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Session 5.4 the espinal, chile

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  • 1. The Espinal: a sustainable productive alternative for Interior Dry land Development of Central Mediterranean area of Chile ALEJANDRO LUCERO IGNAMARCA INSTITUTO FORESTAL SEDE BIO BÍO
  • 2. CHILE This long and narrow strip of land known as Chile, is located on the southwest side of South America. It has an area of ​75.6 million hectares. With a population of 17 million people. Concepcion
  • 3. CHILE This long and narrow strip of land known as Chile, is located on the southwest side of South America. It has an area of ​75.6 million hectares. With a population of 17 million people. Concepcion With a marked climatic variety, which starts with the arid zones in the north (Atacama Desert) until the rainy and cold areas in the south (Patagonia).
  • 4. CHILE Distribution of soils in Chile (75.6 million ha) 45 % Forest 37 % Protection 11 % Prairies 7 % Source: INFOR (Forest Institut) Agriculture
  • 5. CHILE The forest resource is composed of 2.4 million hectares of forest plantations and 13.1 million hectares of native forest. The Espinal is located within the surface native forest.
  • 6. INTRODUCTION  The Espinal, is a steppe of native vegetation formations, with a tree component consists mainly of the species Acacia caven (Espino).
  • 7. INTRODUCTION  Acacia caven is a multipurpose legume specie, and provides different products and different functions within the Espinal.  Mainly has positive effects on the prairie and upon microclimatic variables.  But despite these important characteristics, Espinal has been heavily intervened for agricultural purposes, causing their degradation.
  • 8. The Espinal  Inside Chile, the Espinal is located from the Region of Coquimbo in the north, to the region of Bio Bio in the south.  It covers an area of ​3.8 million hectares.  The Espinal are important in this area, because it is present in farms majority owned for small and medium farms in the central zone, where the economy and production is for agricultural purposes.
  • 9. Effects of Espino in the Prairie  Generates positive effects on the composition, distribution and prairie production, improving diversity and increasing production. Prairie with presence of Espino Degraded prairie without the presence of Espino
  • 10. Effects of Espino in the Livestock  The Espino creates better conditions for livestock (protection against heat and cold), increases survival and weight, and provides fodder for livestock through the tender shoots. Note: It is necessary to consider that the overuse, can profoundly alter the improved prairie.
  • 11. Effects of Espino in the Soil  Contributes to nutrient cycling through nitrogen fixation, adds organic matter to the soil, reduces the extreme temperatures and enables increased availability of moisture, creating better soil and better development of the system.
  • 12. Productive uses of Espino  Principal use as firewood and charcoal.  For recovery and soil conservation
  • 13. Productive uses of Espino  Principal use as firewood and charcoal.  For recovery and soil conservation.  Fruits and seeds for the production of flour. Cosmetics, ornamental and medicinal uses.
  • 14. Productive uses of Espino  Principal use as firewood and charcoal.  For recovery and soil conservation.  Fruits and seeds for the production of flour.  Cosmetics, ornamental and medicinal uses.  Espino, as arboreal component of a silvopastoral system.
  • 15. Conclusion  Formations with Acacia caven generate high interest in the scientific community, which can be explained by the high impact that Espino has on traditional resource and environmental production in the dry land areas of central Chile.  It can be considered as one of the most important resources in the semi arid zone of Chile, that provides with their protection and products to traditional peasant agriculture, and social and environmental sustainability for these owners.  The formations with Acacia caven has the status of native forest, and is regulated by the Native Forest Law currently in force in Chile, being subject of bonuses and regulations regarding their use, maintenance and preservation.
  • 16. Conclusion  Nowadays, there are forest management plans to manage this resource according the currently law, but forest management plans are not being clear enough if these indications are technically optimal for the development and maintenance of the resource as a Sustainable Agroforestry Systems. It requires a global analysis of silvopastoral systems in Espinal where pasture production, livestock and tree products is optimal, giving viability resilience of forest resources and the sustainability of farms.
  • 17. THANKS YOU ALEJANDRO LUCERO IGNAMARCA alucero@infor.cl