Achieving Food Security and climate change adaptation through agroforestry-based conservation agriculture A PanAfrica Campaign Dennis Garrity Director General World Agroforestry Centre International Fund for Agricultural Development Rome, 15 May, 2009
CONFERENCE OF AU MINISTERS OF AGRICULTURE, LAND AND LIVESTOCK Addis Ababa April 23-24, 2009 The Conference: “Requests the AUC-NEPAD to facilitate development of an agricultural-based climate change adaptation framework to guide operationalization and financing the scaling up of SLM in the context of NEPAD’s CAADP, “Calls upon Member States to increase investment support to initiatives aimed at strengthening knowledge, advancing technical capacity development, and up-scale sustainable land management practices including conservation agriculture and agro-forestry .”
Interlinked Objectives (1) Food security through increased productivity (focus on smallholder systems) (2) Agriculture adaptation framework (adaptation to climate change) (3) Soil and above ground carbon (bio-carbon) for climate mitigation / land care
Elements of Conservation Agriculture (1) Reduced tillage to improve soil health (2) Soil cover to protect the soil from wind and water erosion (3) Crop rotation to improve soil fertility
Lead Team to comprise 5 African institutions to spearhead the development African Union-NEPAD World Agroforestry Centre CILSS University of Zambia (CAADP Pillar 1 lead) African Conservation Tillage Network
Action (1) Lead team to spearhead development of CAADP climate change adaptation framework. (2) Rapid stock taking of the extent of adaptation/adoption of CA in Africa. (3) Develop regional proposal to scale up CA.
Soil Fertility Depletion A new approach needed – a realistic approach An approach that makes it possible for farmers to deploy practices that maximize yields with modest investments, produce most of the nitrogen that crops need through fertilizer factories in the field.
Conservation Farming Unit Conservation Farming & Conservation Agriculture in Zambia With emphasis on Faidherbia albida
The Conservation Agriculture Programme <ul><li>2 nd generation programme to extend adoption of </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation Agriculture in Zambia </li></ul><ul><li>Extension Beneficiaries reached140,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Delivery through ‘Lead Farmer System’ </li></ul><ul><li>Period 2007 to 2011 Goal </li></ul><ul><li>-- 240,000 farmers have adopted by 2011 </li></ul>
In eastern Zambia and Malawi farmers split ridges in the dry season. Hoe pans form under the ridges. 700 million + tons of soil moved yearly by hand! Ridge Splitting
This practice is less common but also exposes the soil to erosion and creates compaction. Hard unnecessary work! Overall Digging
Late Planting The negative effects of late planting of Maize and other crops have been known for at least 80 years Maize: 1.5% of yield lost for each day of delay from 1 st opportunity to plant Cotton: 2.0% of yield loss for each day of delay Yet in Zambia thousands of farmers especially those who rely on ploughing are always late!
Maureen hired oxen to plough. The owner was busy, she only managed to plant on the 28th December . The first opportunity to plant occurred on the 19th November . Before even starting she has lost 59% of her potential yield!
A return visit to Maureen’s field shows an abandoned crop which did not even pay back the cost of hired oxen and labour for weeding. 28 th March 2007
Hoe Minimum-Till Conservation Farming Permanent Planting Basins. Only 12% of surface area disturbed. Refer to CFU Hoe Handbook for many more details
Hoe Minimum-Till CF Land preparation can commence in June, spreading labour inputs. In Zambia rains normally commence in late November
CF + Faidhebia albida = CA Medium term solution to sustainable farming in Central Africa Goal 240,000 hectares planted by smallholders by 2011
Conservation Agriculture with Faidherbia albida 60 years of research shows on each hectare, mature trees supply the equivalent of 300kg of complete fertiliser and 250kg of lime. This can sustain a maize yield of 4 tons/ha. Faidherbia is indigenous in most African countries
2007/8 Faidherbia Trial Results Maize yield - zero fertiliser Tons/ha ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ With Faidherbia 4.1 Without Faidherbia 1.3 _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Data averaged from 15 trials
Faidherbia Fertilizer Trees at 100 trees per ha A long term solution for maize production across East, Central and Southern Africa
Small-scale Conservation Agriculture with Faidherbia
Short-term and Long-term Fertilizer tree Options for Replenishing Soil Fertility 1 year 2 years 3 years Relay Fallow intercropping (2-3 tons) Improved Fallow (3-4 tons) Gliricidia/maize intercropping (3-5 tons) Waiting Period before benefit accrual Maize Yield 10 th Crop
Adopter of Fertilizer Trees Systems in southern Malawi Mr. Majoni
<ul><li>Implemented in 11 districts targeting 200,000 in four years to adchieve food security: </li></ul><ul><li>In the last two seaons, a total of 120,000 farmers (52% female) were assisted with seed, nursery materials and training. </li></ul><ul><li>22 tonnes of tree seeds packed in >200,000 sachets were distributed to farmers each year; </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly 300,000 fruit trees raised in central and community nurseries </li></ul><ul><li>17,414 farmers, 3,714 farmer trainers and 658 extension workers trained in 2008 </li></ul>Scaling up Agroforestry for Food Security in Malawi (Achievements 2007-2010)
Integrating the Zambia & Malawi Conservation Agriculture systems Strengths Reduces the labor requirements in land preparation Enables the farmer to establish the crop with the first planting rains, thus enabling the crop to reach its full yield potential I ncreases N-rich organic matter inputs that typically double or triple maize yields, and improvement of overall soil health. Tree legumes suppress weed growth and weed populations in the system. Carbon sequestration radically increased.
What would be the impact if African farmers deployed fertilizer trees on a much larger scale? If fertilizer trees were practiced on: 10 m ha ___________________________________________________ Value of nitrogen fertilizers produced by farmers $ 500 m/yr Amount of additional maize produced 10-20 m tons Value of additional maize produced $ 1.6-3.2 billion ___________________________________________________
Key elements of success 1. Radical innovations are needed for CA to succeed on smallholdings in the tropics 2. Community Landcare to accelerate adoption 3. Ramping up Agroforestry-Based CA through investments climate change adaptation & mitigation
Becoming a Boundary Organization Formal learning Learning by doing Boundary organizations Knowledge systems Action institutions 0 1 > 2 > 2 1 0
What IFAD can do Influence Policy: Champion agroforestry-based conservation agriculture as a critical poverty reduction vehicle Regional facilitation: Support the development of strong regional facilitation for agroforestry-based conservation agriculture National development-support for conservation agriculture through its country portfolios Support research to understand poor household constraints to deploying conservation agriculture Enhance Networking to leverage capacity as a boundary organization
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