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Scaling up Climate Smart Agriculture:  policies, development, adaptation and mitigation - Henry Neufeldt (ICRAF)
Scaling up Climate Smart Agriculture:  policies, development, adaptation and mitigation - Henry Neufeldt (ICRAF)
Scaling up Climate Smart Agriculture:  policies, development, adaptation and mitigation - Henry Neufeldt (ICRAF)
Scaling up Climate Smart Agriculture:  policies, development, adaptation and mitigation - Henry Neufeldt (ICRAF)
Scaling up Climate Smart Agriculture:  policies, development, adaptation and mitigation - Henry Neufeldt (ICRAF)
Scaling up Climate Smart Agriculture:  policies, development, adaptation and mitigation - Henry Neufeldt (ICRAF)
Scaling up Climate Smart Agriculture:  policies, development, adaptation and mitigation - Henry Neufeldt (ICRAF)
Scaling up Climate Smart Agriculture:  policies, development, adaptation and mitigation - Henry Neufeldt (ICRAF)
Scaling up Climate Smart Agriculture:  policies, development, adaptation and mitigation - Henry Neufeldt (ICRAF)
Scaling up Climate Smart Agriculture:  policies, development, adaptation and mitigation - Henry Neufeldt (ICRAF)
Scaling up Climate Smart Agriculture:  policies, development, adaptation and mitigation - Henry Neufeldt (ICRAF)
Scaling up Climate Smart Agriculture:  policies, development, adaptation and mitigation - Henry Neufeldt (ICRAF)
Scaling up Climate Smart Agriculture:  policies, development, adaptation and mitigation - Henry Neufeldt (ICRAF)
Scaling up Climate Smart Agriculture:  policies, development, adaptation and mitigation - Henry Neufeldt (ICRAF)
Scaling up Climate Smart Agriculture:  policies, development, adaptation and mitigation - Henry Neufeldt (ICRAF)
Scaling up Climate Smart Agriculture:  policies, development, adaptation and mitigation - Henry Neufeldt (ICRAF)
Scaling up Climate Smart Agriculture:  policies, development, adaptation and mitigation - Henry Neufeldt (ICRAF)
Scaling up Climate Smart Agriculture:  policies, development, adaptation and mitigation - Henry Neufeldt (ICRAF)
Scaling up Climate Smart Agriculture:  policies, development, adaptation and mitigation - Henry Neufeldt (ICRAF)
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Scaling up Climate Smart Agriculture: policies, development, adaptation and mitigation - Henry Neufeldt (ICRAF)

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Faced with sustaining a rapidly growing human population while reducing agriculture’s environmental externalities, and an increasing need to mitigate and adapt to climate change impacts, natural …

Faced with sustaining a rapidly growing human population while reducing agriculture’s environmental externalities, and an increasing need to mitigate and adapt to climate change impacts, natural resource management in the 21st century must undergo a deep transformation to reach the goal of long-term safe operating spaces for humanity . Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is an important new concept that promotes the use of sustainable agricultural practices in the context of food production and security, adaptation and mitigation. However, there is surprisingly little information on the actual scale and achieved mitigation and development benefits of climate-smart agriculture, despite large potentials. Building on the recently launched UNEP Emissions Gap Report 2013 , the main objective of this event is to present a few selected examples from agriculture and forestry that illustrate ways in which policies can enable the adoption of climate-smart agriculture, and discuss options to better align the development, natural resource and climate change agendas.

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  • 1. COP  19  Side  Event   12  November,  2013   SCALING  UP  CLIMATE  SMART  AGRICULTURE:     POLICIES,  DEVELOPMENT,  ADAPTATION  AND   MITIGATION   Henry  Neufeldt   World  Agroforestry  Centre  (ICRAF)  
  • 2. Emissions  from  agricultural  producMon,  conversion   of  land  and  pre-­‐  and  postproducMon  processes   9.5-­‐14.7  Gt  CO2e     (19-­‐29%)   global  food     system     7.6-­‐12.4  Gt  CO2e   (15-­‐25%)   indirect     5.4-­‐5.8  Gt  CO2e   (10-­‐12%)   direct  
  • 3. EsMmated  historical  and  projected  GHG  emissions   •  •  •  •  •  38%  as  N2O  from  soils   32%  as  CH4  from  ruminant  enteric  fermentaMon   12%  mainly  as  N2O  and  CH4  through  biomass  burning   11%  mainly  as  CH4  in  rice  producMon   7%  as  N2O  and  CH4  from  manure  management   Smith  et  al  in  IPCC  AR4  GWIII,  2007  
  • 4. Global  technical  miMgaMon   potenMal  by  2030  by   management  pracMce  and   greenhouse  gases     Smith  et  al  in  IPCC  AR4  GWIII,  2007  
  • 5. Climate-­‐smart  agriculture   Whole  food   systems   Climate   variability   Climate   change   Incremental   adaptaMon   Food  security   Synergies   AdaptaMon   MiMgaMon   Tradeoffs   TransformaMonal   adaptaMon   THE  CHALLENGES  
  • 6. Examples  of  climate-­‐smart  agriculture  pracMces   Crops   Livestock   No  Mllage,  direct  seeding     Increased  feeding   efficiency   RotaMons  with  legumes   Improved  rangeland   management   Intercropping  with   Efficient  treatment  of   legumes   manure   New  varieMes:  shorter   Improved  livestock   cycle,  drought  tolerant,   health   etc   Improved  storage  &   Animal  husbandry   processing  technologies   improvements   Agroforestry   MulMpurpose  trees  on   farms   Nitrogen-­‐fixing  trees,   bushes,  fodder  trees   Improved  fallows   Hedges,  windbreaks,   shelterbelts,  live  fences   Fruit  orchards  
  • 7. Examples  of  climate-­‐smart  agriculture  pracMces   Water  management   Water  storage  –  e.g.   water  pans   Alternate  we`ng  and   drying  (rice)   Dams,  pits,  retaining   ridges   Improved  irrigaMon   (drip)   Soils  management   Fisheries  &  Aquaculture   ConservaMon  agriculture   Saline  resistant  species   and  no-­‐Mll   Stone  bunds   Increased  feeding   efficiency   PlanMng  pits  (zai)   IntegraMon  of   aquaculture  in  farms   Mulching   Low  energy  fuel  efficient   fishing    
  • 8. Examples  of  no-­‐Mll  pracMces  in  different  countries  
  • 9. GHG  miMgaMon  through  no-­‐Mll  in  selected  countries     UNEP  Emissions  Gap  Report,  2013  
  • 10. System  of  rice   intensificaMon  as   an  example  of   improved  nutrient   and  water   management   Uphoff,  2012  
  • 11. Review  of  SRI   management  impacts   on  yield,  water   saving,  costs  of   producMon  and   farmer  income  per  ha   in  13  countries     Average:     +50%  yield   -­‐37.5%  water  use   -­‐16%  costs   +94%  income   Uphoff,  2012  
  • 12. Evergreen  agriculture   with     Faidherbia  albida  
  • 13. Farmer  climate  coping  strategies   •  Farmers  most  interested  in  reducing  food  insecurity   •  No  long-­‐  or  medium-­‐term  planning  possible  under  food  insecure  situaMon   •  Tree  planMng  (and  other  investments  in  livelihood  improvements)  only   ager  basic  food  security  is  guaranteed   •  Food  insecurity  rose  by  at  least  one  month  (above  on  average  3  months)   during  recent  drought  and  floods   •  Coping  strategies  lead  into  ‘poverty  trap’   •  Agroforestry  reduced  food  insecurity  by  about  1  month   All  #s  in  %   Lower   Nyando   Middle   Nyando   Reduce   Comm-­‐ QuanMty,   unity  or   Quality  or  #   family   of  meals   support   Help  from   Gov,  NGO,   Church   Borrow   money   Casual   Labor   Sell   possess-­‐ ions  or   livestock   Consume   Seeds   Children   alend   school   less   85   30   42   32   28   72   72   38   38   23   18   37.5   25   40   61   12.5   Thorlakson  and  Neufeldt,  Agriculture  and  Food  Security  2012,  1:15  
  • 14. Barriers  to  adopMon  of  CSA  in  smallholder  agriculture   •  •  •  •  •  •  Provide  an  enabling  legal  and  poliMcal  environment   Improve  market  accessibility   Involve  farmers  in  the  project-­‐planning  process   Improve  access  to  knowledge  and  training   Introduce  more  secure  tenure   Overcome  the  barriers  of  high  opportunity  costs  to   land   •  Improve  access  to  farm  implements  and  capital   Thorlakson  and  Neufeldt,  2012  
  • 15. Financial  benefits  of  no-­‐Mll  wheat   producMon  in  northern  Kasakhstan   Derpsch  et  al,  2010  
  • 16. Constraints:  insecure  tenure   Economic,  Environmental  and  Social   Tenure   Unadjud   Freehold   Impacts   Effect   Net  returns  to  land  ($  ha-­‐1  y-­‐1)   $126   $288   2.28   Woody  crops,  woodlots  etc  (ha  km-­‐2)   5.4   25.6   4.7   Hedgerows  (km  km-­‐2)   5.2   23.6   4.5   Social  cost  from  embedding   -­‐$40   $30   $70   Social  "tax"   -­‐32%   +10%      
  • 17. InnovaTon  and  food  security   RelaMonship  between   innovaMveness  (number   of  farming  system   changes)  and  household   food  security  (number   of  food  deficit  months).   Error  bars  indicate  the   95%  confidence  interval   of  the  mean     Kristjanson  et  al.,  2012  
  • 18. Lessons  learned  for  policy  development  and  scaling  up   Agricultural  miTgaTon  opTons  require  a  coordinated  mix  of  policy  support,   private  and  public  sector  investment,  strengthened  research,  and  capacity   building  of  key  stakeholders     Explicitly  considering  climate  change  miTgaTon,  adaptaTon  and  other  benefits   at  the  outset  is  criTcal  to  achieving  mulTple  benefits  and  reducing  tradeoffs     FacilitaTon  of  public-­‐private  partnerships  and  stakeholder  engagement,   including  research  centers,  governments,  extension  agents,  the  private  sector   and  NGOs,  is  criTcal       Financial  incenTves  (including  tax  offsets,  subsidies,  credit)  are  needed  to   overcome  high  investment  costs  and  lag  Tmes  before  benefits  accrue     Technologies  must  be  context  specific  to  the  region  or  country  where  they  are   introduced     AdapTve  management  of  natural  resource  governance  systems  is  essenTal  
  • 19. Thanks  for  a  future  

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