Session 5.1 Agrofrestry a credible alternative to an uncertain future

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Session 5.1 Agrofrestry a credible alternative to an uncertain future

  1. 1. Invent a new model for cocoa smallholders. Agroforestry, a credible alternative to face an uncertain future Jagoret P. (1), Deheuvels O. (1,2), Snoeck D. (3), Bastide P. (3), Rapidel B. (1,2) (1) CIRAD, UMR System, 2 place Viala 34060 Montpellier cedex 2, France CATIE, DID, 7170 Cartago, Turrialba 30501, Costa-Rica (3) CIRAD, UPR Systèmes de pérennes, 34398 Montpellier cedex 5, France. (2) 3rd World Congress for Agroforestry, 3-7 february 2014, New Delhi (India)
  2. 2. A worldwide cocoa production usually characterized by a move of production areas to the detriment of forest Why ? A model based on :  the settlement of cocoa plots after a forest clearance  the management of cocoa trees with no shade, or a light one  the use of chemicals inputs
  3. 3. An intensive cocoa model valuable only if all environmental factors are favorable If not … Abandon of old cocoa orchards New forest clearance to set up new cocoa plots
  4. 4. Role of cocoa agroforestry systems in this context ? Vanuatu Cameroon Brazil
  5. 5. The ability to produce cocoa on the very long term Cocoa yield (dry cocoa kg ha-1) 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Age of cocoa agroforests …without fertilisers
  6. 6. The ability to provide high cocoa yield in association with other plant species 24 HONDURAS (N=34) 20 COSTA RICA (N=36) 18 Plant richness 22 PANAMA (N=40) 16 NICARAGUA (N=36) 14 CAMEROUN (N=58) 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Real cocoa yield (kg of dry cocoa ha -1 year-1) 1400 1600 Deheuvels, 2011. PhD
  7. 7. An ecological way to manage soil fertility Age of cocoa agroforestry systems Grassland < 10 years 10-40 years > 40 years Organic matter content (%) 1.70 2.25 2.82 3.13
  8. 8. A capacity to fullfill several functions for farmers 6% 5% Sales Family consumption 9% 36% 11% Wood Fertility Medecine Social 12% 21% Shade
  9. 9. A great resilience and a better management flexibility Long term management with a break Time Evolution of cocoa yield (dry cocoa kg ha-1) 70 years 700 300 150 800

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