Mapping Soil and      Ecosystem Health in                    the Land Degradation            Africa                       ...
Land degradation has implications beyond the land                                                              Soahany, Ma...
Since landscapes are known to exhibit     hierarchically scaled patterns,          a desirable property of             lan...
Survey Sampling                 by a survey we mean the process of measuring characteristics of some or all members of an ...
AfSIS Sentinel Sites           Probability sampling approach.           Stratified random sample of           African lands...
AfSIS Sentinel Sites                                                     Site = 100      km 2                             ...
The AfSIS Objective 3 teamTuesday, April 12, 2011
AfSIS Sentinel Site Surveys                                                                                               ...
AfSIS Sentinel Sites                          baselines at landscape scaleTuesday, April 12, 2011
AfSIS Sentinel Site baseline information     2000       Site averages                                                     ...
IR spectroscopy of soils                                                                          Regional network of NIR ...
IR spectroscopy of soils                                        Bukwaya                                                   ...
IR spectroscopy                     has a wide range of applications, not limited to soils                                ...
AfSIS database structureTuesday, April 12, 2011
Soil analyses (Nairobi)Tuesday, April 12, 2011
Scientific workflows                                                                     Scalability.                       ...
Development of prediction models for soil organic             carbon (SOC) using scientific workflows and RTuesday, April 12...
Mapping soil carbon                           Ol Lentille and Kipsing, northern Laikipia, KenyaTuesday, April 12, 2011
Developing carbon baselines for Mt Kenya                                                        Partners:                 ...
Classification models for predicting land degradation         risk factors based on NIR/MIR spectral librariesTuesday, Apri...
Clustering of soil spectra for development of                               indices of soil conditionTuesday, April 12, 2011
Mapping soil condition                               Sasumua watershed, South Kinangop, KenyaTuesday, April 12, 2011
Automated reporting on soil properties                             soil chemical and physical reference valuesTuesday, Apr...
Documentation of AfSIS / LDSF methods and                       guidelines for implementationTuesday, April 12, 2011
Documentation of AfSIS / LDSF methods and                       guidelines for implementation                             ...
Processing of satellite imagery    GLS 2000                              GLS 2005                                         ...
Filled DEM            Slope     Hydrology                                       Satellite images and other                ...
Mapping land cover / vegetation                                                   Thematic layers;                        ...
Mapping land cover and land use                                                            Tanzania                       ...
Modeling land degradation risk factors                                 and crop performanceTuesday, April 12, 2011
Modeling land degradation risk factors                                                     and crop performance           ...
Modeling land degradation risk factors                                 and crop performanceTuesday, April 12, 2011
Modeling land degradation risk        factors and crop growth response           Presence / absence of trees              ...
Mapping eroded landscapes                           Kiberashi sentinel site (Tanzania)                               1987 ...
Mapping eroded landscapes                                                 Yij ! Bernoulli(pij)                            ...
ASANTE!                          (thank you!)Tuesday, April 12, 2011
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Mapping Soil and Ecosystem Health in Africa

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Mapping Soil and Ecosystem Health in Africa

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Mapping Soil and Ecosystem Health in Africa

  1. 1. Mapping Soil and Ecosystem Health in the Land Degradation Africa Surveillance Framework (LDSF) Tor-G. Vågen World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Nairobi, KENYATuesday, April 12, 2011
  2. 2. Land degradation has implications beyond the land Soahany, MadagascarTuesday, April 12, 2011
  3. 3. Since landscapes are known to exhibit hierarchically scaled patterns, a desirable property of landscape models is that they simulate or predict patterns at different scalesTuesday, April 12, 2011
  4. 4. Survey Sampling by a survey we mean the process of measuring characteristics of some or all members of an actual population - the purpose of which is to make quantitative generalizations about the population as a whole, or its subpopulations (or in some cases its super-populations) Probability sampling Non-probability sampling random systematic stratified convenience judgement quota snowball sampling sampling sampling sampling sampling sampling sampling purest form, but reduces sampling with very large error by first populations pool simple, also stratifying and tends to become referred to as the then applying may be used in the nonprobability biased Nth name selection random sampling exploratory phase equivalent of technique of research stratified sampling. first stratification then convenience or judgement sampling of strataTuesday, April 12, 2011
  5. 5. AfSIS Sentinel Sites Probability sampling approach. Stratified random sample of African landscapes. Built on the Land Degradation Surveillance Framework (LDSF). Unbiased sample of landscapes across sub-Saharan Africa. Initially (“phase I”) 60 sentinel sites and 60 alternate sites. Target in this phase - 60 sites characterized and sampled.Tuesday, April 12, 2011
  6. 6. AfSIS Sentinel Sites Site = 100 km 2 Cluster = 1 km2 Plot 1 Plot = 0.1 ha Sub-plot = 0.01 haTuesday, April 12, 2011
  7. 7. The AfSIS Objective 3 teamTuesday, April 12, 2011
  8. 8. AfSIS Sentinel Site Surveys 50 2011 3820000 2010 2517500 2011 1315000 2009 0 Sites sampled 12500 2011 10000 7500 2010 2011 5000 2010 2500 2010 2009 Plots sampled 2009 NIR library 2009 2010 2011 MIR library 2009 Reference analysisTuesday, April 12, 2011
  9. 9. AfSIS Sentinel Sites baselines at landscape scaleTuesday, April 12, 2011
  10. 10. AfSIS Sentinel Site baseline information 2000 Site averages Kontela Infiltration testing 2000 Average curves for areas with/ TRUE Chica_b without root-depth restrictions FALSE Mbinga (TRUE/FALSE) 1500 1500 1000 1000IR IR 500 500 0 0 0 50 100 150 200 0 50 100 150 200 Time Time 2000 2000 Average curves for areas with Average curves for cultivated (1) 1 TRUE 0 dense woody cover (>40%) FALSE and natural/semi-natural areas (0) 1500 1500 1000 1000IR IR 500 500 0 0 0 50 100 150 200 0 50 100 150 200 Time TimeTuesday, April 12, 2011
  11. 11. IR spectroscopy of soils Regional network of NIR MPA (NIR) spectrometer in Arusha spectral laboratories and spectral libraries Nairobi MPA (NIR) spectrometer in Bamako Construction of IR lab in Lilongwe NIR training, Arusha Field testing of new spectrometerTuesday, April 12, 2011
  12. 12. IR spectroscopy of soils Bukwaya Kisongo Chinyanghuku 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.8 0.8 0.8 Absorbance Absorbance Absorbance 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 Wavelength (1/cm) Wavelength (1/cm) Wavelength (1/cm) Kiberashi Pandambili Mbinga 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.8 0.8 0.8 Absorbance Absorbance Absorbance 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 Wavelength (1/cm) Wavelength (1/cm) Wavelength (1/cm)Tuesday, April 12, 2011
  13. 13. IR spectroscopy has a wide range of applications, not limited to soils Baboon 10 Black Rhino 10 Buffalo 11 Bush buck 12 Cape Hare 10 Elephant 17 Giant Forest Hog 10 Hyena 5 Leopard 2 Mongoose 15 Reedbuck 10 Suni 2 Unknown 3 Warthog 17 Water buck 9 Zebra 12 Partner: KWSTuesday, April 12, 2011
  14. 14. AfSIS database structureTuesday, April 12, 2011
  15. 15. Soil analyses (Nairobi)Tuesday, April 12, 2011
  16. 16. Scientific workflows Scalability. Parallel execution on multi-core systems Simple extensibility via a well-defined API for Command line version plugin extensions for "headless" batch executions R integration Mining of NIR and MIR spectral data Classification Clustering Processing and development of models from MIR spectra Predictive models Meta workflows (e.g. cross validation) Data preprocessing Databases (data management) Reporting Cluster execution Data management Sentinel site baselinesTuesday, April 12, 2011
  17. 17. Development of prediction models for soil organic carbon (SOC) using scientific workflows and RTuesday, April 12, 2011
  18. 18. Mapping soil carbon Ol Lentille and Kipsing, northern Laikipia, KenyaTuesday, April 12, 2011
  19. 19. Developing carbon baselines for Mt Kenya Partners: KEFRI and KWSTuesday, April 12, 2011
  20. 20. Classification models for predicting land degradation risk factors based on NIR/MIR spectral librariesTuesday, April 12, 2011
  21. 21. Clustering of soil spectra for development of indices of soil conditionTuesday, April 12, 2011
  22. 22. Mapping soil condition Sasumua watershed, South Kinangop, KenyaTuesday, April 12, 2011
  23. 23. Automated reporting on soil properties soil chemical and physical reference valuesTuesday, April 12, 2011
  24. 24. Documentation of AfSIS / LDSF methods and guidelines for implementationTuesday, April 12, 2011
  25. 25. Documentation of AfSIS / LDSF methods and guidelines for implementation “Toolkits” sentinel site randomization / modeling / ++Tuesday, April 12, 2011
  26. 26. Processing of satellite imagery GLS 2000 GLS 2005 and later imageryTuesday, April 12, 2011
  27. 27. Filled DEM Slope Hydrology Satellite images and other spatial covariates Aspect Specific Wetness catchment Index areaTuesday, April 12, 2011
  28. 28. Mapping land cover / vegetation Thematic layers; • De-vegetation to enhance soil background signal • Soil adjusted vegetation index • Terrain corrections • Forest index calculations • Water index calculations • Automatic generation of water masks • Automatic cloud masking Statistically derived; • Tree density Terrain-corrected vegetation index (GRUVI) map Kwadihombo - north of Morogoro, TanzaniaTuesday, April 12, 2011
  29. 29. Mapping land cover and land use Tanzania p(Cultivated)Tuesday, April 12, 2011
  30. 30. Modeling land degradation risk factors and crop performanceTuesday, April 12, 2011
  31. 31. Modeling land degradation risk factors and crop performance Co-locating trials at cluster level Relating maps to crop performance Kiberashi Sentinel Site, Tanzania Percent of Total 10 5 0 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 Elevation (m)Tuesday, April 12, 2011
  32. 32. Modeling land degradation risk factors and crop performanceTuesday, April 12, 2011
  33. 33. Modeling land degradation risk factors and crop growth response Presence / absence of trees Presence / absence of erosion Presence / absence of root-depth restrictions Kiberashi sentinel site (Tanzania) Thuchila sentinel site (Malawi)Tuesday, April 12, 2011
  34. 34. Mapping eroded landscapes Kiberashi sentinel site (Tanzania) 1987 (left); 2006 (right)Tuesday, April 12, 2011
  35. 35. Mapping eroded landscapes Yij ! Bernoulli(pij) logit(pij) = µ+xij!+Vi Vi ! iid N(0,"2) Yij indicates presence/absence of for example erosion in the ith site and the jth cluster Mt. Meru / Arusha / Moshi, TanzaniaTuesday, April 12, 2011
  36. 36. ASANTE! (thank you!)Tuesday, April 12, 2011
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