CRP6: Forests, Trees and Agroforestry: livelihoods, landscapes and governance

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Presented during the ICRAF Science Forum, September 2011, Nairobi, Kenya

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CRP6: Forests, Trees and Agroforestry: livelihoods, landscapes and governance

  1. 1. CRP6: Forests, Trees and Agroforestry: livelihoods, landscapes and governance
  2. 2. ICRAF’s GRP6 and CIFOR’s Domain 4 form the primary basis for CRP6.3: Exploiting synergy, Reducing overlap, Stimulating healthy debat where we differ in perceptions & experience
  3. 4. Building on and adding value to CIFOR Domain 4 + ICRAF GRP 6 Landscape Mosaics project In 5 countries Sustainable Rural Development through High Value Biocarbon Approaches: Building Multifunctio-nal Landscapes and Institutions in West and East Africa Supported by Finland Sustainable Sulawesi Supported by CIDA Building on a joint history: Approval expected soon Recently approved Asia, Africa, L.America; Biodi-versity work coordinated by CIFOR: integration lead by ICRAF W.Africa Starting new joint projects:
  4. 5. Component 3: Landscape management for environmental services, biodiversity conservation and livelihoods CRP6 -- Forests, Trees and Agroforestry: livelihoods, landscapes and governance <ul><li>Understanding drivers of forest transition </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding the consequences of forest transition for environmental services and livelihoods </li></ul><ul><li>Learning landscapes : dynamics of multifunctionality </li></ul>
  5. 6. Forest and tree cover transitions: a unifying concept across CRP6 Temporal pattern Spatial pattern Institutional challenge X-linkage of actions in landscape
  6. 7. ilding Improving Livelihoods, Env.Serv. & Governance Landscape management options 1. Pro-duc-tion sys-tems 3. Env.Ser- vi – ces 4. Adap-ting & redu- cing emis-sions 2. Con-ser-va- tion and use ------ Livelihoods in context ------ Global actors and value chains Drivers Tree cover transitions & forest quality Local External 5. Tra-de & in- vest-ment Institutions, gender, capacity strengthening & partnerships . The 5 components of CRP6 share common goals and networked impact pathways
  7. 8. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol16/iss1/resp1/
  8. 9. SLO4. Sustainable management of natural resources <ul><li>Recognition by govern-ment agencies and in public debate of tree cover and forest transi-tions as a basis for realistic land use and development planning and institutional reform of land use regulation </li></ul>Theme 6.3.1. Understanding patterns and drivers of forest (tree cover) transition in decline and restoration phases
  9. 10. Recognition by government agencies and in public debate of tree cover and forest transitions as a basis for realistic land use and development planning and institutional reform of land use regulation Policy documents use quantitative tree cover criteria and multiple forest types , rather than merely binary 'deforestation/ reforestation' data CRP6 tools and approaches to multi-layered driver analysis are adopted for internatio-nal/ national/ local policy development Institutional support and interest in Agroforestry Policy Initiative and Forest Landscape Restoration efforts Theme-level Outcome Verifiable indicator
  10. 11. The holistic forest+tree view of the world Source: Global tree cover inside and outside forest, according to the Global Land Cover 2000 dataset, the FAO spatial data on farms versus forest, and the analysis by Zomer et al. (2009) >
  11. 12. 1. Undisturbed natural forest 2. Undisturbed + sust. logged natural forest 3. Closed canopy undisturbed + logged forest 4A. as 3 + agroforest 4B. as 3 + timber plantations 4C. as 3 + agroforest + timber plant’s + estate crops 4D as 4C + shrub Stakeholder: Rainforest foundation Conservation agency Modis data Ministry of Forestry Forest ecologist UNFCCC definition
  12. 14. In the 1990’s loss of natural cover increased the amount of ‘low C-stock’/low economic value land; tree (crop) planting was 28% of the loss of natural forest area After 2000 planting of tree (crop)s equals 90% of concurrent loss of natural forest; the amount of low C-stock/low economic value land decreases
  13. 15. Integrate Segregate Farm fo-restry, agrofo-rests Natural forest Fields, Forests & Parks Open field agriculture Plantations Fields,fallow, forest mosaic  forest modification  agroforestation  re- and afforestation deforestation 
  14. 16. Coarsening of pattern: segregate
  15. 17. SLO4. Sustainable management of natural resources <ul><li>Local resource managers in tree-based multiple use land-scapes use cost-effective and replicable tools and ap-proaches to appraise likely impacts of changes in landuse on watershed functions, bio-diversity and carbon stocks as well as on the economic productivity of the landscape </li></ul>Theme 6.3.2. Understanding consequences of tree cover transi-tion for livelihoods, environmental goods and services & adaptive policy
  16. 18. SLO4. Sustainable management of natural resources <ul><li>Land use planners and practioners use principles and methods resulting in clearer and more transparent recognition of conservation and develpment tradeoffs in land and rights allocation, as well as adjustments to economic incentives </li></ul>Theme 6.3.2. Understanding consequences of tree cover transi-tion for livelihoods, environmental goods and services & adaptive policy
  17. 19. Theme-level Outcome Verifiable indicator Local resource managers in tree-based multiple use landscapes use cost-effective and replicable tools and approaches to appraise likely impacts of changes in landuse on watershed functions, biodiversity and carbon stocks as well as on the economic productivity of the landscape Documented use of tools and approaches developed, tested and/or promoted by CRP6 partners Land use planners and practioners use principles and methods resulting in clearer and more transparent recognition of conservation and develpment tradeoffs in land and rights allocation, as well as adjustments to economic incentives Documented appli-cation of parti-cipatory land use planning for forest margin settings, integrated with tenurial reform
  18. 20. 1 0 1 Degradation branch Restoration branch Hysteresis domain Relative C stock Relative biodoiversity
  19. 21. Forests beyond C stocks: how do tree species richness and C stock relate at plot level? Early ASB data Indonesian NFI dataset (Murdiyarso et al., 2002 Dewi et al., in prep)
  20. 22. Crop pro-duction Tree pro-duction Watershed services Biodiversity Landscape beauty Carbon storage P crop P tree C store W sh B iod L and Convex likely Concave likely No preference Synergies be-tween functions
  21. 23. SLO4. Sustainable management of natural resources <ul><li>Local and external stakehol-ders negotiate and have access to a range of condi-tional and performance-based arrangements that support the provision and maintenance of environmen-tal services and biodiversity in productive landscapes </li></ul>Theme 6.3.3. Actively learning landscapes where innovative response and policy options are being tested
  22. 24. SLO4. Sustainable management of natural resources <ul><li>Opportunities for win-win solutions in restoration contexts are fully used, while the hard tradeoffs are recognised and contest over them is replaced by negotiation </li></ul>Theme 6.3.3. Actively learning landscapes where innovative response and policy options are being tested
  23. 25. Theme-level Outcome Verifiable indicator Local and external stakehol-ders negotiate and have access to a range of conditional and performance-based arrange-ments that support the provi-sion and maintenance of envi-ronmental services and biodi-versity in productive landscapes National policy formu-lation and new action re-search undertakings refer to multiple PES paradigms that were derived from RUPES and PRESA experience Opportunities for win-win solutions in restoration contexts are fully used, while the hard tradeoffs are recognised and contest over them is replaced by negotiation Documented progress on tenure reform and nego-tiated joint management regimes in conservation and restoration contexts, that refer to CRP6 approaches and results
  24. 27. Where would you like to see more trees?
  25. 28. Participatory resource mapping followed by simulation board game with agents of change: seeking contracts for logging or oilpalm conversion, or agreements on forest protection and ecolabelling (Photographs: Grace Villamor)
  26. 29. Effort to protect/enhance ES External financial rewards 0 low medium high Baseline Schematic results of ES experiment No Medium Strong loss of social motivation Hypothesis of PES replacing social motivation to protect ES
  27. 30. Price condition for inter-genera-tional increase in altruism: ( )+( )( )> 0 Individual Benefits - Costs Social cohe- sion Group Benefits - Costs Loss of sociall cohesion (‘relatedness’) term implies shift from group to indi-vidual ‘benefit – cost’ considerations
  28. 31. Hutan Desa Partial answer to the issues of local use rights and tenure security?
  29. 32. http://www.asb.cgiar.org/
  30. 33. CGIAR Strategic Results Framework (SRF) SLO1. Reducing rural poverty SLO2. Increasing food security SLO3. Improving nutrition and health SLO4. Sustainable management of natural resources Measurables include increased income from farm and non-farm activities, per-mitting investment in health, education and other poverty-redu-cing activities. Measurables include changing levels of production, price and access to affordable food by the urban and rural poor. Measurables incluide metrics of healthy growth, particularly in children, and dietary intake, nutrient up-take and consequent health effects. Measurables are resource use per unit of production, resto-ration and conserva-tion of ecosystem services and reduced impacts of climatic change & shocks. CRP6.1 helps redu-cing rural poverty, through tree-based livelihoods; it includes poverty in forest mar-gins and of forest-dependent people CRP6.4 includes rural vulnerability to cli-mate change CRP6.5 looks at ‘ex-tensification’ and economic investment in agriculture and forestry as a driver of tree cover transitions. CRP6.1 contributes agroforestry techno-logies for food pro-duction CRP6.1 (supported by 6.2 ) has attention to fruit trees and medici-nals in various stages of domestication, as contributor to nutri-tional quality and health management CRP6.2 and CRP6.3 focus on resource (biodiversity) conser-vation and ecosystem services CRP6.4 researches ecosystem-based adaptive responses and REDD financing
  31. 34. Enlighten- Decision Negotiation ment support support No imme- Single deci- Multiple stakeholders diate use sionmaker Politics of K claims Single Multi- ple This should be the default assumption
  32. 35. Thanks details of the planned are available on file…
  33. 36. CRP 6.3.1 Output targets <ul><li>6.3.1.1 Empirical data sets of quantitative and qualitative tree cover transitions across major … </li></ul><ul><li>6.3.1.2 Empirical data on changes in spatial pattern of tree cover within landscapes in relation to segre.. </li></ul><ul><li>6.3.1.3 Methods for monitoring and quantifying tree cover refined and linked to data uncertainty </li></ul><ul><li>6.3.1.4 Proximate and ultimate drivers of land use and tree cover change: inference from spatial… </li></ul><ul><li>6.3.1.5 Policy levers and negotiation opportunities to influence drivers of tree cover transitions, rehabilitation and/or agroforestry transformation </li></ul>
  34. 37. CRP 6.3.2 Output targets <ul><li>6.3.2.1 Tools for and case studies of quantifying buffering of water flows and other hydrological ES.. </li></ul><ul><li>6.3.2.2 Tools for and case studies of understanding biodiversity-based environmental services across.. 6.3.2.3 Not just carbon? Quantified tradeoffs be-tween C stocks and other environmental services.. 6.3.2.4 Gender, age and wealth-specific apprecia-tion of tree cover transitions in relation to demo- .. </li></ul><ul><li>6.3.2.5 Tested tools and governance mechanisms for adaptive landscape management of ecology- </li></ul><ul><li>6.3.2.6 Policies for the agriculture-forestry interface and strategies for sustaining food security, ecologi-.. </li></ul>
  35. 38. CRP 6.3.3 Output targets <ul><li>6.3.3.1 Network of ‘active learning landscapes’ on RES/PES mechanisms maintained and enhanced </li></ul><ul><li>6.3.3.2 Synthesis from action research sites, identi-fying principles, methods and processes for advan.. </li></ul><ul><li>6.3.3.3 Identification of improved modalities and approaches to effectively support conservation in.. 6.3.3.4 Participatory models for reserve manage-ment: resource use rights, threats to targeted … 6.3.3.5 Impact studies testing assumptions of the CRP6.3 theory of change and output-outcome-impact pathways. </li></ul>

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