Recently, with the wider recognition of the importance of agroforestry and interest in scaling up, the issue of policy has renewed emphasis in the institute. The agroforestry policy initiative was created partly in response to this growing issue – I will come back to this at the end to discuss some options we have in terms of engaging in policy research for impact
There are some instances where farmers have been asked about constraints. But these don’t necessarily pick out constraints higher up in the system – e.g. issues to do with national tree germplasm systems.
The efforts in Philippines and Indonesia resulted from long term engagement and considerable strategic planning.
The API has already proven to be a useful mechanism externally – demonstrating our strong interest in policy and playing a natural boundary spanning role with international institutions. But internally, we haven’t discussed its functional utility. One could be in helping us to develop strategic priorities in policy outcomes/ and associated research. Need to set some priorities – take the example of supporting policy reforms.
Policy and Agroforestry: Key Constraints and How ICRAF Might Respond
Policy and Agroforestry: Key Constraints and How ICRAF Might RespondFrank PlaceMarch 2012
Outline• A very brief history of policy research at ICRAF• Policy constraints on agroforestry• Ways forward for ICRAF – your ideas
Importance of Policy Research• Policy changes are potentially game changers – huge impacts, both direct and indirect• But: – Likelihood of success? – What is our role as CGIAR researchers?
I was here when…. My 1st day at ICRAF• More and coordinated from the mid 1990s to early 2000s – managed under a single theme; a new region gave it vibrancy• In mid 2000s we received flexible EU funding for policy first used in Environmental Services Theme and then GRP6• But policy research was to be diffused in different GRPs
Where we are now…..• Policy relevant research is prolific at ICRAF, but research on policy effects and policy options less so, as noted by a 2009 EU review:“However, cutting-edge, theory-based yetpotentially applicable policy research has to beimplemented at scale in the Centre. In particularthere is need to deepen research on policies andinstitutional arrangements and options……”
Part 2Policy Constraints Affecting Agroforestry
Policy Constraints – How do We Know?• There are many documents listing policy constraints for agroforestry• Where is the hard evidence?• Lacking a systematic body of quantitative evidence ….. from a variety of stakeholders….
Collaborative effort to synthesize information • In 2011 ICRAF joined efforts with FAO, CIRAD and CATIE • To review, compile and generate evidence on policy related constraints to agroforestry • Case studies from 17 countries and 66 key informant interviews
Common Broad Policy Constraints• Low policy awareness of agroforestry and focus on conventional agriculture• Land and tree tenure, including forest regulations• Neglect of tree germplasm• Lack of recognition of environmental services• Agroforestry as an orphan across sector and administrative level
1. What is theproblem?2. Who is affected?Who is to blame? Policy research questions followWho’ll have to pay? along different phases of policy3. What behaviouralchange by whom is developmentdesirable, or needed?4. Through whatpolicies could suchbehaviour-al changebe manda-ted or made Studies often are related to aattrac-tive? single segment5. What existing rights,responsibilities andincentives have tochange and who hasauthority to changethem?6. Why would thiswork? Why didn’t itwork before?7. How would wedefine, monitor andmeasure success?
Unpacking ‘the problem’ related to tenure in an African context• The complexity of the issue is evident: • pluralistic rights systems • state laws, interpretations and implementation • national vs local level authority • varying degrees of authority by customary leaders • cumbersome procedures for acquiring titles • new policies and instruments that are not fully disseminated • various primary and derived modes of acquisition • unclear / varying dispute resolution procedures • informal land markets operating to varying degrees • some vulnerable groups like women, migrants • different rights over land and trees on the land
Researching importance of tenure and tenure securityTenure related variables used in African research at ICRAFSecurity variablesPerceptions of land rights –breadth, keystonerights, bundles, individualization /restrictionsIncidence of disputeMode of land acquisitionPossession of formal title or certificateOther tenure related variablesAccess to land / farm sizeFragmentation of holdingLand market activityUse of land as collateral
Tree tenure is particularly interesting• Customary Systems: – Rights to trees may differ by method of establishment, inheritance system, functional use, season, species – Tree planting still used to claim long-term rights to some lands• Legal Systems – Tree management often governed by forestry regulations which are inhibiting
Just imagine the discussion held about rights over this tree
What would we say to African leaders about tenure and its effect on investment?There are some results that seem to hold consistently –link between weak rights and tree planting of womenThere are many results that are country or site specific –effects of titling and rights on investmentSome results are in opposition --- difficult to makeconclusions
Identifying Problems is one thing…• Finding good solutions is another…• We often have a long list of things not to do, but policy makers will ask what can be done….• And contributing to policy outcomes is yet another major challenge….but now we are to be scrutinized more closely for policy outcomes
ICRAF Policy SuccessesICRAF has contributed to policy reforms in thepast, witness:• Tenure reform pilots in Indonesia• Local level by-law reforms in Africa• Various decrees related to agroforestry in Africa• Climate change policy in UNFCCC and Philippines
Part 3Towards More Strategic Policy Research at ICRAF
Strategy / Opportunism• In the realm of supporting policy processes, opportunism is a reality; but what should be our criteria here?• Strategic thinking is needed at the same time – beginning with what policy outcomes are of highest priority ICRAF GRPs At Which Level (s) ? Regions CGIAR Research Programmes
Our Current Policy Structure• The Agroforestry Policy Initiative - ICRAF wide• Some policy foci, notably in GRP6 and ASB thematically and southeast Asia regionally• Engagement with CRP6 and CRP2 which have strong policy emphases
API Proposed Objectives• Objective 1: contribute to knowledge on the potential of agroforestry to improve livelihoods and the environment at global, region and national levels and, raise awareness on the influence of policies in the attainment of agroforestry goals to improve agriculture, increase incomes and generate ecosystems services• Objective 2: Facilitate policy reforms that support the widespread practice of agroforestry at different scales• Objective 3: Facilitate the exchange of information among institutions and individuals with an interest in agroforestry policy and stimulate efforts to review and analyze policies that affect the practice of agroforestry
API Proposed Outcomes• Stimulation of policy reform and new policy formulation processes that consider agroforestry, especially at national level• Greater articulation of the role of agroforestry in policy making under global conventions• Increased inclusion of agroforestry in global and regional agricultural initiatives and increased funding for agroforestry in national programmes• Greater use of agroforestry science in the reform of national policies, regulations and guidelines• Agroforestry research priorities that are better prioritized and coordinated towards meeting policy needs
Facilitating Policy Reforms has Multiple Pathways…….• Policy constraints which are global and of particular importance to agroforestry – tree tenure, PES, tree germplasm…..• National policy environments of particular countries of importance --- e.g. India• Key international policy processes – e.g. the UNFCCC, CAADP/Comesa
Let’s Discuss• How can we best advance strategic thinking on policy research? – Which levels? What process is needed? Who coordinates?• What do you see as main weaknesses to overcome? How can we foster better synergies within ICRAF?• How can the API best help ICRAF and GRPs and regions achieve policy goals?