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Icraf seminar(de clerck)
Icraf seminar(de clerck)
Icraf seminar(de clerck)
Icraf seminar(de clerck)
Icraf seminar(de clerck)
Icraf seminar(de clerck)
Icraf seminar(de clerck)
Icraf seminar(de clerck)
Icraf seminar(de clerck)
Icraf seminar(de clerck)
Icraf seminar(de clerck)
Icraf seminar(de clerck)
Icraf seminar(de clerck)
Icraf seminar(de clerck)
Icraf seminar(de clerck)
Icraf seminar(de clerck)
Icraf seminar(de clerck)
Icraf seminar(de clerck)
Icraf seminar(de clerck)
Icraf seminar(de clerck)
Icraf seminar(de clerck)
Icraf seminar(de clerck)
Icraf seminar(de clerck)
Icraf seminar(de clerck)
Icraf seminar(de clerck)
Icraf seminar(de clerck)
Icraf seminar(de clerck)
Icraf seminar(de clerck)
Icraf seminar(de clerck)
Icraf seminar(de clerck)
Icraf seminar(de clerck)
Icraf seminar(de clerck)
Icraf seminar(de clerck)
Icraf seminar(de clerck)
Icraf seminar(de clerck)
Icraf seminar(de clerck)
Icraf seminar(de clerck)
Icraf seminar(de clerck)
Icraf seminar(de clerck)
Icraf seminar(de clerck)
Icraf seminar(de clerck)
Icraf seminar(de clerck)
Icraf seminar(de clerck)
Icraf seminar(de clerck)
Icraf seminar(de clerck)
Icraf seminar(de clerck)
Icraf seminar(de clerck)
Icraf seminar(de clerck)
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Icraf seminar(de clerck)

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  • Biodivrersity as the global operating system: An operating system (OS) is software, consisting of programs and data, that runs on computers and manages the computer hardware and provides common services for efficient execution of various application software.
  • the variety and variability of animals, plants and micro-organisms, at the genetic, species and ecosystem levels, which are necessary to sustain key functions of the agro-ecosystem, its structure and processes
  • Transcript

    • 1. FUNCTIONAL DIVERSITY:Trait-based Approaches for Bioengineering Multifunctional Agroecosystems Fabrice DeClerck (and friends)
    • 2. OS PhylogenyXP Upgrade: OS® Now includes Provisioning, Cultural, Regulating and PhylogenyXP Support Services experience the best of the biosphere Constantly Evolving!Version 2.8 B Free support from more than 2 million species* Version 2.8 B *number of species may be greater than 100 million
    • 3. AgrobiodiversityAgricultural biodiversity includes all componentsof biological diversity of relevance to food andagriculture, and all components of biologicaldiversity that constitute the agroecosystem. CBD definition of Agricultural Diversity
    • 4. Loss of functional diversity under landuse intensification across multiple taxa.Ecology Letters 12:22-33 Dan Flynn, Melanie Gogol- Prokurat, Brenda Lin, Nicole Molinari, Theresa Nogeire, Bárbara Trautman Richers, Nicholas Simpson, Margie Mayfield and Fabrice DeClerck
    • 5. Tilman et al 1996
    • 6. Diaz and Cabido (2001)
    • 7. Does land use intensification reduce functional diversity? Flynn et al. Ecology Letters (2009) 12:22-33 DeClerck NCEAS DGS
    • 8. Landuse Intensity 2°Forest Pasture Forest Low tree density Live Fence Pasture High Tree Density [ ]Sanchez et al
    • 9. How is functional diversity lost with intensification? 71 Species Total Flynn et al. Ecology Letters (2009) 12:22-33 DeClerck NCEAS DGS
    • 10. x x What is functional x x redundancy within x x taxonomic groups with land x use change? x x x x x x x x x x x x x Flynn et al. Ecology Letters (2009) 12:22-33Forest Fragment: 25 extinct DeClerck NCEAS DGS
    • 11. x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x xForest Fragment: 25 extinct Live Fence: 41 extinct
    • 12. x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x xForest Fragment: 25 extinct Live Fence: 41 extinct
    • 13. x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x xForest Fragment: 25 extinct Live Fence: 41 extinct Pasture: 64 extinct
    • 14. Functional Diversity Decreases with landuse IntensityFlynn et al. Ecology Letters (2009) 12:22-33DeClerck NCEAS DGS
    • 15. Agrobiodiversity and Human Nutrition Fabrice DeClerck1,2, Jessica Fanzo2,3, Cheryl Palm2 and Roseline Remans2 1CATIE and 2The Earth Institute at Columbia University, 3 Bioversity
    • 16. Econutrition: the interrelationships amongnutrition, human health, agriculture and foodproduction, environmental health, andeconomic production Deckelbaum, Palm, Mutuo and F. DeClerck
    • 17. Hypotheses• Biodiversity drives ecosystem functioning• Human health is an ecosystem function• Agrobiodiversity should impact human health• The study of agrobiodiversity and human health can lead to important considerations for both sustainable development, and theoretical ecology. F. DeClerck
    • 18. Sauri Agrobiodiversity• Over 146 plant species found• 39 Edible Species• Mean of 14 edible species per farm• Ranging from 5 - 22 edible plant species• Mean 1.5 cattle, half a sheep, a quarter goat and 7 chickens. F. DeClerck
    • 19. Seven Traits1) Protein2) Energy3) Vitamin A4) Vitamin C5) Iron6) Zinc7) Folates F. DeClerck
    • 20. High ProteinHigh EnergyHigh Vitamin A F. DeClerck
    • 21. Field species richness, and functional diversity are related: r2 0.49, p<0.001FD Species Richness F. DeClerck, Remans, Fanzo and Palm (2010)
    • 22. Farm 201201 Species Richness = 18 FD = 0.99FD Farm 103801 Species Richness = 19 FD = 0.66 Species Richness Farm 600102 Species Richness = 10 FD = 0.76 F. DeClerck, Remans, Fanzo and Palm (2010)
    • 23. F. DeClerck, Remans, Fanzo and Palm (2010)Farm 103801 Farm 201201 Farm 600102Species Richness = 19 Species Richness = 18 Species Richness = 10FD = 0.66 FD = 0.99 FD = 0.76
    • 24. High functional agrobiodiversity decreases probability of anemia F. DeClerck, Remans, Fanzo and Palm (2010) Species richness and anemia, R2 =0.05 Functional diversity and anemia R2= 0.13
    • 25. Table 1. Nutrients and nutrient groups taken into account for calculation of FD metrics. Fromthe 51 required nutrients for human diets, 17 nutrients that are key for human diets and forwhich reliable plant composition data were available in the literature were selected. Becauseplants are not a proven source for Vitamin B12 and Vitamin D, these were not included. Macronutrients Minerals Vitamins Protein Calcium (Ca) Vitamin A Carbohydrates Iron (Fe) Vitamin C Dietary fibre Potassium (K) Thiamin Fat Magnesium (Mg) Riboflavin Manganese (Mn) Folate Zinc (Zn) Niacin Sulfur (S) Remans, Flynn, DeClerck et al. PloS One (2010)
    • 26. ZincF. DeClerckF. DeClerck, Remans, Fanzo and Palm (2010)
    • 27. ZincF. DeClerckF. DeClerck, Remans, Fanzo and Palm (2010)
    • 28. ZincF. DeClerckF. DeClerck, Remans, Fanzo and Palm (2010)
    • 29. ZincF. DeClerckF. DeClerck, Remans, Fanzo and Palm (2010)
    • 30. F. DeClerck, Remans, Fanzo and Palm (2010) 0.82Contribution of BD to Nutrition 0.8 0.78 0.76 0.74 0.72 0.7 0.68 0.66 0 10 20 30 40 Number of Nutritional Functions
    • 31. Figure 2. Nutritional Functional Diversity and Species richness for 170 farms in Sauri (☐), Mwandama (Δ) and Ruhiira () !Remans, Flynn, DeClerck et al. PloS One (2010)
    • 32. Figure 3. Observed versus expected Nutritional Functional Diversity for 170farms in Sauri (☐), Mwandama (Δ) and Ruhiira (). Farms that have observedFD values that significantly differ from expected FD values are in bold. ! !Remans, Flynn, DeClerck et al. PloS One (2010)
    • 33. Land-use intensification reduces functional redundancy and response diversity in plant communities. Ecology Letters 13:76-86 Etienne Laliberté, Jessie Wells, Fabrice DeClerck, Dan Metcalfe, Isabelle Aubin, Carla Catterall, Cibele Queiroz, Stephen Bonser, Yi Ding, Sean McNamara, Jen Fraterrigo, John Morgan, Peter Vesk, Margie Mayfield.
    • 34. Response diversity“Of increasing concern is the loss of species thathave similar ecosystem effects but differ intheir environmental responses. This latter roleof diversity (…) may be one of the most importantmechanisms by which we sustain the long-termfunctioning of ecosystems and the servicesthey provide to society.”Chapin et al. 1997 Science
    • 35. Ecological redundancy• Redundancy = number of species within a functional group• High redundancy = high resilience to environmental change• Why? compensatory responses Group 6: higher 4 redundancy 1 5 & resilience 3 2 6 Functional Group 6: lower groups 1 to 6 redundancy & resilience
    • 36. Measuring response diversity• Volume of the minimum Convex hull volume Response trait 2convex hull formed by species 2.0within a functional group, inresponse trait space 1.5• From 2 to n response traits 1.0• Represents the range of 0.5“response strategies” foundwithin a functional group 0.0• Larger volume = higher 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0resilience Response trait 1
    • 37. Measuring response diversity Convex hull volume Response trait 2 2.0 2.0 1.5 1.5 1.0 1.0 0.5 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 Response trait 1 Response trait 1
    • 38. Functional trait Effect ResponseSpecific leaf area (SLA) XWood density XGrowth form XHeight XLeaf phenology X XNutrient uptake strategy X XPhotosynthetic pathway X XRaunkiaer life form XClonality XDispersal mode XLeaf size XMaximum propagule longevity XPhysical defense XPollination syndrome XResprouting ability XSeed mass XLifespan X
    • 39. Study Sites, Species Richness (landscapes) QuebecPortugual 243 (1)110 (1) China USA, NC 453 (2) 38(1) Laos 53(1) Nicaragua Australian RF 240(2) 1028 (4) Costa Rica 728(3) Australian WL New Zealand 52(1) 54(1) ± 3000 species; 17 landscapes; 17 functional traits
    • 40. a) Species in effect trait space
    • 41. a) Species in effect trait space 4 1 5 3 2 6 b) Functional effect groups
    • 42. c) Species in each land usea) Species in effect trait space 4 Natural Semi-natural 1 5 Low-intensity 3 agricultural 2 6 b) Functional effect groups High-intensity agricultural
    • 43. c) Species in each land usea) Species in effect trait space d) Functional dispersion (response diversity) for each effect group in each Natural land use e) Spearmanρbetween land Semi-natural use intensity and response diversity ρ = -0.9 Response diversity 4 1 5 Low-intensity 3 agricultural 2 6 Land use intensity b) Functional effect groups High-intensity agricultural Effect size for meta-analysis
    • 44. Redundancy decreases with land use intensification Nicaragua (Matiguas) Australia sub-tropics 1 Nicaragua (Rivas) Australia WT (Atherton) China (Hainan lowland) USA (North Carolina) New Zealand Australia sub-tropics 2 Costa Rica (La Palma) China (Hainan montane) Australia WL (NSW) Portugal Costa Rica (Las Cruces) Laos Quebec Australia WT (Tully) Costa Rica (Puerto Jimenez) Summary r = -0.22 p = 0.0003 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 Correlation coefficient r
    • 45. Response diversity decreases as well, but less so Nicaragua (Matiguas) Australia sub-tropics 1 Nicaragua (Rivas) Australia WT (Atherton) China (Hainan lowland) USA (North Carolina) New Zealand Australia sub-tropics 2 Costa Rica (La Palma) China (Hainan montane) Australia WL (NSW) Portugal Costa Rica (Las Cruces) Laos Quebec Australia WT (Tully) Costa Rica (Puerto Jimenez) Summary r = -0.091 p = 0.048 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 Correlation coefficientr
    • 46. Redundancy Response diversityNicaragua (Matiguas) Nicaragua (Matiguas)Australia sub-tropics 1 Australia sub-tropics 1Nicaragua (Rivas) Nicaragua (Rivas)Australia WT (Atherton) Australia WT (Atherton)China (Hainan lowland) China (Hainan lowland)USA (North Carolina) USA (North Carolina)New Zealand New ZealandAustralia sub-tropics 2 Australia sub-tropics 2Costa Rica (La Palma) Costa Rica (La Palma)China (Hainan montane) China (Hainan montane)Australia WL (NSW) Australia WL (NSW)Portugal PortugalCosta Rica (Las Cruces) Costa Rica (Las Cruces)Laos LaosQuebec QuebecAustralia WT (Tully) Australia WT (Tully)Costa Rica (Puerto Jimenez) Costa Rica (Puerto Jimenez)Summary Summary -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 Correlation coefficientr Correlation coefficientr
    • 47. Towards Multifunctional Landscapes• Ecological Aspects – What are the driving mechanisms behind ES • Species richness, composition, functional diversity arrangement.• Social and Economic Drivers – How do communities organize to impact change – Integration of multiple stakeholders in ecoagricultural landscapes.• Does the ES paradigm provide conservation and development goals?
    • 48. Thanks! THANKS!!!

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