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Session 1.4 livelihood diversification through agroforestry in india
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Session 1.4 livelihood diversification through agroforestry in india

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  • 1. Livelihood diversification through agroforestry in semi arid regions of India JVNS Prasad Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad World Congress on Agroforestry, New Delhi 10th February 2014
  • 2. Distribution of Semi arid regions in India Regions Arid regi ons Semi arid regions Dry Moist Dry sub humid regions Geograp hical area coverage 19% 12% 25.9% 21.1% Mean Annual Rainfall <500 mm 500700 mm 7001100 mm 11001600 mm Growing Season Upto 75 days 75-100 days 120 days 150 days
  • 3. Tree based systems provides several products and meets diversified needs of communities in semi arid regions Product Contribution in percentage Fuelwood 50 Green fodder 10 Small timber 66 Pulpwood 60 Plywood 70-80 Source of Medicines for tribal systems (Dhyani et al., 2013)
  • 4. Tree systems provide stability during years of severe drought System Sole Leucaena Sole Groundnut Sole Mungbean Sole urdbean Alley crops Groundnut Mungbean Urdbean Leucaena fodder yield (t/ ha) 5.75 5.24 5.56 6.03 Crop yield Grain (t/ha) Stover (t/ha) 0 1.67 0 0.68 0 0.47 0 0 0 1.26 0.25 0.22 RAJKOT-Rainfall -177 (120 mm during the rainy season) vs. 625 mm average
  • 5. Traditional agroforestry systems in semi arid regions Location Hisar Rahuri Jhansi Prevalent Systems Scattered trees in the farming systems Silvipasture Agrisilviculture, Agrihorticulture, Silvipasture Parbhani Silvipasture, Agrisilviculture, Bund plantation Nagpur Agrisilviculture Trees on farm bunds Hyderabad Agrihorticulture Preferred tree species Prosopis cineraria, Acacia nilotica, Ailanthes excelsa Zyzyphus, Psidium and Mangifera Acacia sps., Leucaena, A. indica, Prosopis Mangifera, Punica granatum A.indica, Albizia lebbeck, Madhuka latifolia, Zyzyphus mauritiana, Emblica officinalis, Acacia nilotica, Azadirachta indica, Tectona grandis Zyzyphus mauritiana, Annona squamosa, Mangifera indica Acacia nilotica, Leucaena, Eucalyptus, Leucaena, Mangifera indica, Citrus sps., Psidium Acacia sp., Leucaena, Tectona Mangifera indica, Annona squamosa, Tamarindus (Pathak et al, 2000)
  • 6. Agroforestry systems recommended for various SAT regions Location Hisar (Trans gangetic plain zone) Central plateau and hills region Western plateau and hills region Southern plateau and hills region Gujarat plains and hills region Recommended AF systems Eucalyptus hybrid + Maize; Poplar+ Gram/wheat Mango + maize; Emblica Officinalis + groundnut Azadirachta indica + groundnut, Acacia nilotica +Sorghum/gram, Citrus + gram; Pomegranate +lentil, Emblica+ redgram Acacia+ sorghum; Azadirachta + groundnut; Dalbergia + gram; Zizyphus + groundnut; Anona + sorghum; Emblica + pigeonpea; Pomegranate + lentil/mustard Tamarindus + chilli/tomato/curry leaf; Ailanthes + cowpea/sesamum/sorghum/Pearlmillet Albizia lebbeck + cowpea/sesamum/sorghum Azadirachta + groundnut; Acacia nilotica + cotton Zizyphus mauritiana + groundnut; Emblica officinalis + cotton; Punica granatum + pulses
  • 7. Large scale adoption of the following systems is observed S No Agroforestry system 1 Agrihorticulture systems (Mango, Pome granate, Sweet orange, Aonla, Ber) 2 Eucalyptus based systems 3 Leucaena based systems 4 Casuarina based system 5 Ailanthes based system 6 Wadi system 7 Scattered trees in farms Area of adoption Large areas in AP, Karnataka, Maharashtra, etc. AP, Karnataka, Tamilnadu, Maharashtra Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra Tamilandu, AP Gujarat, Tamilandu Tribal areas of Gujarat, Karnataka, Maharashtra Through out Rainfed region The total area under agroforestry in India is reported to be about 25.32 m ha out of which 7 m ha in irrigated regions and 13 m ha in rainfed regions which is about 8% of the TRGA (Dhyani et al., 2013)
  • 8. Agrihorti systems are profitable and provide stable income Mango based agrihorti systems provide net returns up to Rs. 46,250 with a benefit cost ratio up to 6.3:1 by 10 nth year Aonla based systems can provide net returns to the tune of Rs.64632 with a benefit cost ratio of 6.2:1 by 6 th year Intercropping in horticulture systems enhances the income substantially particulalrly during the early years Integrating small ruminants in grown up Mango plantation can enhance the returns substantially Amla + green gram
  • 9. Significant scope for yield improvement exists in horti systems by adopting various practices Crop Mango Mango Guava Aonla Aonla Pome granate Ber Ber Management practices Improvement References in fruit yields RDF + vermicompost + Azotobacter + 66% Yadav et PSB + Zn + Fe + paclobutrazol al.(2011) Drip irrigation at 75% pan evaporation 65% Kumar et replenishment. al.(2008) Removal of 33% of current season’s 99% Prakash et shoot growth al.(2012) FYM + NPK 86 % Singh et al.(2012) Foliar application of 2% calcium nitrate 44 % Bisen et al + 2% urea (2011) Application of Nitrogen and Potassium @ 53 % Kashyap et 500g/plant al.(2012) RDF + vermicompost + and foliar spray 64 % Mishra et al. of thiourea @ 0.5% (2011) Foliar spray of 0.3-0.6% borax and 0.268 % Kumar and 0.4% zinc sulphate Shukla (2010)
  • 10. Short rotation forestry systems are remunerative Agroforestry system Tree Extent of improvement densit in profitability over sole y/ ha crop (%) Eucalyptus + intercrop 1666 362 (Rs 22085/ ha/year) Leucaena + intercrop 4444 287 (Rs 22085/ ha/year) Sole eucalyptus 1666 293 (Rs 20215/ ha/year) Sole leucaena 4444 242 (Rs 16406/ ha/year) Sole casuarina 10000 Rs 20106/ ha/year
  • 11. Yield enhancement is possible in pulpwood systems by adopting improved management practices Intercropping in wider rows of eucalyptus enhances intercrop and tree productivity and significantly enhance returns Fertiliser application in eucalyptus enhances the standing volume by 54% Quality seeds and good variety in leucaena Enhances the productivity by 40% Panicum maximum in Eucalyptus Rhizobium inoculation in leucaena reported to Improve tree growth and productivity Weed control during the initial stages of Eucalyptus contribute to establishment and Enhances productivity Groundnut in Leucaena
  • 12. Wadi system in tribal regions Wadi is a small orchard of one or two acres with crops About 80,000 ha is under wadi system and the area is expanding Staggered income over long term though plantation of forest species on the boundaries Established mango in wadi Institutional building by formation of cooperatives Support for processing and marketing of farm produce Forestry on the boundary of wadi
  • 13. Successful tree establishment is the first step in successful tree farming in wadi system Slope:<15%: Bunding Slope: >15%: Tree Platforms Emphasis should be to enhance the survival of tree systems in rainfed systems
  • 14. Teak (Tectona grandis) on bunds Large number of farmers have planted teak ( Tectona grandis) on field boundaries In Andhra Pradesh alone about 5 crores of saplings were planted during 2012-13
  • 15. How do we scaleup these systems further By integrating with the area based developmental programmes such as Watershed management programs MGNREGA NHM Indira Prabha Microirrigation projects Institutional support is available for taking up these systems in the form of supply of quality planting material, support for the purchase of inputs, aftercare, provision of irrigation facilities,
  • 16. How can we increase income to the communities by enhancing productivity/ adding value to the tree based products •Creation of backward and forward linkages for fruit systems will enhance incomes of the communities •Quality planting material plays an important role for productivity and returns (eg: mango) •Greater access to micro irrigation systems can play a key role for enhancing the productivity •Removal of restrictions on harvest and transport of farm grown wood ( eg: teak and bamboo) •Providing minimum support price to wood •Providing institutional finance for pulpwood systems
  • 17. Conclusions Some of the agroforestry systems are highly profitable resulting in large scale adoption There is further scope for enhancing the productivity by adoption of recommended management practices The impact of tree systems can be further enhanced by scaling up by linking with area based developmental programs Stable markets for trees/ tree products and removal of restrictions on harvest and transport of farm grown wood is key for the success of tree systems in the long run
  • 18. Thank You