Understanding diversity of smallholder agro-forestry and
forestry systems in hilly and mountainous landscapes:
Regional co...
CIFOR/ICRAF SLANT (Sloping lands in transition)
scoping study
Country profiles: China, India, Indonesia, Thailand,
Nepal &...
Sociopolitical trends and upland farm-forest
landscapes in Asia (Fox et al. 2009)
 Six trends affecting the practice of s...
Smallholder agroforestry: some observations

 Agroforestry systems and forests play an important
role in providing or sup...
Small holder farm,Dzongu, N. Sikkim
Interventions on sloping lands in Asia: Selected
observations

 Governments and non-government agencies
promote policies ...
Examples of interventions…
• China: Conversion of Cropland to Forest
Program (CCFP)
• India: dam building, cash crop produ...
Conversion of Cropland to Forest Program (CCFP)
in China

 Response to flooding in 1998 blamed on deforestation,
over-log...
Teesta River, Sikkim and West Bengal
Dieng, Wonosobo, Indonesia
Smallholder forest management in Leksono,
Wonosobo
Water for Rice Production, Thailand
Our claims
 While often sophisticated in terms of attention to
the ecological and biophysical characteristics of
agrofore...
Ecosystem services
specific to sloping lands
Provision of water
Purification of water
Erosion control: conservation of soi...
Why social science tools and methods? The
functional reasons

 Enable an understanding of the diversity of
smallholders a...
Rice paddies on terraces, Sikkim, India
Why social science? The analytical and political
reasons

 Analyze the arbitrary and dynamic definitions
of agroforestry,...
Thank you
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Session 5.6 Understanding diversity of smallholder agro-forestry and forestry systems in hilly and mountainous landscapes: Regional comparisons in Asia

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Session 5.6 Understanding diversity of smallholder agro-forestry and forestry systems in hilly and mountainous landscapes: Regional comparisons in Asia

  1. 1. Understanding diversity of smallholder agro-forestry and forestry systems in hilly and mountainous landscapes: Regional comparisons in Asia Kiran Asher, Peter Cronkleton, and Louis Putzel. CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia
  2. 2. CIFOR/ICRAF SLANT (Sloping lands in transition) scoping study Country profiles: China, India, Indonesia, Thailand, Nepal & Philippines, Vietnam
  3. 3. Sociopolitical trends and upland farm-forest landscapes in Asia (Fox et al. 2009)  Six trends affecting the practice of swidden agriculture in Southeast Asia (China (Xishuangbanna), Laos, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia. • classifying swiddeners as ethnic minorities within nation-states • dividing the landscape into forest and permanent agriculture • expansion of forest departments and the rise of conservation • resettlement • privatization and commoditization of land and land-based production • expansion of markets, roads, and other infrastructure and the promotion of industrial agriculture
  4. 4. Smallholder agroforestry: some observations  Agroforestry systems and forests play an important role in providing or supplementing the livelihoods of small holders living on sloping lands.  Smallholders manage these systems in ways that sustain their livelihoods and the biophysical and ecological integrity of these lands.  “smallholders” are not an unitary group. Rather, they are as diverse in terms of their needs, characteristics, motivations, and management practices as the agroforestry systems they depend upon.
  5. 5. Small holder farm,Dzongu, N. Sikkim
  6. 6. Interventions on sloping lands in Asia: Selected observations  Governments and non-government agencies promote policies for reforestation, afforestation, forest management, and agroforestry on sloping lands to: • Mitigate soil erosion, water loss, land degradation, • Enhance specific ecosystem goods and services (often for people downstream), • Conserve biodiversity • Promote sustainable development
  7. 7. Examples of interventions… • China: Conversion of Cropland to Forest Program (CCFP) • India: dam building, cash crop production in the North and northeast, biodiversity conservation in the south and southwest • Thailand: Water provision for lowland rice cultivation • Indonesia: Reforestation for PES, timber production
  8. 8. Conversion of Cropland to Forest Program (CCFP) in China  Response to flooding in 1998 blamed on deforestation, over-logging, & forest-agriculture conversion on sloping lands
  9. 9. Teesta River, Sikkim and West Bengal
  10. 10. Dieng, Wonosobo, Indonesia
  11. 11. Smallholder forest management in Leksono, Wonosobo
  12. 12. Water for Rice Production, Thailand
  13. 13. Our claims  While often sophisticated in terms of attention to the ecological and biophysical characteristics of agroforestry research is not sufficiently attentive to the sociocultural and political economic context of smallholder agroforestry and interventions on slopes.  Social science approaches can focus attention to the often blurry line between the nature and the social, and the implications of such blurring
  14. 14. Ecosystem services specific to sloping lands Provision of water Purification of water Erosion control: conservation of soils Flood prevention Conservation of soil nutrients Maintenance of habitats Carbon sequestration Maintanence of regional precipitation patterns Human-centered values and services Others?
  15. 15. Why social science tools and methods? The functional reasons  Enable an understanding of the diversity of smallholders and their resource management practices,  Analyze success or failure of projects targeting sloping lands, e.g. incentives vs. restrictions,  Provide inputs for better agroforestry interventions (to improve soil and water management, biodiversity conservation, better production of cash crops, income generation, and payment for services.
  16. 16. Rice paddies on terraces, Sikkim, India
  17. 17. Why social science? The analytical and political reasons  Analyze the arbitrary and dynamic definitions of agroforestry, slopes, smallholders that govern such interventions,  Implications of generalizing across what are diverse interests, practices, and intents,  Contradictory, contingent and co-constitutive nature of linkages and relations (agro and forestry, people and products, etc)
  18. 18. Thank you

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