Yield, Carbon Density and Climate Change
Impact on Bagras (Eucalyptus Deglupta Blume)
in Corn-Based Hedgerow Intercropping...
INTRODUCTION
• Yield estimation of standing
timber is crucial for a successful
agroforestry enterprise.
• Yield studies sh...
• Little has been published in the Philippines, or
elsewhere, about timber yields from corn-based
hedgerow intercropping a...
OBJECTIVES
1.Develop reliable yield model for management of
hedgerow intercropping agroforestry system
using Eucalyptus de...
3.Determine above ground carbon
density of bagras; and,
4. Assess the impact of future climate
change on the yield of Bagr...
Location of
the Study
Northern part of
Mindanao
Misamis Oriental
& Bukidnon
11 Municipalities
20
25
Sample Plot Establishment
Data Collection
Coordinates, Elevation and Aspects
Slope, Angles for merchantable
height (MH) and total height (TH)
Continuation . . . .
Soil Sampling
Stand Characteristics
Density
Regression Diagnostics and Analysis
• unusual data
• influential data
• checking normality of residuals
• homocedasticity ...
Multiple Linear Regression
Analysis (STATA v. 10)
Development of Yield Model
Y = f[site index (SI), age (A),
spacing) (SP)...
AGB (ton per tree) = volume over bark (m3 per
tree) * wood density (g/ cc) * biomass
expansion factor (BEF)
Carbon Density...
Assessing Future Climate Change Impact
• The impact of future climate change on the yield
of bagras was assessed based on ...
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
LnYield = 1.4284 - 0.0251*SI + 0.0094*Age +
1.0128*LnBA + 0.0003*Rainfall
R2 = 0.9620
• The model h...
• These predicted changes were logical in terms of
the physiological aspect of tree growth.
• Growth was reduced when plan...
• RF in this model also posed
considerable influence in volume
(2.8 % per 100 mm increase).
Precipitation is important to ...
• BA an expression of stand density, had
significant contribution to the changes in volume
amounting to approximately 48.9...
• The negative direction of the effect of SI with
yield is not expected.
• The negative coefficient could be due to
combin...
• The estimated mean annual increment (MAI) of
Bagras was 0.0016 m3 yr-1 or equivalent to 0.67 m3
ha-1 yr-1 (420 trees per...
• The average annual yield is only 7.43 m3 ha-1 yr-1
with an average of 0.0177 m3 per tree (SI = 18;
RF = 1700 mm).
• Howe...
Aboveground Carbon Density (AGCD)
basal area = 0.02 m2
site index = 14 m
mean annual rainfall = 1700 mm
0.2094
0.2209
0.23...
Estimated Total AGCD Accumulation at 420 trees
Mean Annual AGCD
Assessing Future Climate Change Impact
• The result had elucidated the findings of PAGASA
that RF will be decreasing by 20...
• The predicted decrease in yield with decreasing
precipitation is logical especially if it is coupled
with increasing tem...
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
1. Yield variation can be accounted by site index,
age, basal area and rainfall.
2. Site index sho...
• Yield relative to various stand and climatic
characteristics of the sites was in the order
woodlot > boundary > alley.
• Based on the result of the study, the AGCD per tree
was in the order woodlot > boundary > alley.
• In this study, the ch...
RECOMMENDATIONS
1. The model for hedgerow intercropping offers an
essential aid in the selection of suitable
establishment...
3. Likewise, the result of the study could be an
essential aid in the preparation of feasibility
studies pertaining to Bag...
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The author would like to thank Science Education
Institute (SEI) – Department of Science and
Technology (DO...
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Session 2.1 yield, carbon density & climate change bagras

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Session 2.1 yield, carbon density & climate change bagras

  1. 1. Yield, Carbon Density and Climate Change Impact on Bagras (Eucalyptus Deglupta Blume) in Corn-Based Hedgerow Intercropping Agroforestry System in Northern Mindanao, Philippines R.A. Palma, Ph.D* and W.M. Carandang, Ph.D** *Assistant Professor, Misamis Oriental State College of Agriculture and Technology, Claveria, Misamis Oriental, Philippines **Professor, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Banos, College, Laguna, Philippines
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION • Yield estimation of standing timber is crucial for a successful agroforestry enterprise. • Yield studies should be undertaken to effectively demonstrate the economic feasibility of growing bagras in an agroforestry system.
  3. 3. • Little has been published in the Philippines, or elsewhere, about timber yields from corn-based hedgerow intercropping agroforestry system. • With suitable inventory and other resource data, yield models provide a reliable way to examine silvicultural options and to determine the sustainable timber yield for different areas and management strategies (Vanclay, 1994).
  4. 4. OBJECTIVES 1.Develop reliable yield model for management of hedgerow intercropping agroforestry system using Eucalyptus deglupta Blume (Bagras) relative to soil - site index, age and stand density, provenance, temperature and rainfall; 2. Compare the yield of Bagras in corn-based hedgerow intercropping with various agroforestry systems;
  5. 5. 3.Determine above ground carbon density of bagras; and, 4. Assess the impact of future climate change on the yield of Bagras.
  6. 6. Location of the Study Northern part of Mindanao Misamis Oriental & Bukidnon 11 Municipalities
  7. 7. 20 25 Sample Plot Establishment
  8. 8. Data Collection Coordinates, Elevation and Aspects Slope, Angles for merchantable height (MH) and total height (TH)
  9. 9. Continuation . . . . Soil Sampling Stand Characteristics Density
  10. 10. Regression Diagnostics and Analysis • unusual data • influential data • checking normality of residuals • homocedasticity of residuals • multicollinearity • linearity • model specification
  11. 11. Multiple Linear Regression Analysis (STATA v. 10) Development of Yield Model Y = f[site index (SI), age (A), spacing) (SP), basal area (BA), provenance (P), rainfall (RF), Temperature (T)]
  12. 12. AGB (ton per tree) = volume over bark (m3 per tree) * wood density (g/ cc) * biomass expansion factor (BEF) Carbon Density The above ground carbon density of bagras was determined using the formula (Brown and Lugo, 1992):
  13. 13. Assessing Future Climate Change Impact • The impact of future climate change on the yield of bagras was assessed based on the projected change in seasonal mean RF and T of the Province of Bukidnon. • The data was extracted from PAGASA PRECIS Regional Climate Model (climate change scenario)
  14. 14. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION LnYield = 1.4284 - 0.0251*SI + 0.0094*Age + 1.0128*LnBA + 0.0003*Rainfall R2 = 0.9620 • The model had shown that for every unit increase in independent variables (except SI), there was an equivalent increase in volume.
  15. 15. • These predicted changes were logical in terms of the physiological aspect of tree growth. • Growth was reduced when planted at an elevation close to 1000 masl.
  16. 16. • RF in this model also posed considerable influence in volume (2.8 % per 100 mm increase). Precipitation is important to plant growth, not only for photosynthesis but also in nutrient dynamics.
  17. 17. • BA an expression of stand density, had significant contribution to the changes in volume amounting to approximately 48.9 %. • It is a general knowledge that increasing SP up to certain maximum will also result to the increase in height and diameter and eventually volume of wood harvested.
  18. 18. • The negative direction of the effect of SI with yield is not expected. • The negative coefficient could be due to combined effects of physiographic and edaphic factors. • Negative direction of the effect of site index with yield of Teak (Tectona grandis) and Ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) were also found in the study of Pinol (1990) and Pinol et al. (1985).
  19. 19. • The estimated mean annual increment (MAI) of Bagras was 0.0016 m3 yr-1 or equivalent to 0.67 m3 ha-1 yr-1 (420 trees per ha). Timber Yield in Corn-Based Hedgerow Intercropping Agroforestry System • Even though the value generated from the model is quite low, it does not in any way reflect any irregularity. The result had elucidated the intrinsic nature of the data used in model construction.
  20. 20. • The average annual yield is only 7.43 m3 ha-1 yr-1 with an average of 0.0177 m3 per tree (SI = 18; RF = 1700 mm). • However, planting Bagras in an area with high RF (2700 mm) was predicted to yield up to 9.73 m3 ha-1 yr-1 on 10 yr rotation.
  21. 21. Aboveground Carbon Density (AGCD) basal area = 0.02 m2 site index = 14 m mean annual rainfall = 1700 mm 0.2094 0.2209 0.233 0.195 0.2 0.205 0.21 0.215 0.22 0.225 0.23 0.235 6 12 18 ACDINMILLIONGRAMSPERTREE AGE IN YR
  22. 22. Estimated Total AGCD Accumulation at 420 trees
  23. 23. Mean Annual AGCD
  24. 24. Assessing Future Climate Change Impact • The result had elucidated the findings of PAGASA that RF will be decreasing by 2050. • The yield was negatively affected by the changes in seasonal mean RF. • Yield will decrease linearly with seasonal mean RF and in 2050 volume will be reduced to an approximate amount of 0.0190 m3 (8 bd ft) per tree.
  25. 25. • The predicted decrease in yield with decreasing precipitation is logical especially if it is coupled with increasing temperature. • One possible reason for the decline in yield will be reduced inputs of nutrients from the soil and the atmosphere (Yang et al., 2004). • Decreasing rainfall will also hinder transport and availability of macronutrients by reducing soil moisture.
  26. 26. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 1. Yield variation can be accounted by site index, age, basal area and rainfall. 2. Site index showed inverse relationship with volume.
  27. 27. • Yield relative to various stand and climatic characteristics of the sites was in the order woodlot > boundary > alley.
  28. 28. • Based on the result of the study, the AGCD per tree was in the order woodlot > boundary > alley. • In this study, the changed in future climate scenario had negative effect on the yield. Yield will decline with decline in seasonal mean rainfall.
  29. 29. RECOMMENDATIONS 1. The model for hedgerow intercropping offers an essential aid in the selection of suitable establishment in Northern Mindanao and for the future management of these land-use. 2. There is limited consensus on which agroforestry systems and industrial plantation are more profitable. This study could shed vital information that would explain the variability in superiority of management regimes.
  30. 30. 3. Likewise, the result of the study could be an essential aid in the preparation of feasibility studies pertaining to Bagras establishment and management in agroforestry systems. 4. Little has been published in the Philippines, or elsewhere, about timber yields from smallholder tree-based agroforestry systems using indigenous fast-growing tree species. This study could fill the information gap on timber yield which is vital in assessing site productivity using economic analysis.
  31. 31. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The author would like to thank Science Education Institute (SEI) – Department of Science and Technology (DOST), Commission on Higher Education (CHED) and Philippine Council for Agriculture and Aquaculture Resources Research and Development (PCAARRD) for their financial support. Dr. Leuvy Tandug is thanked for her useful suggestions in improving the manuscript. Agroforestry Farmer’s of Misamis Oriental and Bukidnon is thanked for providing access to their farms.

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