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Session 1.1 cafnet

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  • Ecosystem diversity and sustinable farming have contributed to make Kodagu not only a green landscape but a evergreen landscape.
  • Ecosystem Diversity leading to rich species and genetic diversity and some of the natural treasures from Kodagu
  • Due to Economic drivers Coffee Based Agroforests are undergoing changes where farmers are going for intensification of cultivation which could impact this unique and diverse agroforestry system.
  • Transcript

    • 1. CAFNET Initiative – An effort to sustain evergreen agroforests of Western Ghats C.G.Kushalappa*, Raghuramulu. Y**Phillippe Vaast*** Fregus Sinclair*** and Claude Garcia**** *College of Forestry, UAHS,Shimoga, India ** Coffee Board of India, Bangalore , India *** World Agroforestry Centre , Nairobi, Kenya **** ETH, Zurich , Switzerland
    • 2. Coffee and Conservation-Context of CANET Coffee and commodity Economy – Second largest traded Coffee and Ecology - Biodiversity Hot Spots Coffee Agroforests- Shade grown and tree integration Coffee and Livelihoods – Small farmers TREES FOR LIFE 2
    • 3. Study area- Cauvery watershed
    • 4. Kodagu – A Green Landscape  One of the densely wooded district in India. 80%  Highest density of sacred forests in the world.  Largest shade coffee growing region in India 36%  Rich and endemic biodiversity  Landscape which contributes to range of ES  Ecotourism FROM GREEN TO EVERGREEN REVOLUTION. GREEN LANDSCAPE–EVERGREEN DEVLOPMENT
    • 5. Landscape Mosaic Raja’s seat, Madikeri Garcia 2011
    • 6. Orange Coffee Our natural treasures Honey Pepper Cardamom
    • 7. Dynamics in Coffee Agro Forests  Private Forest > Cardamom> Coffee  Arabica>Shaded Robusta>Open Robusta  Native shade trees> Exotic trees  Loss of biodiversity  Impact on ecosystem services  Increase in human animal conflicts  Increase coffee yield and farm income
    • 8. Landscape dynamics Coffee -100% Forest -30% Evergreen Forests Coffee Plantations Deciduous Forests 1997 1977 2007 Cafnet final report 2011 8
    • 9. How to address these dynamics and continue to produce economically and ecologically sustainable farm products? From Productivity to quality productivity. From Regulation to Certification. From Subsidies to Incentives. From Agriculture to Agri- Business. Ecosystem service valuation and incentives for sustainable agroforestry
    • 10. Highlights CAFNET Study  Documentation of Traditional Ecological Knowledge  Biodiversity inventory of coffee plantations.  Water dynamics and hydrological studies  Carbon sequestration  Impact on production and quality  Sustaining the cultivation
    • 11. TEK and Biodiversity Six Knowledge Bases on TEK of 249 farmers Biodiversity of 114 estates Trees enumerated 20030 240 tree species 120 birds Microbial diversity Large and small mammals
    • 12. Agroforests of high tree density Tree/ha 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 Large Medium Small Sacred Forests Natural Forest Estate size Tree density in coffee plantations and natural forest. Cafnet final report 2011
    • 13. Agroforests with high tree Diversity 20% Grevillea robusta Erythrina lithosperma Acrocarpus fraxinifolius 10% Areca catechu 57% 5% Artocarpus heterophyllus 4% 4% Composition of trees in coffee estates Others Cafnet Final report 2011
    • 14. Bird friendly coffee . Impact of Silver Oak on bird diversity
    • 15. Elephants like coffee Percentage of dung piles  Habitat and corridors  High conflict leading to loss of life and crops  In 2013 64 elephants residing in plantations  Feeding on coffee 0 seeds 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 1-50 seeds >50 seeds Total Sample (N=209) Juveniles (N=24) Age catergory Adults (N=123)
    • 16. Total carbon sequestered in forest and CBAF Carbon(t/ha) system Tree Forest 97 Arabica native Coffee Soil Litter Total - 97 2,4 196 88 4,8 112 1,6 206 Arabica exotic 73 3,3 105 2,2 183 Robusta native 78 13,0 90 1,8 182 Robusta exotic 47 10,1 78 1,9 138 Phillipe et al, 2009
    • 17. Economics of shade Particular High(>60) Low(<60) Average shade 73.7 56.3 Coffee yield (Quintals/acre) 6 8.9 Total cost of coffee cultivation (Rs/acre) 13673 17739 Net income from coffee (Rs/acre) 13950 23175 Income from intercrops (Rs/acre) 4759 7483 Net income from coffee + intercrops (Rs/acre) 18709 30658
    • 18. Sustainable coffee Cultivation – Way for Future 1. Eco-certification-Elephant ,Civet and Bird friendly 2. Geographic Indications – 3. Forest Certification 4. Eco-tourism 5. Landscape Labeling
    • 19. Eco-Certification -CANET Initiative  Ecom Gill , Ned commodities and Coffee Board partnership.  Eight farmer groups and 89 farmers certified under project for RAF and UTZ  Additionally large corporate and 90 individual farmers certified
    • 20. Landscape Labelling
    • 21. TEAM - CAFNET INDIA

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