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Hunja seminar 27th october
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  • 1. Utilization of Bamboo in Fixing Biomass From Wastewater Progress Report By Hunja Murage Supervisors: Prof. C. Ong, Dr.K. Ngamau, Dr. C. Muthuri
  • 2. Introduction 1
    • ■ Water pollution is a major problem in Kenya.
    • ■ Effluent from industries and human settlements is the main source of the problem.
    • ■ Rural urban migration has given pollution an urban focus.
    • ■ Effluent finds its way into the water supply: both surface and ground water.
  • 3. Introduction 2
    • ■ The forest cover in Kenya is under siege, because of increased need for settlement, farmland and forest products.
    • ■ Bamboo can, while providing a substitute for wood, because of its water pumping properties, be useful in fixing biomass from wastewater.
    • ■ Wastewater from urban areas is not suited to growing food crops due to pollutants.
  • 4. Objectives
    • To test bamboo species for their utility in wastewater treatment.
    • To test the tolerance of these bamboo species to high nutrient conditions.
  • 5. Hypotheses
    • ■ Different bamboo species respond to wastewater by taking up nutrients and increase leaf area.
    • ■ Water use efficiency will remain relatively similar between species
    • ■ Wastewater has little impact on water use efficiency
  • 6. Materials & Methods
    • ■ 3 bamboo species, Bambusa vulgaris, Dendrocalamus giganteus , and Bambusa X were used in this study.
    • ■ They were grown in 100 litre pots at the JKUAT experimental farm, in a randomized complete block design.
    • ■ Wastewater from the University treatment ponds was used to irrigate the plants
  • 7. Materials & Methods
    • ■ Growth parameters such as plant height, leaf number, number of branches, collar diameter were taken at monthly intervals.
    • ■ Infra Red Gas Analyzer was used to measure assimilation, evaporation and stomatal conductance twice a week.
    • ■ Measures of chlorophyll content were also taken using SPAD, and soil moisture levels monitored with a moisture metre.
  • 8. Bamboo Wastewater Trial in Juja
  • 9. Constitution of Juja wastewater
    • ■ The levels of K and Na are very high.
    • ■ This would have an effect in the opening and closing of stomata.
  • 10.
    • ■ The diurnal assimilation trend for the 3 bamboo species is the same.
    • ■ The plants receiving wastewater (red) have higher levels of assimilation than clean water (black).
    (from 8am)
  • 11.
    • ■ The diurnal stomatal conductance trend for the 3 bamboo species is the same.
    • ■ This supports the data on diurnal assimilation.
    (from 8am)
  • 12.
    • ■ D. giganteus has a higher Instantaneous WUE.
    • ■ Plants receiving wastewater appear to have a higher WUE in comparison to clean water plants.
    giant
  • 13. Stem & Branch Biomass
    • ■ Plants receiving waste water (-w) had the biggest culm and branch weight.
    • ■ Bambusa vulgaris (middle) did not show sensitivity to wastewater.
    B. vulgaris Giant B. x
  • 14. Leaf Biomass
    • ■ Total leaf weight showed a clear difference between plants receiving wastewater and clean water.
    Giant B. vulgaris B.x
  • 15. Biomass
    • ■ XW and VW had the highest number of new branches.
    • ■ GW had a decrease in number of branches in the same period.
    B.x B.v. giant
  • 16.
    • ■ B. vulgaris and B.x had more than double the leaf area of the other treatments.
    • ■ These treatments therefore have assimilation and evaporation rates that are three times of the other three.
  • 17.
    • ■ Wastewater plants (orange) had higher chlorophyll values
  • 18. Preliminary Conclusions
    • ■ Confirm hypothesis 1 that main responses to wastewater is increase in leaf area and chlorophyll.
    • ■ Although giant bamboo appears to have a higher WUE it is also the slowest growing.
    • ■ Water use efficiency was relatively similar although wastewater WUE appeared to be higher (significance?).
  • 19. Further Studies
    • ■ Different sources of wastewater particularly from industrial sites to be investigated.
    • ■ A wider range of concentration of wastewater to be tested.
    • ■ Analysis of nutrient uptake to be carried out.