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  • 1. Climate Change and Agroforestry Management in Sri Lanka: Adverse Impacts, Adaptation Strategies and Policy Implications 1
  • 2. Mangala De Zoysa University of Ruhuna Sri Lanka and Makoto Inoue The University of Tokyo Japan 2
  • 3. Background 3 3
  • 4. 4  Increased rainfall intensity, amount per day and average per spell  Mean rainfall projected decrease by 4% in quantity and distribution  Increase mean air temperature by 0.9 to 4 0C by 2100  Projected sea level rise  Sri Lanka falls under „vulnerable‟ small island nations
  • 5.  Farming and forestry threatened by weather- related phenomena  Agroforestry adapt climate change through: – Diversified land-use practices, livelihoods and sources of income – Enhancement of agricultural productivity – Buffering weather-related production losses 5
  • 6.  Agroforestry are numerous and found in all climatic zones in Sri Lanka  The paper reviewed literature and discusses: – Impacts of climate change on forest and agriculture in Sri Lanka – Agroforestry adaptation to climate changes and – policy implications required to promote the agroforestry adaptation 6
  • 7. Adverse Impacts of Climate Change on Forest and Agriculture 7
  • 8. Endangering Natural Assets  3.5 m drought affected people given emergency supply 2000 and 2005  Drought in 2001 worst hit water for agricultural and domestic needs  Irrigation sector affected by drought  Forests reduced 36% to 29% (1990 ~ 2006) affecting water for agriculture, power generation and drinking  Sea level rise affected coastal ecosystems 8
  • 9. Prevalence of Pests and Diseases 9  RRDI urgently producing rice resistant to pests and diseases  Increased pest and disease on coconut increased investment in pest control  Invasive Alien Species affecting agricultural lands  Livestock with increased temperature more vulnerable to pests and diseases  Famers susceptibility to dehydration, fatigue, hepatitis, typhoid etc
  • 10. Crop Failures and Affect Livestock  Monsoonal change fall paddy production by 20- 30% in 20 to 30 years  Reduction of rainfall by 100 mm reduce productivity of „made‟ tea by 30-80 kg per ha  Dry spells and cloudiness loss coconut production  Increased sea water affect agricultural lands  Livestock under pressure with competition over land and water 10
  • 11. High Levels of Food Insecurity  Decrease agricultural productivity in 15% by 2080  Dry Zone highly vulnerable to drought while Wet Zone at risk of recurrent floods  Production in major and minor irrigation schemes has frequent shortfalls  Sea water intrusion in coastal areas affect agriculture  Farmers in vulnerable areas have lower adaptive capacity with: – Poor infrastructure and socioeconomic assets 11
  • 12. Risk of Migration into Forest Areas  Prolong droughts push chena (Slash and burn) into forest reserve to find livelihood  Farmers affected by Tsunami south, north and east have moved to forest lands 12
  • 13. Adaptation of Agroforestry to Climate Changes Impacts 13
  • 14. Increase Tree Cover Outside Forests 14  Homegardens in 22% of land increase forest cover and connectivity  Kandyan Home Gardens cover 40% of District  PFP established 9,000 ha homegardens, 4,000 ha FWL, 1,500 ha PWT and 250 ha miscellaneous plantings  Gliricidia as fourth plantation increase forest cover  Green villages and Dayata Sevena promote agroforestry enhanced canopy cover
  • 15. Enhance Forest Carbon Stocks  2 m ha of forest store 21 tons of CO2 per ha  Homegarden is important carbon sinks for REDD+ Program – Tree density from 338 in DZ to 2108 per ha in WZ  Agroforestry ensure fertile soil in long-run reduce emissions  Biomass Energy comes from agricultural lands, and woodlots is cheap and less emissions 15
  • 16. Conserve Biodiversity  Most species in homegardends are indigenous with multi-purpose uses  Kandyan Home Gardens contain more than 30 different crops, perennial trees, shrubs etc.  Beverage crops successfully cultivate under leguminous and shade trees  Perennial spices are cultivated in agroforestry farming systems  Watersheds and wetland biodiversity adapt to climate change 16
  • 17. Reduce Risk and Intensity of Damage  “Let us grow, and uplift the nation” and “Livelihood Development program” established homegardens – Reduce living costs, enhanced food security, and environmentally friendly agriculture  Dendro plantations in tea and coconut lands: – Reduce soil temperature 10oC – Maintain soil moisture 60 cm – Produced wood 15-30 mt per ha  Strip vegetation reduce salinity in agriculture lands 17
  • 18. Maintain Health and Vitality  UWMP apply soil conservation with homegardens  Agroforestry in steep slopes increase climate resiliency, and reduce land erosion  Kandyan Home Gardens prevent erosion and floods and increase carbon sequestration  Gliricidia under Coconut – Leaf litter reduces soil temperature – Prevent soil erosion and enhance fertility 18
  • 19. Scale Up ‘Multiple Benefit’  Homegardens provide alternative livelihoods  Farmers select crops considering profitability, marketing and convenience  PFP created employment, reduced poverty and rehabilitated degraded lands  Gliricidia in mixed systems enhance soil, provide animal fodder, grass and biogas  Wood-based production meet energy, alleviate poverty, save foreign exchange 19
  • 20. Policy Implications 20
  • 21. Amend Policy and Legislation Meeting REDD+ Expectations  REDD+ based on lost opportunities  Legislation on agroforestry: – Reduce unequal treatment for forests or crops – Compete with other forms of land use Dealing with market influences  Forests disappeared conversing to valued crops  Legislation for agroforestry management : – Incorporate forests and trees in production plans 21
  • 22. Market relations and Social responsibility  Buyers looking for products meeting specific environmental and social standards  Participatory and consultative processes of designing and implementing Property rights  Rights and tenure protected by legislation  Well-defined land, tree and carbon rights: – Prevent dispute under defined rights – Provide poor people with legal access to land 22
  • 23. Awareness and Capacity Building  Improve community understanding: – Climate change and risk – Effectively manage agroforestry – Improve livelihoods on sustainable basis  Advisory and training programs: – Help farmers to prepare for challenges – Adopt innovation and technologies – Communicate outcomes from research 23
  • 24. 24 Strengthening Capacity of Lands  Revitalize degraded and fragmented forest and farm lands  Improve capacity of species and ecosystems  Strengthen agroforests to: – Maintain, restore and enhance forest and farm area, biodiversity, health and vitality  Integrate crop and forest a hardy system: – Capable of coping with climate change 24
  • 25. 25 Planning for Climate-smart Agroforest Landscapes  Rooted in agriculture, forestry and rural development  Contribute agroforestry for Millennium Development Goals: – Reduce hunger and improved environmental management – Support food security and boost incomes – Increase productivity and resilience of agricultural landscapes  Develop agroforestry strategies to sequester carbon and reduce GHG emission 25
  • 26. 26 Introduce ‘No-regret’ Options  Maintain benefits with or without climate change: – Promoting crop diversity and biodiversity – Using integrated farming and forestry systems – Improving post-harvest management  Priority for options: – Providing economic and environmental benefits simultaneously  Incentives given for measures: – Reduce GHG emissions simultaneously 26
  • 27. 27 Appropriate Technology Development  Needed for: – Monitoring and research – Adaptation to climate change  Vary according to: – Geographic area – Objectives of management activity – Scale and intensity of operation – Local human and financial resources  Complement conservation and sustainable use of: – Trees within agricultural landscapes 27
  • 28. 28 Create Climate Change Adjustment Programs Professional advice and training  Agroforestry adjust to climate change: – Access business and management practices  Adjust advice and training to producers, adversely impacted, or likely to be impacted – Set goals and develop action plans to improve financial circumstances Increase smallholders’ resilience to shocks  Transitional income support for agroforestry businesses adjust to climate change  New start allowance for participants of programs28
  • 29. 29 Form Agroforestry Network  Formulate and implement agroforestry at landscape scale: – Work on environmental services – Implement community agreements  Foster local governance and collaboration: – Voluntary participation of local stakeholders  Tree planting in agricultural landscape: – Rehabilitate degraded lands – Increase yields of small holder farmers – Contribute CO2 sequestration 29
  • 30. Conclusions and Recommendations 30
  • 31.  Climate change impacts by complexity and magnitude have threatened agricultural and forest ecosystems in Sri Lanka  Agroforestry in Sri Lanka play important role in climate change adaptation and enhancing resilience  Agroforestry management with cross-sectoral and landscape approaches can help local communities adapt to new conditions caused by climate change 31
  • 32. 32