Bio-fuels to Bioenergy: Challenges and Opportunities for ICRAF


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Bio-fuels to Bioenergy: Challenges and Opportunities for ICRAF

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Bio-fuels to Bioenergy: Challenges and Opportunities for ICRAF

  1. 1. Bio-fuels to Bioenergy Challenges & Opportunities for ICRAF Navin Sharma Programme Manager – Biofuels ICRAF – New Delhi“Its not that we need new ideas, but we need to stop having old ideas– Edwin Land 1
  2. 2. Who Am I? Over 23 Years of Experience Working with Corporate Sector– Unilever & ITC Ltd :: 10 Patents ITC : Chief Scientist for Corporate R&D - Genome Sequencing of Casuarina, GM, Metabolomics, - Breaking Geographic & Environmental Boundaries - Several POCs Demonstrated and Technologies in Implementation Unilever : Principal Scientist:: Global Science Area Leader - Several Translations from Discovery to Deploy (Lipton & Brooke Bond) - C/N Metabolism – Theanine and Flavonoid Biosynthesis, Wounding and Aroma, Cold Infusing Tea Ph D : From Cambridge in Plant Science Strength : Focus – Focus – Focus; Weakness : Restless for Results 2
  3. 3. Structure of the Presentation Drivers of Bioenergy Constraints for implementation Some success stories ICRAF Project Vision, Mission & Road map : RiD Opportunities 3
  4. 4. Drivers of Bioenergyo Attractive Economicso Climate Change Challenges: Mandates by various Governmentso Energy demand: to grow by 55% from 11.4 billion TOE (2012)  17.7 billion TOE (2030)o Increased Demand of global oil from 82mb/d (2012)  116 mb/d (2030) 4
  5. 5. Bioeconomy: Revenue Potential Agricultural Biomass Biomass Biorefining Biorefining inputs Production trading inputs fuels 15 89 30 10 80•Seeds •Energy crops •Biomass •Enzymes •1st & 2nd generation biofuel•Crop protection •Sugarcane aggregation •Organisms production•fertilizers •Short rotation •Logistics •Pretreatment forestry •Trading chemicals Biorefining Downstream chemicals chemistry 6 •Fermentation of bulk •Polymerization, dowm- chemicals stream reactions Biomass power and heat 65 There are significant revenue potentials along the entire biomass value chain. The values given are approximate business potential in US$ •Co-firing billions by 2020 •Dedicated CHP
  6. 6. World Wide Mandates & Subsidies United States Brazil European China India UnionMandate of 36 billion 30+ year commitment 5.75% blending target Plan to substitute 20% Blending targets ingallons of biofuels by to „alcohol program by 2010 and 10% by of crude imports by current drafts are 5%2022 2020 2020. by 2012. 10% by 2017, 20% for long term.Volumetric tax credit: Discussion on target Target of 1.7 billion Target of 20% biofuels Annual blending target by 2020USD 0.51/gal ethanol waiver triggered by gallons of ethanol by for ethanol (25%)+ USD 1.00/gal food crisis, but no 2010.biodiesel change of policy so far. Duty-free imports of Investments in Jatropha to supportCellulose biofuel Biodiesel target of 5% Country-level subsidies feedstock-rich biodieselproducer tax credit: by 2013 average USD 1.90/gal countries.USD 1.01/gal. for ethanol and USD Individual states may Lower taxes for 1.50/gal for biodiesel set additional Commitment toSmall producer tax ethanol (E100) than develop non-food measures to promotecredit: USD 0.1/gal gasoline. Penalty fee in 5 based biofuels COFCO biofuels or restrict countries for (Nat. Food Corp.) with transport of molasses noncompliance with PetroChina and over state boundries.USD 1 billion in FFV sales tax of 14% biofuel target. Sinopec – 2ndsupport for 2nd compared to 16% for generation multiplegeneration technology. gasoline-only vehicles projects. *Rapeseed/* CORN/ *Sugarcane Lignocellulose * Various *Lignocellulose/Lignocellulose Various World wide mandates and subsidies. Current policy status in five major world regions. (*)denotes key feedstock
  7. 7. Can biofuels really contribute towards reducing CO2?Transport Fuels % saving in GHG versus fossil fuel reference Source: Sheffield Hallam Univ. Source: E4tech (May 2006) (2003) & Low CVP (2004)Diesel (ultra low sulphur)Biodiesel (from oil seed 53% 38 -57%rape)Biodiesel from recycled 85% -vegetable oilSecond generation diesel - 94%Petrol (ultra low sulphur)Ethanol from wheat grains 49-67% 7-77%Ethanol from sugar beet 54% 32-64%Ethanol from wheat straw 85%
  8. 8. Constraints for Translation  Value Chains not exploited  Over reliance on few crops  Diversity or monoculture  Agroforestry o Selection of Appropriate Species o Quality planting material o Short rotation crops o Remunerative to small farmers  Availability (seasonal, quality, consistency)  Supply and demand effects on costs - Competing users in agriculture - Competing users in forestry - Competing users in other sectors  The issue is not technical research alone, but coordinated research & demonstration along the value chain. 8Feedstock costs represent from 50-75% of the cost of producing biodiesel
  9. 9. SUCCESSFUL EXAMPLE IN INDIA : KARNATAKA  Inclusion of multiple & locally adapted species Pongamia (Pongamia pinnata) Madhuka ( Madhuka latifolia), Neem (Azadirachta indica) Simarouba (Simarouba glauca), Jatropha (Jatropha curcus) Amoora (Amoora rohiyuka) & Surahonne (Calophyllum inophyllum L)School children taking out a jatha to mark International Biodiesel Day in Hassan.  Smart farming system e.g. bund planting  Area covered – 17,558 acres  No of seedlings – 1.5 millions Hassan to get country’s first bio fuel bunk Jul 06, 2012 | DC | Bengaluru Karnataka is all set to open the country‟s first bio-fuel distribution bunk of Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd in Hassan. Speaking at an event organised by the State Biofuel Development Board on Thursday, its Executive Chairman Biofuel Park –Overview (Hassan, Karnataka) Y.B. Ramakrishna said, “We have several biofuel-related projects going on. We (on Farm pond contours & Bunds) already have a Green Fuel Park at Madenur village, which produces about 300 litres of biofuel and Bharat Petroleum will open a green fuel outlet within the next three months in Hasan”. 9 Source: Prof. Balakrishna Gowda, .Project Coordinator, Biofuel Park,UAS, Bangalore, India
  10. 10. LEARNING FROM OTHER INDUSTRIES: PAPER Trigger – The Paper Business  Forest Conservation Act  Use of Marginal Land  The Requirements: o Use of Marginal land o Compressing Harvesting Cycle from 7 years to 4 years o Improving Survival Rate to 90 % in harsh conditions o Increased Resistance to Disease o Customized Extension Services o a willing buyer at remunerative World Business and Development Award 2012 at the Rio+20 United Nations rates, reducing farmer‟s risk
  11. 11. IFAD – ICRAF Programme Develop Market ready Products to o Improve cash income to poor including women o Improve Food Security o Increase Access to affordable energyCovers all aspects of Bioenergy from Biofuels to Bioelectricity….. 11
  12. 12. The Project : Covering various aspects of value chain Knowledge Local Energy Provisions to Sharing, Capacity R&D Building, Policy studies & enhance food security advocacy• Identification of COEs • Develop seven pilot • Results to be shared• Focus on first generation projects to enhance food through yearly workshops technologies security through provision with all stakeholders and• R&D Focus: increasing of local energy people involved plant yield, best • Community selection based • Advise on development of agronomic practices, field on remote and ecologically suitable renewable testing fragile villages with no energy policy• Selected technologies to access to electricity, large • Demonstrate with meet pillars of – food concentration of poor, publication and other security, environment, villages with marginal media successful Land use and ownership lands – saline soils or implementation water limiting conditions. 12
  13. 13. The Project Outputs Knowledge Sharing, Capacity Local Energy Provisions to Building, Policy studies & R&D enhance food security advocacy• Identification of COEs: Crops • Community organisation and • One workshop per year and or Agroforestry system capacity building: Selection along with COEs, annual• Improve productivity of of local NGOs, mobilisation reports and technical reports selected biofuel crops of village from COEs• Cropping intensity trial for communities, formation of • Policy studies with FAO higher capacity utilization community organisations, assessment • Creation of ad hoc space on with multiple feedstock and the web site, posting reports develop efficient value of needs, enhancement of community capacity, training on IFAD, ICRAF and FAO chains websites and technical support• Seeds / planting material supply to growers • Investment in infrastructure and equipment: validation of• Models for rural electricity energy with pongamia or other agri system, establishment of source nurseries and demonstration• Reduction in GHG plots, land identification, processing plants, water harvesting 13 systems,
  14. 14. Milestones and Output Q12013 Q2 2013 Q3 2013 Q4, 2013 2014 2015 2016 Bidding process First mission and Second mission & Third mission & concluded. report, R&D reports, village reports, constitution of Crop & agroforestry system First selection of defined and community community organisation demonstrated at 2000ha proposals by the activities mobilisation completed, completed, establishment , commercial feasibility of secreatariat commenced, capacity built, O&M of water harvesting biofuel and bioenergy Final selection of NGOs selected, training completed, structures, crop & demonstrated at pilot proposals by SC village processing plant agroforestry system for scale, value chains IFAD projects to be communities procurred, installed, location specific creatred, policy documents linked identified mobilised, Need annual evaluation, developed and large prepared R&D defined, assessed, Capacity annual progress report trials initiated, workshop Creation ofsecretariat & COEs contracted, built, annual and related SC NGOs selected, village evaluation, proceedings, annual communities mobilised, workshoip and progress report related proceedings Activities Output 14
  15. 15. RiD VISION Be the focal point and champion of all efforts With in & Outside ICRAF on Bio-fuels covering full value chain. Develop Bioenergy as a Platform with in ICRAF & link up with various SDs Establish ICRAF as the Global Leader in the area of Bioenergy and build capability in short rotation perennials Create adjacencies on short rotation perennials in other important areas
  16. 16. Mission Develop, design and deploy next generation bioenergy crops and / or the agroforestry system that are sustainable, competitive to currently used crops especially cereals through promotion of research, development and demonstration.“Identify at least one (multiple use) crop with potential to produce commercial scbioenergy, develop full value chain and demonstrate the POC in bio-fuel in an areof 2000Ha meeting the triple bottom line criteria by 2017.” 16
  17. 17. Guiding Principleo POC: Responsible to demonstrate the POC in minimum 2000hao COE: Develop and establish COEs in the areas of entire value chaino Global Bench Marking: with the best in the similar area (ITC, Suzano, CSIRO – Australia, CSIR – South Africa , GOOGLE)o Triple Bottom Line: Socially inclusive, Economical and Sustainableo Strategic and fits well with the mandate of ICRAF: involve various CRPs Specifically from South Asia & SD3 – Genetic Resourceso Involve Private partners: Create a business modelo Our long term right to win 17 Only ICRAF can!!
  18. 18. RiD Road Map Future Opportunities in Timber and Oil security 182013 2014 -2015 2016 & beyond
  19. 19. RiD: Opportunity for ICRAF Higher yield increase output Short Rotation , Food Security Coppicing Availability of Agroforestry Quality Planting R&D Systems Stock Priorities Value Creations Other Value Added Products Adaption Native & Diverse Crops Water Use Efficient Crops Swing PotentialTarget: A non cereal based species that can produce between 1000 – 3000 litres of Biofuel per ha per annum
  20. 20. Availability of Quality of Planting MaterialQuality Planting Stock Deliverable: To reduce the development time of Euca nursery from 6 to 3-4 months Before After Contributions Mini Cuttings from HedgeCoppicing 60 days 30 days plants New Medium &Rooting 35-40 days 20-25 days Rooting mixtures Impact:Hardening 10 days 10 days Survival rate + 20% Effective for hard to root clones also Proprietary techniquesOpen Nursery 60-75 days 50-55 daysCycle time 165-185 110-120 20 ITC R&D CENTRE HYDERABAD
  21. 21. Short Rotation, Coppicing Early Harvest – How to Make Decisions Rotation of 3.5 yrs is possible in Euca where CAI & MAI meet at this age. Based on informed decisions arrived out of scientific concepts 21
  22. 22. Short Rotation, CoppicingTop-grafting and is used to transform Model depicting major known long-distance existing low-quality fruit trees, by florigenic signals, together with their main regulators in the leaf and their main targets pruning them and then grafting them and co-regulators in the shoot apex. with commercial varieties 22 Used in Cocoa – extend it to other fruit crops
  23. 23. Short Rotation, Coppicing Reducing the Harvest Time for Economically Valuable Trees Challenges 1. To make it feasible to produce timber quality Teak in marginal Teak - one of the most valued timber wood lands Heart wood is the economically important part 2. To reduce the rotation from 30-40 years to 15-10 years Takes 30-40 years to yield good value timber Problems to be solved Requires deep fertile soil and >1000 mm rainfall GM Technology Plantation Teak – possibility of producing quality Genes for the transition into hard wood from sap wood Teak in shorter rotations with good planting material and intensive management practices Approaches Genes identification Ex: Malaysia’s Biotech Company, Sabah group. Tissue Culture protocols GM technology 23
  24. 24. Short Rotation, Coppicing 24
  25. 25. Short Rotation, Coppicing Coppicing a way to replanting A. Harvested during February to April Three months after harvesting : Sprouts wilting due Four months after harvesting : Sprouts not recovering to moisture stress during summer in spite adequate soil moisture in July B. Harvested during April to May June : Sprout initiation, in spite of severe water Two months after harvesting : Heavy sprouting due 25 stress to adequate soil moisture in July
  26. 26. Agroforestry Systems Plant Architecture and Crop to Suit Agroforestry 14 12 Photo. Rate 10 Y=-1E-05x2+0.0211-4.378 8 R2=0.970 6 800 4 2 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 -2 -4 PPFD (em-2s-1) 26
  27. 27. Water UseEfficient Crops Imparting Resistance to Biotic & Abiotic ResistanceSwing Potential Silica in Plants Enhance silica uptake and mobilisation in plants Identify transporters and modulate their activity Drought tolerance Pest tolerance Si nutrient deficiency Disease resistance Silica imparts water stress tolerance in Eucalyptus 0 mM 0.5 mM Silica uptake Relevance • Increased stem strength and rigidity • better leaf orientation for light interception - enhances photosynthesis and growth rates. • Increased tolerance to high salinity • redistributing nutrients more evenly within the plant. • resist penetration of fungal diseases - particularly mildews. • improves wilting resistance. 27
  28. 28. Focus India  Bioenergy Platform – 12th Plan  ICAR – Initial Capital 11 M $  Possibility of 2 M $ for ICRAFInitial Dialogue with Dr MM Pandey, DDG (Engineering) ICAR 28
  29. 29. Summary & Conclusiono Opportunity to establish ICRAF a leader in the area of biofuel and later in other areas covering full value chaino Project is still in defining phase - to be defined with proper output and milestones by March 2013Fits Well with All SDs ICRAF‟s Vision Fits Well with CRPs Future Adjacencies 29
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  31. 31. It is estimated that the demand for timber is likely to grow from 58million cubic metres in 2005 to 153 million cubic meters in 2020. Thesupply of wood is projected to increase from 29 million cubic meters in2000 to 60 million cubic meters in 2020. The productivity of timber inIndia is only 0.7 cu. m/ha/year whereas the world average is 2.1cu.m/ha/year. 31