Dennis Garrity: Evergreen Agriculture #BeatingFamine


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Increasing agricultural productivity through Evergreen Agriculture: Key advances in farming systems in Eastern and Southern Africa

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Dennis Garrity: Evergreen Agriculture #BeatingFamine

  1. 1. Creating an EverGreen Agriculture in Africa Recent advances & Future opportunities Dennis Garrity Distinguished Board Research Fellow World Agroforestry Centre Drylands Ambassador, UN Convention to Combat Desertification U
  2. 2. Faidherbia albida is commonly found in cereal crop systems in Ethiopia
  3. 3. December 2011: Ethiopian Prime Minister announces national programme to establish 100 million Faidherbia trees in farmers’ fields
  4. 4. Ngitili: Community-Based Regeneration of agroforestrynow cover about 500,000 ha in 934 villages
  5. 5. Major rivers Major farming systems in Major Lakes Subsaharan Africa National Boundaries Regional Programme Countries #Major Farming Systems 1. Irrigation 2. Tree crop 3. Forest based Uganda 4. Rice-tree crop Kenya Rwanda 5. Highland perennial 6. Highland temperate mixed Tanzania Malawi 7. Root crops 8. Cereal-root crops mixed e iqu Zambia 9. Maize mixed mb za Mo 11. Agro-pastoral millet/sorghum Zimbabwe 10. Large commercial and smallholder 12. Pastoral N 13. Sparse (arid) 900 0 900 Kilometers 14. Coastal artisanal fishing
  6. 6. Kenyan Farmlands: Bold policy to achieve >10% tree cover on farms through a National Agroforestry Programme
  7. 7. Types of Agroforestry• Agroforests: combinations of perennial species on arable land• Home gardens with perennials• Woodlots or farm forests• Trees on field and farm boundaries• Sylvopastoral systems: Trees in pastures• EverGreen Agriculture: Trees intercropped with field crops• Productive landscape systems
  8. 8. What is EverGreen Agriculture?A form of more intensive farming that integrates trees with annual crops.EverGreen farming systems are often ‘double- story’ systems that feature both perennial and annual species (food crops and trees).
  9. 9. Types of EverGreen Agriculture1. Farmer-Managed Natural Regeneration (FMNR) on cropland3. Conservation agriculture with trees (CAWT)3. Conventional agriculture interplanted with trees
  10. 10. National recommendations for maize in Malawi & Zambia: Faidherbia Fertilizer Trees at 100 trees per ha
  11. 11. Central Zambia2009 Trials
  12. 12. Faidherbia Trial Results in Zambia Maize yield - zero fertiliser 2008 2009 2010 ----- Tons/ha -------With Faidherbia 4.1 5.1 5.6Without Faidherbia 1.3 2.6 2.6________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Number of trials 15 40 40
  13. 13. Small-scale Conservation Farming with Faidherbia in Zambia
  14. 14. Typical onfarm nursery of 125 air-pruned seedlings
  15. 15. Long-term maize yield without fertilizerin a Gliricidia system P addition resumed Flood Drought Drought P stopped
  16. 16. Malawi National Agroforestry Food Security Programme
  17. 17. Impact of fertilizer trees on maize yield under farmer management_______________________________________Plot management Yield (t/ha)Maize only 1.30Maize + fertilizer trees 3.05____________________________________________________________2011 Survey of farms in six districts (Mzimba,Lilongwe, Mulanje, Salima, Thyolo and Machinga)
  18. 18. Classes of Trees in EverGreen Agriculture• Trees providing direct cash or nutritional benefits For example: Timber - Grevillea, Oil – Shea Fruits – Uapaca• Trees providing indirect benefits For example: Fertilizer trees – Faidherbia, Gliricidia Fodder trees -- Caliandra
  19. 19. 16 Countries are engaged in EverGreen Agriculture Farmer Managed Natural Regeneration Conservation Agriculture with trees Trees interplanted in conventional tilled cropland Farmer Managed Natural Regeneration + Trees interplanted in conventional tilled cropland
  20. 20. EverGreen Agriculture: Opportunities • Policy, Technical, and Scaling-up Support to Countries and Communities of Nations that are implementing or launching evergreen agriculture scaling-up programmes 2. Support mainstreaming of evergreen agriculture into the community of UN Organizations and Development Banks, building support for greater impact UNCCD, IFAD, World Bank, GEF, FAO, UNEP World Food Program
  21. 21. Indian Evergreen Agriculture Programme being launched by the Prime Minister and Prof M S Swaminathan
  22. 22. Evergreen Agriculture: Opportunities • Support mainstreaming of evergreen agriculture into regional and subregional organizations NEPAD/CAADP/Africa Union ASARECA and CORAF/WECARD COMESA and ECOWAS Horn of Africa Drylands Programme
  23. 23. EverGreen Agriculture: Opportunities 4. Help build partnerships with International NGOs and strengthen their technical capacity to achieve CRP impacts World Vision OxFam CARE Concern Worldwide 5. Support scientific communities and exchanges to help build research partnerships to tackle key issues and overcome barriers to scaling-up
  24. 24. Take home messages• A fresh low-cost approach to land regeneration and food security has taken root in Africa, and is spreading across the continent.• Millions of smallholders are adopting effective low cost land regeneration methods• Poor households should be targeted over large areas to end hunger in Africa• Many nations are implementing or launching national scaling-up programmes• An EverGreen Agriculture Network could accelerate the process of widespread adoption
  25. 25. For More InformationWorld Agroforestry Centrewww.worldagroforestry.orgEvergreen Agriculture