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INTRODUCTION The problem• Malnutrition is a public health problem for SSA• Micronutrient malnutrition deficiencies(Vit A, Iodine & Iron) are common• It affects women and children• Main cause: inadequate dietary intake• In Zambia, VA deficiency affects: • 54% of children , • 14% of pregnant women and • 19,000 children die each year from related causes (World Bank, UNICEF)
WHAT HAS BEEN DONE SO FAR Fortification Example: maize flour (minerals) and sugar (retinol) Supplementation Capsules Advocacy for dietary diversity BUT these are expensive and do not reach a majority of the target population.
RECENT DEVELOPMENT: BIO-FORTIFICATION Definition: Process of improving the nutritive value of staple foods How? Through conventional breeding (orange maize) or GM technology (golden rice) Objectives: to improve the diets of poor rural households, who eat high levels of food staples Economics: it is cost effective and sustainable By: HarvestPlus, which has partners in many countries, for different crops
HARVESTPLUS Release Crop Nutrient Countries Year Sweet Uganda, Potato Provitamin A Kenya, 2007 (OFSP) Mozambique Bean Iron, Zinc Rwanda 2011Pearl Millet Iron, Zinc India 2011 Cassava Provitamin A Nigeria 2012 Maize Provitamin A Zambia 2013
HARVESTPLUS IN ZAMBIATherefore... Orange maize (β-carotene rich) developed in and for Zambia because maize is widely grown and forms most of the people’s diets.Varieties developed in collaboration with ZARI &CIMMYT• Five varieties developed, on station: • Yield: 8-9 tons/ha, • VA: 6-7 ppm (target is 15 ppm) • Good field characteristics • Good storage• Two varieties about to be released
PARTICIPATORY EVALUATION Last stage in the research Actual trials in farmer fields with new varieties Assess farmers’ appreciation and evaluation Participatory approach used to assess: Production characteristics Consumption characteristics Willingness to pay for orange maize seed By comparing HP1002, HP1004 To conventional white varieties
METHODOLOGY • 3 provinces targeted • 8 districts that provided on-farm trial sites • 242 farmers interviewed using structured questionnaire
FARMER CHARACTERISTICS Variable Average Std DevFormal Education (yrs) 8 3Experience in maize farming (yrs) 17 11Household size 8 4Under 5 children in the HH 2 2Total cultivated land (Ha) 5 4Total land for maize (Ha) 3 3Production (tons) 6 7Maize yield (tons/Ha) 2 2# of maize varieties planted 2 1 68% Sold and 26% consumed of maize produced
1. EVALUATION PRODUCTIONCHARACTERISTICS Farmer is asked to visit the plot and observe Score each variety (1=very poor, 2=poor, 3=fair, 4=good, 5=very good ) For: Yield Cob size Cob fill Colour
RESULTS - EVALUATION OF PRODUCTIONCHARACTERISTICS
CHARACTERISTICSEVALUATED FOR COLOUR, TEXTURE, TASTE ANDAROMATWO MAJOR MAIZE PREPS USED Nshima (Ugali) Boiled maize
3.ESTIMATING WILLINGNESS T0PAY FOR MAIZE SEED VARIETIES Farmers were asked how willing they were in buying a 1 pack (10kg) seed of OM and white varieties at the given seed price of: 400,000 ZMK (US$ 80) 200,000 ZMK (US$ 40) 100,000 ZMK (US$ 20) 50,000 ZMK (US$ 10) 0 (would you accept it for free)?
RESULTS: ESTIMATINGWILLINGNESS T0 PAY FOR MAIZESEED VARIETIES
CONCLUSION Farmers appreciate the new varieties in the field Especially the yield and cob fillingFor both nshima and boiled maize preparations, orange was superior Especially aroma and taste WTP for new varieties is higher
WAY FORWARD Orange varieties are well received, and H+ should continue with its promotion and on-farm testing However, these surveys were combined with farmer field days which might have influenced the results. Therefore, a more neutral approach with a large and representative sample is indicated for the future
Zinc IronTHAN Provitamin A KYOU!... For Your Time