Session 6.2 can family rubber farms match global challenges


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Session 6.2 can family rubber farms match global challenges

  1. 1. Can family rubber-farms match global challenges? P Thaler, B Chambon, F Gay, R Lacote, PM Bosc, A Brauman H Robain, P Kasemsap, K Sajjaphan, S Sdoodee, P Chantuma 1
  2. 2. The challenges ahead to agriculture • Feeding the planet but also feeding the farmers • Food and non food products to meet growing demands • Corporations investments in largescale agriculture • Natural resources management and environment sustainability 2
  3. 3. The challenges ahead to agriculture Will family farming be able to answer to complex and interdependent challenges? Repartition of holdings by class area in the 81-country subset of FAO-WCA Source: HLPE 2013 3
  4. 4. The planter’s bet Conditions will remain favourable for rubber plantations during more than 20 years Immature plantation Tapped plantation Felling the trees 4
  5. 5. A reasonable bet? A permanently changing environment Going back to Myanmar? Climate changes Land use changes Fox and Castella 2013 Socio-economic changes 5
  6. 6. Climate changes Not only a matter of temperature and drought • Difficult to predict the local effect of a global increase in T° • Most model predict a more variable climate (risk) • Erratic and irregular rain pattern • Higher risk of both flooding and drought • Difficulties to know when to tap trees (risk of loss of yield) • Consequences on trees functioning? • How can farmers adapt harvesting systems to such irregular conditions? 6
  7. 7. Land Uses Sustainability in new plantation areas • Expansion in NE and N Thailand • A drier and less balanced climate (5 month-dry season) • Poor soils in some areas (sandy, low fertility) • Lack of experience to assess long-term behavior of trees 7
  8. 8. Land Uses Sustainability in ancient plantation areas • Repeated planting in South Thailand • Third to fourth rubber cycle on the same land • Export of wood / loss of minerals • Soil degradation / Decrease in fertility? • Increase in disease hazard (leaf and root fungi)? 8
  9. 9. Socio-economic changes Global uncertainties and local mutations • Volatility of the rubber price • Global demand driven by transport industry • Global market with major tire companies • The issue of labor • Population increasing and ageing • Migrant workers (Myanmar/NE) • New investors, new challenges • Dependence of livelihood on rubber vs diversification? 9
  10. 10. Rubber plantations and the environment The impact depends largely on the previous land use 10
  11. 11. Rubber plantations and the environment • Soil sustainability • Fertility preservation (Soil C, SOM) • Functional diversity (macro and microrganisms) • Externalities. • Water use (water balance and competition with other uses) • Erosion (sloppy land) • Loss of habitat for biodiversity. 11
  12. 12. Rubber plantations on the environment Many adverse effects are related to the monospecific nature of plantations Permanent intercropping up to complex agroforest may limit risk and multiply sources of income 12
  13. 13. The sustainable rural livelihoods framework Context and trends Structure Activities and strategies Performance / sustainability capabilities and functionnings National and international trends and context. Local trends and context Shocks Social relations Institutions Organisations Tangible & intangible (claims) assets Natural capital Physical capital Human capital Financial capital Social capital Naturel ressources based activities Cultivation, cattering, livestock Others NR based non farm activities Non naturel ressources based activities Wages, trade, services, manufacture, etc. Livelihood Strategies Specialization, Diversification, Intensification, extensification, migration, rental, combined, etc. Source: Sourisseau and al. 2012 adapted from various authors Social and human sustainability Economical sustainability Environmental sustainability 13
  14. 14. Thank you for your attention The Hevea Research Platform in Partnership 14