Session 3.1 short summary notes break out session 3
Short notes break out session 3.1: The viability of trees as crops; agroforestry, pulp and wood-based
enterprises, cocoa and coffee
Chair: Dr Zac Tchoundjeu Regional Coordinator, ICRAF West and Central Africa. Email:
Reporter: Dr. Antoine Kalinganire, Node Coordinator, ICRAF WCA/Sahel. Email: email@example.com.
This break-out had a total of 5 presentations, mostly on agroforestry systems including Cocoa, timber
species, pulp tree species, coffee and poplars. More than 100 participants took part to this session and
had live discussions during the session. Key messages are herewith given per individual presentation:
1. Cocoa agroforestry system – improving productivity and profitability of smallholder cacao in
Sulawasi–Janudianto: The presentation was mainly around the understanding of 4 agroforestry
cocoa based systems, namely monocultures, cacao with shade trees, cacao with fruit and timber
trees and home gardens. Results presented were on the analysis of a scoping study, garden
inventory, and group discussion with farmers regarding how to improve the productivity and
profitability of cacao based systems for small-holders farmers. Results from the study show that
multi-strata cacao agroforestry systems with an average of more than 10 species with an intermix of
fruit and timber trees is more profitable and sustainable.
2. Agroforestry for food and wood security: an industry experience in India – HD Kulkarni: The study is
based on agroforestry where Eucalypts hybrids, Casuarina and Leucaena species are inter-planted or
in alley planting for biomass production for pulp and paper. Intercropped species include chili and
millets. The study showed, from an economic analysis of cotton and eucalypts, that the agroforestry
model has the potential to double production of both trees and agricultural crops. The contribution
of the study is that the model may improve the farm productivity and profitability while conserving
3. Small farm diversification strategies coffee farmers around Mount Kenya in Kenya – Sammy Carsan:
The study presented results investigating if smallholders has decreasing or increasing coffee
production in a monocrop or a diversified farm. It is clearly shown from the presentation that
diverse farms are more productive and sustainable. Regarding the effect of farm size, it was evident
that cherry value and coffee bushes per ha was significantly smaller in bigger farms against reduced
coffee is reduced when farms are increasing bigger.
4. Highest wood production by poplar (Populusdelteides) clones under agroforestry systems in Punjab
State, India – a case study -Mohammed Haque: Sugarcane and wheat are intercropped with poplar.
The study showed that clonal poplar based system increased very substantially wood production
while contribution to food security is also highlighted. The system has shown high economic returns
to the farmers.
5. Cacao agroforestry system vs. monocultures under conventional and organic management – results
from tropical Bolivia – Christian Andres: The presentation discussed the cocoa based system
sustainability problem in Bolivia –ecological, economic and social factors. Key issues include loss of
biodiversity and soil fertility, carbon emissions, high labor requirement, land completion with other
perennials, aged farmers etc. It is clear that long-term investigations are needed for a better
understanding of the system profitability.
The session brought in few questions including:
Tree monocultures are less sustainable and less profitable
Clonal forestry is using less number of clones –less than 7 clones for most species, thus making the
system more vulnerable to pests and diseases
Production and certification of improved tree germplam is limiting the adoption of profitable
agroforestry systems by smallholders
Long-term observations on multi sites are needed for a better understanding of the sustainability
and profitability of the agroforestry systems.
In conclusion agroforestry systems were recommended as best approaches for income generation while
managing sustainably the environment.