Participatory evaluation of Vitamin A bio-fortified maize in Zambia

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Participatory evaluation of vitamin a bio-fortified maize in Zambia

Participatory evaluation of vitamin a bio-fortified maize in Zambia

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  • 1. PARTICIPATORYEVALUATION OF VITAMIN-ABIO-FORTIFIED MAIZE INZAMBIAPresentedbyEdward Chibwe
  • 2. OUTLINE Introduction Methodology Results Conclusion
  • 3. INTRODUCTION The problem• Malnutrition is a public health problem for SSA• Micronutrient malnutrition deficiencies(Vit A, Iodine & Iron) are common• It affects women and children• Main cause: inadequate dietary intake• In Zambia, VA deficiency affects: • 54% of children , • 14% of pregnant women and • 19,000 children die each year from related causes (World Bank, UNICEF)
  • 4. WHAT HAS BEEN DONE SO FAR Fortification  Example: maize flour (minerals) and sugar (retinol) Supplementation  Capsules Advocacy for dietary diversity BUT these are expensive and do not reach a majority of the target population.
  • 5. RECENT DEVELOPMENT: BIO-FORTIFICATION Definition: Process of improving the nutritive value of staple foods How? Through conventional breeding (orange maize) or GM technology (golden rice) Objectives: to improve the diets of poor rural households, who eat high levels of food staples Economics: it is cost effective and sustainable By: HarvestPlus, which has partners in many countries, for different crops
  • 6. HARVESTPLUS Release Crop Nutrient Countries Year Sweet Uganda, Potato Provitamin A Kenya, 2007 (OFSP) Mozambique Bean Iron, Zinc Rwanda 2011Pearl Millet Iron, Zinc India 2011 Cassava Provitamin A Nigeria 2012 Maize Provitamin A Zambia 2013
  • 7. HARVESTPLUS IN ZAMBIATherefore... Orange maize (β-carotene rich) developed in and for Zambia because maize is widely grown and forms most of the people’s diets.Varieties developed in collaboration with ZARI &CIMMYT• Five varieties developed, on station: • Yield: 8-9 tons/ha, • VA: 6-7 ppm (target is 15 ppm) • Good field characteristics • Good storage• Two varieties about to be released
  • 8. HP1004 HP1002Zambia Orange Maize
  • 9. PARTICIPATORY EVALUATION  Last stage in the research  Actual trials in farmer fields with new varieties  Assess farmers’ appreciation and evaluation  Participatory approach used to assess:  Production characteristics  Consumption characteristics  Willingness to pay for orange maize seed  By comparing  HP1002, HP1004  To conventional white varieties
  • 10. METHODOLOGY • 3 provinces targeted • 8 districts that provided on-farm trial sites • 242 farmers interviewed using structured questionnaire
  • 11. FARMER CHARACTERISTICS Variable Average Std DevFormal Education (yrs) 8 3Experience in maize farming (yrs) 17 11Household size 8 4Under 5 children in the HH 2 2Total cultivated land (Ha) 5 4Total land for maize (Ha) 3 3Production (tons) 6 7Maize yield (tons/Ha) 2 2# of maize varieties planted 2 1 68% Sold and 26% consumed of maize produced
  • 12. 1. EVALUATION PRODUCTIONCHARACTERISTICS Farmer is asked to visit the plot and observe Score each variety (1=very poor, 2=poor, 3=fair, 4=good, 5=very good ) For:  Yield  Cob size  Cob fill  Colour
  • 13. RESULTS - EVALUATION OF PRODUCTIONCHARACTERISTICS
  • 14. CHARACTERISTICSEVALUATED FOR COLOUR, TEXTURE, TASTE ANDAROMATWO MAJOR MAIZE PREPS USED Nshima (Ugali) Boiled maize
  • 15. RESULTS: EVALUATION OFCONSUMPTION CHARACTERISTICS Ize1= Nshima (Ugali) Boiled maize
  • 16. 3.ESTIMATING WILLINGNESS T0PAY FOR MAIZE SEED VARIETIES  Farmers were asked how willing they were in buying a 1 pack (10kg) seed of OM and white varieties at the given seed price of:  400,000 ZMK (US$ 80)  200,000 ZMK (US$ 40)  100,000 ZMK (US$ 20)  50,000 ZMK (US$ 10)  0 (would you accept it for free)?
  • 17. RESULTS: ESTIMATINGWILLINGNESS T0 PAY FOR MAIZESEED VARIETIES
  • 18. CONCLUSION Farmers appreciate the new varieties in the field  Especially the yield and cob fillingFor both nshima and boiled maize preparations, orange was superior  Especially aroma and taste WTP for new varieties is higher
  • 19. WAY FORWARD Orange varieties are well received, and H+ should continue with its promotion and on-farm testing However, these surveys were combined with farmer field days which might have influenced the results. Therefore, a more neutral approach with a large and representative sample is indicated for the future
  • 20. Zinc IronTHAN Provitamin A KYOU!... For Your Time