Session 1.1 agroforestry systems in china


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Session 1.1 agroforestry systems in china

  1. 1. AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS IN CHINAPROPOSED CLASSFICATION FOR TROPICAL CHINA Xiao Guo Prof. Antonio García Abril Research Group for Sustainable Environmental Management Universidad Politécnica de Madrid
  2. 2.  Introduction  New Classification for Chinese Tropical Agroforestry systems  Representative models  Conclusions
  3. 3. Introduction  In China the trend of converting natural forest into artificial plantations still continues  Management strategies for systems in natural forest and artificial plantations must be differ  Establish a new classification which is clear and specific for tropical China
  4. 4. Study area (, Science museums of China)
  5. 5. Different Woodland Coverage (ha) in Tropical China Primary Forest Artificial Plantations Secondary Forest 633800 5.90% 4671100 43.47% 5440000 50.63%
  6. 6. New Classification for Tropical China  The clasification is based on woodland (forest or plantation) type Primary Forest Natural Forest Secondary Forest Timber trees Non-timber trees Artificial Plantations Protection forest Homegardens
  7. 7. 1st Level 2se Level 3th Level Basic and usage of Agroforestry Trees Components Natural Forest+ Forest Land cover Characteristic (1) Primary Type of Crops/ Trees Natural Forest 4th Level Model with Complex Model with Simple Structure Structure (Multi-structure) (1a) Ancient tea garden (1b) Primary forest with Amomum sp. Secondary (2) Secondary Forest Forest+ (2a) Secondary Forest+ Crop/trees/ Amomum. sp Vines/ cut-leaf plants (3a) Homalium hainanense/ Gmelina hainanensi+ Alpinia (3) Timber Trees Trees+ Crops oxyphylla/ Amomum villosum/ coffee (3b)Pine+ annual crops/ mashroom Trees+ Crops/pastures/a (4) Non-timber nimals Trees or Artificial Trees+ Crops and Plantation Animals Shelterbelts/Wind (5) Protection Trees breaks+ Commercial Crops (Rubber-Tea/Café/Pineapp (4a.1) Rubber-Tea-Chicken le) (4b) Fruit Trees con Crops (5a) Shelterbelt + Crops (4b.1) Coconut – Café - Alpinia oxyphlla (5a.1) Shelterbelt+Rubber+Tea Crops/Trees Fences Traditional Homegardens (6) Homegarden (4a) Rubber con Crops/ Multi-productive (5b)legumes (5b.1) (Nitrogen-fixing) +Corps Leguminosas+Crops+Trees (6a) Fruit Tree/ Crops Vegetables + Ornamental Plants +
  8. 8.  1a) Ancient tea garden in Xishuangbannan The ancient tea garden is more similar to natural forests, and is completely different to modern tea plantations
  9. 9. 1b) The plantation of Amomum Villosum in rainforest of Xishuangbanna Amomum villosun is a shade medicical plant form the south China
  10. 10. 1b) The plantation of Amomum Villosum in rainforest of Xishuangbanna  It the most planted medicinal plant in Xishuangbanna’s natural forest and has great impact  Need a density of canopy under 70%; almost all the shrubs and herbs were removed, only some tall trees were kept  70%-90% species were lost, the regeneration of the forest was broke
  11. 11. 2. Secondary forests  Most tropical secondary forests are not in good quality. They are fragile and sensitive,  With proper management, the secondary forests have great potential for production and recover their ecological function  2a) Amomum villosum in secondary forests
  12. 12. Crops with artificial plantations  3. Timber: Timber production is the main objective of the plantations and trees, including firewood.  4. Non-timber Tree: Trees are generally the fate of fruit, edible oils, beverages, spices, medicinal, and industrial raw materials;  5. Protection Woodland: The primary purpose of trees is protection, such as water and soil conservation, protection against wind and sand fixation, protection of farmland and grassland, coastal protection, riverbanks and highways;  6. Homegardens
  13. 13. 3. Timber Trees  The main timber trees planted in tropical China are evergreen broadleaf trees  Homalium hainanense, Gmelina hainanensis, Alnus nepalensis, Cinnamomum glanduliferum, Camptotheca acuminata, and Cassia siamea (firewood)  The production cycle is very long, intercropping with some crop species who can harvest in term, usually can get good economic benefits. short
  14. 14. 3a) Endemic timber trees with medicincal plant in Hainan Homalium hainanense and Gmelina hainanensis, are precious endemic Hainan trees
  15. 15. Conclusions  The classification based on the type, considers the forest as a component, distinguishes management applied in forests and plantations. woodland separate measures  For primary forests, the measures should be conditioned on forests protection and biodiversity conservation  Agroforestry systems in secondary forests still need more research.  Agroforestry systems in artificial plantations have significant advantages than single-species monocultures or silviculture.
  16. 16.  The homegarden is most widely used agroforestry system in rural area, and has been the site of introduction of new varieties and the domestication of wild species  A typical feature of agroforestry in China is the tea garden, both in natural forests and artificial plantations.  The generation of efficient and sustainable agroforestry systems needs political support, the involvement of local people, training, and technical assistance.
  17. 17. Thank you! Xiao Guo Center for China-Africa Agriculture and Forestry Research Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University& International Network for Bamboo and Rattan Tel. +86 571-63746816 E-mail: