield on a small parcel of land was one of the alternatives to increase rubber yield and to increase their income from the limited area of land. The Government needs to provide more incentives, access to credit, access to information and assistance, to produce more reliable, affordable and high quality of planting materials. Demonstration plots have to be established, easy to access by farmers and good demonstration may increase farmers chance of adopting improved rubber agroforestry. 18
  19. 19. Acknowledgment 1. 2. 3. 4. Rubber farmers in the study areas Researchers and staffs at World Agroforestry (ICRAF) Indonesia Field assistants Village and sub district leaders in the study areas Sponsorships :
  20. 20. I2. Recomendations Terima kasih – Thank you Shukria 20

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