Lawrence Kiguro: Climate change response initiatives by World Vision Kenya #BeatingFamine
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Lawrence Kiguro: Climate change response initiatives by World Vision Kenya #BeatingFamine






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Lawrence Kiguro: Climate change response initiatives by World Vision Kenya #BeatingFamine Lawrence Kiguro: Climate change response initiatives by World Vision Kenya #BeatingFamine Presentation Transcript

  • Climate Change Response Initiatives by World Vision Kenya Presented to the Conference on Beating Famine:Sustainable food security through land regeneration in a changing climate By Lawrence Kiguro World Vision Kenya Wednesday 11th April, 2012
  • Initiatives by WVK• On-farm Rainwater Harvesting; (Subsoilers, Zay Pits, Sunken Beds, On-farm Reservoirs);• Promotion of Drought Tolerant Crops;• Organic Farming;• Agro-forestry;• Improved Goats (Galla & Other breeds)• Poultry Rearing• Bee Keeping• Cattle Rearing;• Small Scale Irrigation;• Green house Farming;• Energy saving Cookstoves
  • 1.0 Promotion of On-Farm Rain Water Harvesting (RWH) Technologies• Why Rainwater Harvesting?• Flash rains usually occur in the ASALS but are normally poorly spread. If that water can be harvested somehow, it can then be used later on for crop or other domestic use;• Rain Water Harvesting technologies promoted include:- (Use of Subsoilers, Zay-pits, Sunken beds, On-farm water-pans (Silangas), retention ditches & roadside water harvesting)
  • 1.1a: Promotion of the Sub-Soiler as a Rainwater Harvesting Technology• Why Promotion of Sub-soiler Technology:-• Continuous use of the Oxen Plough has created a hardpan which impedes water infiltration into the soil;• The Sub-soiler helps to break the hardpan and hence improve water infiltration into the soil for use by crops;
  • 1.1.b: Subsoiler Technology
  • 1.1.c:Ripper a component of SS.
  • 1.1.d: Ripper with Wings.
  • 1.1.e: Ripper Technology in Prep.
  • 1.1.f: Sub-soiler Tech at Work!.
  • 1.1.g: Sub-soiler Tech at Work!
  • 1.1.h: Crops on Sub-soiled Land
  • 1.2.a: WHaT aRE Zay-piTs ?These are pits or holes that are well fertilizedwith deeply loosened soil, which enablesintensive planting that gives high yields froma small area.
  • 1.2.b:Zay pit making processProcedure• Dig a hole of 2ftx2ftx2ft, and maintain a 2ft between holes.• Make sure during the digging, that topsoil (usually the first ft) is put separate from the sub soil.• Put vegetation at the bottom of the hole• Mix a debe of manure (boma or compost) with topsoil and put into the hole at a ratio of 1:1, which is now half full with vegetation. Leave a space 2-3 inches for water collection in the hole.• Plant 5 seed during the short rains and 9seeds during the long rains.• The pits should be alternating as in chess board• The pit can be used for two and a half years or 4 crop seasons but crop rotation should be maintained.
  • 1.2.c:Zaypit Layout on the Farm
  • 1.2.c: Maize Crop growing in Zaypits
  • 1.2.c: A Ready Maize Cob in Zaypits
  • 1.3.a: WHaT aRE sunkEn BEds• These are beds that are well fertilized with deeply loosened soil, suitable for vegetable growing;• The width should be a maximum of 1M wide but the length can vary depending on the need;• Mainly used for kitchen gardening;
  • 1.3.B: CaRRoTs in sunkEn BEds
  • 1.4. a: On-farm Reservoirs• In drylands road runoff should not be left to go to waste as it ends up causing damage to crops in the farm, soil erosion amongst other havoc;• Instead, this water can be tapped and put into use through on-farm reservoirs;
  • 1.4. b: On-farm Reservoirs
  • 1.4. c: A graded terrace directing run offwater into the farm reservoir
  • 2.a: Promotion of Drought Tolerant CropsWhy Promote DTCs ?• These crops can withstand and mature with the available rains especially when combined with on-farm RWH technologies;• Most of these crops were traditionally grown by most communities but were abandoned in favour of Maize which was viewed as “Modern”;• For most crops, the planting materials/Seeds can be recycled and hence no need to give every season if they take-off well;
  • 2.b: Promotion of Drought Tolerant Crops (DTCs)• We need to reduce the mentality that maize is the only crop/food that farmers can grow/eat even in areas which are not suitable for the growing of maize;• Drought Tolerant Food Crops (DTCs) being promoted using RWH technologies include: – Sorghum, Millets, Cowpeas, Pigeon peas, Green-grams, Cassava, Sweet Potatoes
  • 2.c: A Sorghum Crop in Makueni
  • 3.a: Organic Farming• Why Promote Organic Farming?• 1.)Most farmers cannot afford to buy commercial fertilizers and/or chemicals;• 2.)Organically produced foods are much healthier;• 3.)Organically produced foods (especially fruits and vegetables) have a better market especially in Europe;• Organic Farming practices promoted include : Use of organic manures and organic pesticides
  • 3.b: Organic Farming
  • 4.a: Agro-forestry• Why Promote Agro-forestry?1.) Trees are an important component on the farm for various end uses (fruits, fodder, fuel-wood, soil improvement, shade, ornamental) but more importantly for environmental conservation;2.) Emphasis is on Agro-forestry with fruit trees eg Mangoes, Citrus, Passionfruits, Papayas, local fruits(Loquats & Guavas) but also MPTS ( e.g. Leucaena, Calliandra, Grevillea etc);3.) WVK works in close collaboration with ICRAF, KARI and KEFRI, Forestry Dept as necessary for technical support
  • 4.a: Agro-forestry with Mangoes
  • 5.a: Why Promotion of Improved Goats (Galla & Others)• This is being done in several ADPs why?1.) Generally goats are hardier than most other livestock animals;2.) They are browsers and in most of these ASALs even when dry they still have a lot of shrubs which make-up enough fodder for the goats;
  • 5.b: Why Promotion of Improved Goats (Galla & Others)3.)The breed being promoted has a bigger body size than the local goats by up-to three times (local goats on average are 20kgs but Galla goats are on average 60-70kgs) and hence fetches a better market value (Local goats sells for about Ksh1,000 – 2,000 but the Galla goats can sell for Ksh5,000 – 6,000);4.)Though they are not “Dual-purpose” in the true sense of the word, they can still produce a small amount of milk which can be used at the household level
  • 5.c: Gala goats at a FFS
  • 6.0: Poultry Rearing• Why Poultry Farming;• Easy to manage especially where free range is system is possible;• Good source of eggs and meat which are highly nutritious;• Easy to market locally – for both eggs and chicken;• Done through introduction of improved cockerels and the eggs used for brooding;
  • 7.0: Promotion of Beekeeping• Why Beekeeping;• Easy to manage especially where there is plenty of idle land in the ASAL areas;• Highly nutritious both for household consumption and for sale;• Key intervention activities include capacity building, distribution of beehives, processing, packaging and marketing;
  • 8.0: Promotion of cattle in Pastoralist communities• Why Promote cattle rearing in pastoral communities/ASALs;• This is the main livelihood of the targeted communities;• Targeted areas have limited alternative livelihood options;• Key interventions revolve around disease control, breeds improvement, pasture improvement, water access and marketing;
  • 9.0 Promotion of Small Scale IrrigationWhy Irrigation?• This is the ultimate solution to the problem of food insecurity in the ASAL areas or Kenya in General;• Successful projects include: Morelum, Lokubae, Kainuk (Currently ongoing supported by OFDA/USAID)
  • 9.1 Kainuk - Small Scale Irrigation• The project is located in Kainuk Division along River Malimalite. The scheme is designed to cover 300 acres of irrigated land 300 with 600 beneficiaries each with half an acre of land amongst other short term benefits;• Part of the scheme 80 acres is already done and in production;
  • 9.2: Kainuk -Captions/1: River Malimalite (L) at the irrigation water intake point
  • 9.3: Kainuk -Captions/2: Canal Construction
  • 9.4: Kainuk -Captions/2: Targeted Area for IrrigationBefore After
  • 9.5 Kainuk -Captions/3: A farmer on his irrigated plot of land
  • 10.0: Promotion of Small Scale Greenhouse Farming (with drip Irrigation)• Why Promote Greenhouse farming?• Realizing very high yields and returns in a small area of land (1/8acre);• The farmers using water saving technology – drip irrigation system;• Attractive to both aged farmers well above 55years as well as the youth below the of age of 30 years
  • 10.1: Mwala Greenhouse Farming/1
  • 10.2: Mwala Greenhouse Farming/2
  • 11.0 ENERGYSAVING COOK STOVES (ESC) PROJECTWVK has consciously chosen toimplement interventions / technologiesthat can mitigate against the effects ofclimate change while simultaneouslydelivering on the Child Well BeingAspirations (CWBAs). The ESCtechnology is one such technology…….
  • 11.1 Key Achievements…..Sale of Stoves Cookstove sales by target market 744 800 700 600 500 351 Jiko Poa 400 Envirofit 279 300 200 114 100 0 Tseikuru Yatta WVK staff Total
  • 12.0 Challenges1.)The RWH technologies being promoted are quite tedious (e.g. use of the sub- soiler, making zaypits and sunken beds);2.) Changing people’s attitudes takes time;3.) Sustainability of some of the initiatives especially beekeeping has been a challenge;4.) Short term funding;