Session 3.4 short rotation coppice agrof  - charcoal
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    Session 3.4 short rotation coppice agrof  - charcoal Session 3.4 short rotation coppice agrof - charcoal Presentation Transcript

    • Short-Rotation Coppice (SRC) agroforestry for charcoal small business in Papua New Guinea Ian K. Nuberg University of Adelaide, Australia Foundation for People and Community Development, Inc. HOPE worldwide (PNG) People’s Action for Rural Development
    • Acknowledgements Brian Gunn Russel Haines and Tony Bartlett Jessie Abiuda-Mitir, Agnes Sumareke, Maman Tavan, and John Paul Yati Bun, Israel Bewang, Bazakie Baput, Bonti Krasi, Fletcher Onise, Kafuri Yaro, and Linzon Zamang Kumani Kuman, Graham Ogle, Vanoa Geno, Titus Tobias, Tom Yale and Alex Aruai Joseph Pumai, Randall Manapangkec and Agnes Frank Dessy Kusbandi and Olena Kravchuk Ben Robinson, Rob Brook Landholders participating in SRC field trials: Patrick Barkri, Yona Mark, Manaka Bore, Barbara Elias, John Eka, Ulkamara Womens Group, and Mt Sinai Bible College Charcoal producer-vendor groups: Apie Welkam Marketing Service, Eety Charcoal Enterprise, Manda Family Group, Wampup Ragin, Yasugau Family Group, Traim Tsol, Gobadik group, Muddy Group, and Komani Charcoal Group
    • Waghi Valley, Mount Hagen district, Western Highlands Province. Traditionally preferred fuelwood is “Yar”, or Casuarina oligodon All land and trees are under traditional customary ownership A UST R A LIA N C E NT R E FOR I NT E R NA T IONA L A GR ICULT UR A L RE SE A R CH U NIVE R SIT Y OF A D E LA ID E P A PUA NE W GUINE A F OR E ST RE SE A R CH I NST IT UT E Background
    • Fuelwood market and Garden system A UST R A LIA N C E NT R E FOR I NT E R NA T IONA L A GR ICULT UR A L RE SE A R CH U NIVE R SIT Y OF A D E LA ID E P A PUA NE W GUINE A F OR E ST RE SE A R CH I NST IT UT E Roadside fuelwood vendor on temporary site, Port Moresby, National Capital District Highland sweet-potato / pig garden systems in a complex landscape of use and ownership Team of fuelwood retailers on permanent site, Mount Hagen, Western Highlands Province Industrial sector (e.g. tea plantations) also have high fuelwood demand Background
    • Research methods to facilitate agroforestry-based small business • Quantitative and qualitative social research methods to describe the fuelwood economy • Field, laboratory and consumer trials to evaluate a range of candidate SRC species for their value in fuelwood and charcoal production • Participatory action research methods to facilitate the establishment charcoal producer- vendor groups A UST R A LIA N C E NT R E FOR I NT E R NA T IONA L A GR ICULT UR A L RE SE A R CH U NIVE R SIT Y OF A D E LA ID E P A PUA NE W GUINE A F OR E ST RE SE A R CH I NST IT UT E
    • Lae Port Moresby Mt Hagen Western Highlands Morobe West New Britain East New Britain NCD Chimbu Eastern Highlands AUSTRALIA INDONEISA Papua New Guinea: survey regions A UST R A LIA N C E NT R E FOR I NT E R NA T IONA L A GR ICULT UR A L RE SE A R CH U NIVE R SIT Y OF A D E LA ID E P A PUA NE W GUINE A F OR E ST RE SE A R CH I NST IT UT E Fuelwood Survey
    • Fuelwood survey methods • Questionnaire survey of urban and rural domestic users (n= 3,966) and sellers (n=156) • Case study monitoring of actual daily fuelwood use over two one- week periods (n=36) • Semi-structured interviews of commercial and industrial users and institutional stakeholders (n = 76) A UST R A LIA N C E NT R E FOR I NT E R NA T IONA L A GR ICULT UR A L RE SE A R CH U NIVE R SIT Y OF A D E LA ID E P A PUA NE W GUINE A F OR E ST RE SE A R CH I NST IT UT E Determining mass : price relationship of fuelwood on sale Producing lime from coral and seashells on the Salamaua coast, Morobe Province Fuelwood Survey
    • Case-study monitoring of daily fuelwood use 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 AverageDailyfuelwooduse(kg/d) Urban (dark solid) and Rural (light broken) Case Studies Fuelwood Survey A UST R A LIA N C E NT R E FOR I NT E R NA T IONA L A GR ICULT UR A L RE SE A R CH U NIVE R SIT Y OF A D E LA ID E P A PUA NE W GUINE A F OR E ST RE SE A R CH I NST IT UT E
    • Urban flow of collected fuelwood, district volume in thousands m3 /y, per capita consumption m3 /person/y (red) Rural flow of collected fuelwood, volume in thousands m3 /y , per capita consumption m3 /person/y (green) Flow of fuelwood for sale, value in millions Kina /y (blue) Fuelwood Survey A UST R A LIA N C E NT R E FOR I NT E R NA T IONA L A GR ICULT UR A L RE SE A R CH U NIVE R SIT Y OF A D E LA ID E P A PUA NE W GUINE A F OR E ST RE SE A R CH I NST IT UT E
    • Survey conclusions • Fuelwood use here to stay foreseeable future • Economy is large, informal, simple and flat with few intermediaries between collector and seller. • Main problems are access to fuelwood and transport to market • No institutional support but no regulatory barriers or extra costs • Great opportunity for entrepreneurs to create a more sophisticated fuelwood supply chain that could deliver sustainably harvested and value- added fuelwood to consumers, especially in urban areas and the commercial sector. Fuelwood Survey A UST R A LIA N C E NT R E FOR I NT E R NA T IONA L A GR ICULT UR A L RE SE A R CH U NIVE R SIT Y OF A D E LA ID E P A PUA NE W GUINE A F OR E ST RE SE A R CH I NST IT UT E
    • Field evaluation of SRC species • 10 species at 2 spacings in 3 replicated field sites (highland and lowland) • Farmer-managed woodlots and alley-farm systems • Laboratory tests of burning quality of wood and charcoal • Consumer preference • Market performance Evaluation of SRC species A UST R A LIA N C E NT R E FOR I NT E R NA T IONA L A GR ICULT UR A L RE SE A R CH U NIVE R SIT Y OF A D E LA ID E P A PUA NE W GUINE A F OR E ST RE SE A R CH I NST IT UT E
    • Field trial results Evaluation of SRC species rainfall Median fuelwood volume (m3) for closed spaced (1.5m * 1.0m) woodlot of 500m2 Error bars = Standard Error of Mean Values adjusted to corresponding expected survival rates Mount Hagen, Highlands site Port Moresby, Lowlands site Commonly used local species (but does not coppice) Commonly used local species 67% coppice 95% coppice A UST R A LIA N C E NT R E FOR I NT E R NA T IONA L A GR ICULT UR A L RE SE A R CH U NIVE R SIT Y OF A D E LA ID E P A PUA NE W GUINE A F OR E ST RE SE A R CH I NST IT UT E
    • What highlanders think of fast-grown firewood We asked some landholders to cook with our fast-grown firewoods which took only 2 years to grow. We asked them to compare these fast-grown firewoods with the slow-grown firewood they normally collect. This is what they said for each of the 7 trees we gave them Eucalyptus grandis • less smoke • better heat, long burning • coals last the same • easy to split and use Eucalyptus robusta • slightly smokier • very good heat, long burning • coals die quicker • remove bark before use Eucalyptus pellita • smoke the same • not as hot or long burning • coals die quicker • not good for starting fire Leucaena • smoke the same • not as hot or long burning • coals die quicker • very good to start fire Calliandra • much less smoke • not as hot or long burning • coals die quicker • very good to start fire Local Yar • smoke same • heat same • coals same • easy to split and use Indonesian Yar • slightly smokier • better heat, long burning • coals last long • difficult to split Evaluation of SRC species A UST R A LIA N C E NT R E FOR I NT E R NA T IONA L A GR ICULT UR A L RE SE A R CH U NIVE R SIT Y OF A D E LA ID E P A PUA NE W GUINE A F OR E ST RE SE A R CH I NST IT UT E
    • Comparison of estimated gross returns and return to labour of SRC, coffee and sweet potato crops Alternatives to SRC SRC-Firewood SRC-Poles SRC-Charcoal Sweet potato Coffea arabica E.grandis E.robusta E.robusta E.grandis E.robusta Gross Return Kina/ha 7 200 4 050 7 297 6 265 2 330 5 212 Labour Inputs persondays/h a 350 275 170 170 150 220 Return to Labour Kina/person/ d 21 15 43 37 16 24 US$/person/d 9.77 6.98 20.00 17.21 7.44 11.16 Comment Competition; difficult transport Ready cash, women work, men get money Maybe market resistance due to appearance Side-line market (Nuberg et al, 2014) Notes: Sweet potato and Coffee values from Table 5.20.1 in ‘Food and Agriculture in PNG’ Bourke et al (2009) with update from Bourke pers.com. 20 Feb. 2013. SRC Firewood and pole gross margin based on volume and pole length data of 1.5 m x 1.0 m spacing; Price is conservatively set at 70% of surveyed firewood prices and pole value in Mt Hagen; SRC Labour inputs estimated as: ground preparation 60; planting 30; weeding in first year 20; harvest and prepare for market firewood 60, poles 40, charcoal 110. SRC Charcoal gross return and return to labour based on volumes and charcoal business plan prepared by Manapangkec (2012) 1.00 Kina = 0.465 USD exchange rate at 2 April 2013 Evaluation of SRC species A UST R A LIA N C E NT R E FOR I NT E R NA T IONA L A GR ICULT UR A L RE SE A R CH U NIVE R SIT Y OF A D E LA ID E P A PUA NE W GUINE A F OR E ST RE SE A R CH I NST IT UT E
    • Charcoal producer-vendor method • Advertise for participants • Training activities in: – Small business planning – Charcoal production – Charcoal stove construction – Nursery techniques for SRC species • Action research – Groups develop own business plan and group structure – Guidance with microcredit loans – Monitoring and guidance of group progress • Promotion of charcoal concept • Semi-Structured interviews in community development sector to survey existing models of collective business engagement (n=41) A UST R A LIA N C E NT R E FOR I NT E R NA T IONA L A GR ICULT UR A L RE SE A R CH U NIVE R SIT Y OF A D E LA ID E P A PUA NE W GUINE A F OR E ST RE SE A R CH I NST IT UT E
    • Charcoal business modelsMt Hagen ‘Lead Charcoal Producer’ Model Lae ‘Charcoal Wantok’ Model A UST R A LIA N C E NT R E FOR I NT E R NA T IONA L A GR ICULT UR A L RE SE A R CH U NIVE R SIT Y OF A D E LA ID E P A PUA NE W GUINE A F OR E ST RE SE A R CH I NST IT UT E
    • Conclusions • Inter-Disciplinary approach essential for complex problems • Facilitation of small-business requires: – long term commitment – training and support across whole value-chain – respect and adaptation for regional cultural differences • Need for formal recognition and support by national and provincial governments A UST R A LIA N C E NT R E FOR I NT E R NA T IONA L A GR ICULT UR A L RE SE A R CH U NIVE R SIT Y OF A D E LA ID E P A PUA NE W GUINE A F OR E ST RE SE A R CH I NST IT UT E
    • Core quantitative dimensions of fuelwood economy as determined by questionnaire surveys of domestic users, sellers and case study monitoring Regions of fuelwood stress surveyed URBAN RURAL National Capital District Lae, Morobe Mt Hagen Western Highlands Lae, Morobe Highlands Western & Eastern, Chimbu Population 254,158 78,692 27,877 40,486 150,916 Sample size 1,868 558 247 285 996 % sample using fuelwood (FW) over past 12 months 73 90 87 98 100 % FW user population buying over last 2 week 24 27 47 7 4 Average spent over 2 weeks in USD $9.06 $10.04 $9.48 $12.83 $11.20 Gender equity index for fuelwood collection ** 1.0 0.9 0.6 1.1 0.9 Gender equity index for fuelwood purchase 1.0 0.7 0.7 0.5 0.5 % FW users who have planted trees in past 2 years 44 25 54 83 96 % FW users experienced conflict over access to FW 48 40 58 51 61-88 % FW sellers with access to land to grow trees 86 39 88 39 89 Average price PGK / kg for FW on sale 0.30 0.49 1.15 0.58 0.33 Average (max) distance in km sellers source their FW 10 (25) 3 (5) 6 (30) 3 (5) 23 (40) % domestic FW users also using FW commercially 26 58 % domestic FW users also selling fuelwood 3 10 % for whom FW more difficult to access over past 2 y 65 41 Daily household fuelwood use Recalled data from domestic user surveys, kg/d 9.6 10.6 5.6 8.9 21.1 Daily monitoring case study households over 2 weeks Number of households monitored 13 23 Average daily fuelwood use, kg/d 11.1 32.5 Median daily fuelwood use, kg/d 11.6 27.3 ** Gender equity index = ratio of the relative proportion of instances of female activity in relation to the region sample size, to instances of male activity. Within a region, if men and women share the load equally in collecting and buying fuelwood, i.e. a 1:1 ratio, then the index = 1.0 . If there are more instances of men’s activity then index <1, if women more active >1. A change in 0.1 units of the index reflects a change in 10% of the regional population. Fuelwood Survey