Busseola FuscaTechnology / innovation adoption ?Combining spatio-temporal, socio-economic and institutional and policy settings
Farming Systems Ecology Group
Farming Systems Ecology Group
Vision: To be an internationally leading player in the fields of research and education that, Farming Systems Ecologythrough a farming systems approach, contributes alternative answers to the major problemsfacing current agriculture, namely: (i) global food security; (ii) provision of ecological services; (iii) food and environmental health; (iv) adaptation to climate change; (v) preservation of the biological and cultural diversity of agricultural landscapes.6 Scientific staff, 2.5 Postdocs, 15 PhD Students, 4 Support staff1, 2 Guest researchers
How? Agroecological design Human-nature Experiments Modelling Social- Integration Network analysis ecological level Landscape ecology Interactions Co-innovation Social learning games Agent-based systems TerritoryEvolutionary systems design Analysis Multifunctional Agro-ecosystem Landscapes properties & functions Design What? Agro-ecological Ecological intensification resilience Organic farming Conservation agriculture Sustainable Crop-livestock integration Food Baskets Pure graze animal production Complex adaptive systems Pest suppressive landscapes Farming systems Ecosystem services Resilience and adaptation
Background Nutrient cycling and N emissions Tying stall: farmyard manure + some liquid manure Improving the agro-environmental value of cattle straw manure Shah, G.A.
Ground beetle dispersal – The Netherlands Video tracking Mark-release recapture 5 m2 36 m2 2500 m2 105 m2 day-1 3 m2 day-1 18 m2 day-1 Simulations No effect of crop No effect of type, gender or vegetation density No effect of gender feeding levelQuantifying ground beetle dispersal in an agricultural landscapeBas AllemaSupervisors: Walter Rossing, Wopke van der Werf, Joop van Lenteren
Designing intensive production systems Rice-ducks-fish-azolla - Indonesia Uma Khumairoh
Intensification pathwaysProductivity per animal Michoacan, Mexico Productivity per unit labour Evolutionary systems designCortez-Arriola et al., subm.
Ecological intensification of livestock grazing systems in the East of Uruguay Supervisors: Santiago Dogliotti (FAGRO) Walter Rossing Promotor: Pablo Tittonell Student: Andrea Ruggia
Impact of structural and functional changes insmallholder landscapes on pest incidenceCase of maize stem borers in EthiopiaYodit Kebede Felix Bianchi, Fred Baudron, Diego Valbuena, Katrien Descheemaeker Promoter: Pablo Tittonell
PhD Thesis: Spatially Explicit Multifunctional Landscape Assessment:A Case Study in Llano Bonito, Costa Rica Sanjeeb Bhattarai Bruno Rapidel (CIRAD), Jacques Wery (SupAgro), Jenny Ordonez (ICRAF), Walter Rossing & Pablo Tittonell (WUR)
Simulation and gaming - Mexico Mapa de la Reserva de la Biosfera de la Sepultura. Fuente: CONANPSimulation and gaming for improving local adaptive capacity; The case of a buffer-zone community in Mexico E.N. Speelman (2008-2013) Supervisory team J.C.J. Groot, L.E. Garcia-Barrios, P. Tittonell
Social networks and knowledge systemsHow does the nature and strength of social networks affectadoption of soil and water conservation technologies? Kondwani Khonje
Scales and dimensionsSocio-economicBiophysical Soil-Plant/ Field & Farm & Landscape Regions & organism cropping farming & territory sectors system system
Renewed FSE research strategy • Ecological intensification as a structuring concept; • Reinforce ‘Design’ as our core business; • Focus on farming systems, ecological services and the landscape; • Develop boundary approaches to interface Ecology and Society; • Deploy parallel strategies for North and South; Rural sociology Farming systems Innovation & ecology communication studiesCrop & weed Soil quality Organic plant Animal production Plant production Farm technology ecology group breeding systems systems group
New challenges, new developments Social- ecological Interactions Analysis MultifunctionalAgro-ecosystem Landscapes properties & functions Design Sustainable Food Baskets
Our guiding paradigmMake intensive use of the natural functionalities that ecosystems offer... Yield potential Soil quality Precision agriculture Ecological Intensification (Cassman, 1999) Produce more, but produce differently Ecological Intensification (Doré et al., 2010)
Ecological intensification: how? … making intensive use of the natural functionalities that ecosystems offer… 1. Mobilising advances in plant sciences 2. Lessons from natural ecosystems 3. Valorisation of farmers’ knowledge and lay expertiseRecent advances in plant sciences 4. Synthesising knowledge through meta- and comparative studies 5. Ecological intensification in the ‘agronomy’ curricula
Definitions of ‘design’ Reality To decide upon the look and functioning (agroecosystems) of an object by making a detailed drawing of it: Problems Research Design « a number of architectural students were designing a factory» Questions To do or plan (something) with a specific purpose in mind: Analysis « the tax changes were designed to stimulate economic growth » Structure Purpose Function Function Knowledge Purpose Structure Synthesis Conclusions Decisions New facts, new reality Goewie, 1993
Designing agricultural systems by mimicking nature Intensive low-input couverturein Cuban agriculture The SCV (systèmes sous systems végétale) Non-disturbed soil structure Structure Permanent vegetation cover Biomass inputs to the soil Function Nutrient recycling Exploration of multiple strata above and below ground Fernando Funes-Monzote
Re-desin: Produce more, but produce differently… Organic vs. Conventional crop yields Specialized System Input Output Magnitude of anthropogenic and natural nitrogen inflows per continent 50 Fertiliser use Ecoefficiencies 45 N fixation (agriculture) 40 Million tonnes of N per year Externalities N fixation (natural) 35 Dry deposition Wet deposition 30 Agro-diverse System 25 20 15 Input Output 10 5 0 Africa Asia Europe Latin America North America Oceania Externalities Seufert et al., 2012
Conversion to organic farming in La Camargue, France Innovative cropping systemsSystems analysis(i) Bio-economic models (BEM): Plausible futures(iii) Land use/cover change models (LUCC): Mostprobable spots for change(ii) Multi-agent models (MAS): Possible pathways Delomtte, 2011
Landsacape level interactionsHow can agricultural intensification and wildlife be Figure 2 – Schematic representation of the multi-agent model Agent-based modellingbest accommodated in a village territory? Baudron, Delmotte, Herrera, Corbeels, TittonellIntensification through conservation agriculture to preserve habitats and biodiversity
Landsacape level interactionsExample from a Dutch dairy landscape
Designing pest suppressive landscapes • Natural biocontrol • pollination • Profitable agriculture Biocontrol • Nectar Landscape aesthetics • biodiversity • Water quality AphidsCurrent landscape? Pesticide use Lepidoptera Felix Bianchi Groot and Rossing, 2010
A methodological framework Landscapes Trade-offs across scales COMPASSAttic LandscapeIMAGES ActorIMAGES Agro-ecosystem diversity, Trajectories and Trade-offs for Intensification of Cereal-based systems Economic Spatial Land use results coherence systems Farms Nutrient Landscape Collective losses metrics decisions Diego Valbuena (WUR) Bruno Gerard (CIMMYT) Nutrient Jeroen Groot (WUR) Water Feed FarmIMAGES balance balance balanceFields, landscape elements Santiago Lopez Ridaura (CIMMYT) FarmDESIGN FarmSTEPS Labor balance Fred Baudron (CIMMYT) Economic results Nutrient losses FarmDANCES Andy McDonald (CIMMYT) Tim Krupnik (CIMMYT) Katrien Descheemaker (WUR) Pablo Tittonell (WUR) Nutrient Organic Soil Water FieldIMAGES balance matter erosion balance NDICEA 3 new PhD to start in 2013 Nutrient Nutrient Plant RotSOM Crop yield RotErosion uptake losses diversity Co-innovation and Modeling Platform for Agro-ecoSystem Simulation – Groot et al., 2012 A Cimmyt-Wageningen collaboration in the context of the CRP Maize and Wheat
Evolutionary learning cycles Design Action: Select Implementing a ‘bright idea’ Describe: Which? What? Plan: Observation: Which Find out improvements? consequencesExplore Analysis:Diversify What areWhat if? implications? Explain: Why?
Farm designDescribe ExplainDesignExplore Validate Groot et al., 2012. Agricultural Systems.
FSE in the world (PhD theses) Current theses ‘Inherited’ theses Start in 2013
Publications appeared during 20121. Affholder, F., Tittonell, P., Corbeels, M., Roux, S., Motisi, N., Tixier, P., Wery, J., 2012. Ad Hoc Modeling in Agronomy: What Have We Learned in theLast 15 Years? Agronomy Journal 104, 735-748.2. Tittonell, P., Scopel, E., Andrieu, N., Posthumus, H., Mapfumo, P., Corbeels, M., van Halsema, G.E., Lahmar, R., Lugandu, S., Rakotoarisoa, J.,Mtambanengwe, F., Pound, B., Chikowo, R., Naudin, K., Triomphe, B., Mkomwa, S., 2012. Agroecology-based aggradation-conservation agriculture(ABACO): Targeting innovations to combat soil degradation and food insecurity in semi-arid Africa. Field Crop Res., 1-7.3. Baudron, F., Tittonell, P., Corbeels, M., Letourmy, P., Giller, K., 2012. Comparative performance of conservation agriculture and current smallholderfarming practices in semi-arid Zimbabwe. Field crops Research 132, 117-128.4. Lahmar, R., Bationo, B.A., Lamso, N. D., Guéro, Y., Tittonell, P., 2012. Tailoring conservation agriculture technologies to West Africa semi-arid zones:Building on traditional local practices for soil restoration. Field Crops Research 132, 158-167. Berg,5. W. van den, Grasman, J. & Rossing, W.A.H., 2012. Optimal design of experiments on nematode dynamics and crop yield. Nematology 14(7): 773-7866. Berhe, A.A., Stroosnijder, L., Habtu, S., Keesstra, S.D., Berhe, M. & Hadgu Meles, K., 2012. Risk assessment by sowing date for barley (Hordeumvulgare) in northern Ethiopia. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 154-155 (March): 30-37.7. Groot, J.C.J., Oomen, G.J.M. & Rossing, W.A.H., 2012. Multi-objective optimization and design of farming systems. Agricultural Systems 110: 63-77.DOI: 10.1016/j.agsy.2012.03.012.8. He, M., Tian, G., Semenov, A.M. & van Bruggen, A.H.C., 2012. Short-term fluctuations of sugar-beet damping-off by Pythium ultimum in relation tochanges in bacterial communities after organic amendments to two soils. Phytopathology 102(4): 413-420.9. Khumairoh, U., Groot, J.C.J. & Lantinga, E.A., 2012. Complex agro-ecosystems for food security in a changing climate. Ecol Evol 2 1696-1704. DOI:10.1002/ece3.271.10. Shah, G.M., Shah, G.A., Groot, J.C.J., Oenema, O. & Lantinga, E.A., 2012. Irrigation and lava meal use reduces ammonia emission and improves Nutilization when solid cattle manure is applied to grassland. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 160: 59-65. DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2011.07. 017.11. Shah, G.M., Rashid, M.I., Shah, G.A., Groot, J.C.J. & Lantinga, E.A., 2012. Nitrogen mineralization and recovery by ryegrass from animal manureswhen applied to various soil types. Plant and Soil (Online first) DOI 10.1007/s11104-012-1347-8.12. Zotarelli, L., Dukes, M.D., Scholberg, J.M.S., Femminella, K. & Munoz-Carpena, R., 2011. Irrigation Scheduling for Green Bell Peppers UsingCapacitance Soil Moisture Sensors. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering-Asce 137(2): 73-81.
FSE: Systems approaches to ecological intensification Five guiding heuristics 1. Ecological intensification must be precised in terms of how much, where and how 2. Farming systems research (analysis) is not the same as farming systems design (synthesis) 3. Agroecological innovation can draw inspiration from nature and from local knowledge systems 4. Ecological intensification depends on patterns-functions operating at the landscape level 5. Moving across scales implies meeting trade-offs concerning resource allocation decisions