Session 3.3 potential of fruit trees in the drylands katja

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  • 1. Potential of fruit trees in the drylands of Sub-Saharan Africa for food and nutrition security and income generation Katja Kehlenbeck (World Agroforestry Centre ICRAF), Clement Okia, Stepha McMullin, Loyce Jepkorir, James Ngulu, Christopher Mutunga, Agnes Gachuiri, Ann Mbora, Miyuki Iiyama, Zac Tchoundjeu, David Ojara, Antoine Kalinganire, Isaac Nyoka, Simon Mng’omba, Ramni Jamnadass
  • 2. 2 East Africa 40% Burden of malnutrition: Stunting rates West Africa
  • 3. 3 Past and projected fruit and vegetable consumption globally 2000 – 2030 Consumption of fruits and vegetables 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Latin Amer. + the Caribbean Sub-Saharan Africa South Asia East Asia + Pacific Eastern Europe + Central Asia Middle East + North Africa United States World Kg fruit and vegetables/person per year 2000 2000-2030 change Modified after: Msangi and Rosegrant 2011. Feeding the Future’s Changing Diets. WHO-recommended 146 kg
  • 4. 4 Species Vit C (mg/100 g) Vit A (mg/100 g) Iron (mg/100 g) Calcium (mg/100 g) Adansonia digitata 150-500 0.03-0.06 1.7 360 Grewia tenax N.A. N.A. 7.4 610 Tamarindus indica 3-9 0.01-0.06 0.7 260 Ziziphus mauritiana 70-165 0.07 1.0 40 Mango 28 0.04 0.1 10 Orange 51 0.07 0.2 54 Sources: Freedman (1998) Famine foods. http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/FamineFoods; Fruits for the Future Series, ICUC; Fineli (http://www.fineli.fi/), etc. Table 1: Nutrient contents of selected fruits from African drylands. Importance of fruits for F & N security • Fruits provide an easily available source of micronutrients
  • 5. 5 • Harvest of different fruits possible year-round due to high species diversity  filling the ‘hunger gap’ before harvest of staples • Fruits provide an easily available source of micronutrients Importance of fruits for F & N security • High potential for income generation from sales of fresh and processed fruits, particularly for women • Fruit trees more tolerant against droughts than annual crops  food security, resilience, climate change adaptation
  • 6. 6 Multiple benefits of trees in drylands • Food: fruits, nuts, vegetables, seeds • Fodder for livestock • Medicine for humans and livestock • Construction, fuel wood, charcoal • Service functions, e.g. shade, improved microclimate + soil fertility, control of soil erosion, carbon sequestration
  • 7. 7 Case I: Desert date use, Uganda • Adjumani district, Uganda: 68 respondents interviewed on use of Balanites aegyptiaca • 44% reported to use the fruit pulp, 53% the oil from the seeds • 84% of the fruits were harvested from the wild, only 7% of the respondents reported to have planted a desert date tree on their farm • Children were mentioned as the main fruit collectors within the household
  • 8. 8 Case II: Filling the hunger gap, Kenya • 104 respondents, interview on fruit availability in Mwingi district, Eastern Kenya • Fruits of 57 IFT species (farms/woodlands) consumed  year-round supply, filling the ‘hunger gap Source: P. Simitu, unpublished data
  • 9. 9 Case III: Mangoes for cash, Kenya • Semi-arid Eastern Kenya: 87 mango farmers interviewed in 2012 Mean income: 320 USD per year Few female mango farmers, highly efficient Cases (n) Farm size (ac) No. of mango trees per farm Annual income from mango farming (KES) Portion of income from mangoes of total income (%) Female 9 6.8 25 22,000 29 Male 78 11.3 81 30,000 28 Total 87 10.8 75 29,600 28 Source: James Ngulu, unpublished data
  • 10. 10 0 20 40 60 80 100 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Case IV: Domestication, Malawi • Miombo region: on-going participatory domestication of Uapaca kirkiana, Strychnos cocculoides, Sclerocarya birrea New tree crops for income and nutrition Filling the ‘hunger gap’ Cropping season = ‘hunger gap‘ Harvest season Percentage (%) of households facing food shortage Tree species Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Parinari curatellifolia Uapaca kirkiana Strychnos cocculoides Syzygium cordatum Azanza garckeana Flacourtia indica Vangueria infausta Vitex doniana Adansonia digitata Source: ICRAF Malawi team
  • 11. 11 Case V: Domestication in the Sahel • West African Sahel: Adansonia digitata, Tamarindus indica and Ziziphus mauritiana
  • 12. 12 Possible threats of tree diversity: • Overuse, unsustainable harvest, climate change • Expansion of agriculture into natural habitats • Transformation of mixed agroforestry systems into:  commercial vegetable gardens  Intensive monocropping of staples Nuba Mountains, Sudan (partly promoted by NGOs) Eastern Kenya
  • 13. 13 Research needs (examples):  Production data for fruit/food trees in drylands  Data on the contribution of fruit/food tree products to: - family nutrition (seasonality?) - family income generation (use?)  Data on nutrient content of products from lesser known food tree species  Socio-economic/environmental factors influencing cultivation of fruit/food trees and consumption of their products (e.g. commercialisation)  Data on service functions of trees
  • 14. 14 • Fruits are important for nutrition and income • Potential of fruits for nutrition and income generation not fully exploited • Many research & dissemination needs Take-home message
  • 15. 15 Thank you! K.kehlenbeck@cgiar.org