These four cultivars have the widest resistance spectra. Only Yijing-1 is the modern cultivars. The other three are traditional cultivars. These cultivars virulent frequency are 28.57%. And Their spectra are different. For most of other cultivars, the resistance spectra are also different.
Use of Agrobiodiversity for Pest and Disease Management Carlo Fadda, Bioversity International ODDG Seminars, 19 May 2011
Sixty farmers randomly selected interviewed in each community for each crop;
More than 2000 farmers were interviewed worldwide
Information on diversity is combined with field observations (option 1).
Amount and distribution of bean varieties Results – Farmers’ Knowledge Kabwohe Rubaya Nakaseke HH richness 2.21 2.20 2.556 HH Simpson 0.32 0.375 0.432 Community richness 23 26 16 Community Simpson 0.85 0.914 0.799 Divergence 0.62 0.59 0.46
Farmers’ Knowledge (Cont.) Dalixiang Baiyangnuo Magu Variation of resistance to rice blast in different traditional rice varieties 1-S 2-MS 3-MR 4-R
Results - Option 1 10 sample points were taken randomly in a field and these points’ for panicle blast different levels of resistance. Its range of variation was from 7% to 25%. Average disease incidence of 10 sample points for Dalixiang
Biotic diversity regulates pests and diseases Crop genetic diversity in farmer’s fields – reducing vulnerability Reducing the probability of crop loss from pest and diseases now and in the future Weighted Damage Index = Crop loss (household) Variety richness at household level Variety Evenness at household level Household Damage Index Higher variety richness/evenness – less variance in damage: a risk minimizing argument for crop variety diversity in the production system Peng et al., 2011
Results – Option 2 Of 63 varieties, 3 didn’t flower .HR, R and MR accounted for 5%, 1.67% and 15%, respectively. The remaining 78.33% ranged from MS to HS (56.67%). HR 3 Qiena, Zhangmeleng-1, Chujing-27 R 1 Modelong-1 MR 9 Chengnuo-88 ， Nuoyou-9 ， Baiyangnuo ， Qiejiaba ， Qiege ， Chujing-24 ， Bendipinzhong ， Dulong-1 ， Xiangnuo
Results - option 5 Cultivars Isolates Frequency of virulent on cultivars 143-7a 08-SL-1-21 9-3 Y2009-31-1-6 S-2009-10-1-5 G2009-7-1-1 G2009-6-1-3 Hongyang-3 R R R R R S S 28.57 Yijing-1 R S S R R R R 28.57 magu S R R S R R R 28.57 Tuobeigu R R R S S R R 28.57 Changnuo-2 R R S R S R - 33.33 Hejing-7 R S S S R R R 42.86 Zaogu S R R S S R R 42.86 Xiangnuo R R R S R S S 42.86 Yinuo931 R S R S R S R 42.86 Chujing27 S R S S R R R 42.86 tuojiangnuo R S S R S R R 42.86 Chujing24 S R R S R S R 42.86 dulong-2 R S S S R R S 57.14 Chengnuo88 R S R S S S R 57.14 Yuelianggu S S R R S S R 57.14 Zimigu S R S S R S R 57.14 Nuoyou-9 S R S S S R R 57.14 zhangmeleng-2 R R S R S S S 57.14 zhangmeleng-3 R S S S R S R 57.14 Aijiaogu S R - S R S S 66.67 kaomolao S S S - R R S 66.67 Baiyangnuo R R S S S S S 71.43 Dianza31 S R R S S S S 71.43 Amoqie S S S S R R S 71.43 Hongjiaogu S S S S R R S 71.43
Three cultivars were R and two cultivars were MR when varieties are inoculated with isolates from Guizhou All the others were susceptible. These five cultivars are traditional cultivars from Yunnan.
The twelve cultivars that are more resistant when inoculated with Yunnan isolates are different from the 5 varieties resistant to the Guizhouinoculum. This showed that genetic and pathotypic structure of rice blast fungus population from Yunnan and Guizhou might be different.
Option 5 (Cont.)
Conclusions 2009 wet; 2010 dry Ochoa et al., 2010, unpublished data Anthracnose Ascochyta ALS Rust 2009 2010 2009 2010 2009 2010 2009 2010 Average 2.98 2.45 4.84 3.54 1.57 3.28 3.88 3.62