Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Dr Douglas Brown:   foundations for resilient livelihoods #BeatingFamine
Dr Douglas Brown:   foundations for resilient livelihoods #BeatingFamine
Dr Douglas Brown:   foundations for resilient livelihoods #BeatingFamine
Dr Douglas Brown:   foundations for resilient livelihoods #BeatingFamine
Dr Douglas Brown:   foundations for resilient livelihoods #BeatingFamine
Dr Douglas Brown:   foundations for resilient livelihoods #BeatingFamine
Dr Douglas Brown:   foundations for resilient livelihoods #BeatingFamine
Dr Douglas Brown:   foundations for resilient livelihoods #BeatingFamine
Dr Douglas Brown:   foundations for resilient livelihoods #BeatingFamine
Dr Douglas Brown:   foundations for resilient livelihoods #BeatingFamine
Dr Douglas Brown:   foundations for resilient livelihoods #BeatingFamine
Dr Douglas Brown:   foundations for resilient livelihoods #BeatingFamine
Dr Douglas Brown:   foundations for resilient livelihoods #BeatingFamine
Dr Douglas Brown:   foundations for resilient livelihoods #BeatingFamine
Dr Douglas Brown:   foundations for resilient livelihoods #BeatingFamine
Dr Douglas Brown:   foundations for resilient livelihoods #BeatingFamine
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Dr Douglas Brown: foundations for resilient livelihoods #BeatingFamine

3,202

Published on

Linkages between healthy landscapes and food security

Linkages between healthy landscapes and food security

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
3,202
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
4
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • “ but hunger is not a natural disaster. It is a legacy of choices made in the past. It stems from a series of decisions that, in retrospect, appear short-sighted, and were based on a wrong diagnosis of the causes of hunger, leading to incorrect prescriptions to remedy it. The single most important proximate cause of hunger today is that developing countries have either not invested sufficiently in agriculture or have invested in the wrong kind of agriculture, with little impact on the reduction in rural poverty.” But what is the “right kind of agriculture”? What should we invest in? What is of most relevance to the smallholder farmer -- to the urban or rural poor?
  • Important to understand the cultural values and norms of ourselves and what shape them. Equally important to understand those of the people we seek to work with and to help on the road to improved food security – to speak in their language and perhaps open their minds to aspects of their stated world view that are perhaps overlooked or ignored. At the heart of the matter are the choices people make – when raising children, when growing food, earning a livelihood.
  • “ The Lord God took the man and put him in the Garden of Eden to work it and take care of it.” Genesis 2:15
  • But the language we hear used is not at all encouraging. It doesn’t give me the impression that people get it. Two quotes: “ We have mobilized funds [US$340 million] to support resilience programmes , and while the problems cannot be solved overnight, it is important to appreciate the need for long-term investments in such areas as education, water, and the need to identify problems early and deal with them in good time. People need to be helped to recover quickly from disasters,” Kristalina Georgieva, EU Commissioner the UK’s development minister, Stephen O’Brien, said: “ Resilience programme support is an important part of humanitarian support and response and provides a more sustainable way to deal with disasters.” Among things to be prioritized will be the provision of drought-resistant seeds, water, education, investing in weather forecasting technology, and scaling up nutrition programmes. I don’t know whether what we are reading here is reflects the actual views of the people being quoted (that is, as to what is needed to improve resilience) or the misconceptions of the journalist writing the report. While these areas for investment are certainly important and need attention, I would suggest that they are not the most important ones for addressing the underlying issues of vulnerability and to increase resilience.
  • The above is a simplified representation of the elements to be considered when examining resilience. Context ‘ Resilience of what? ’ Resilience can be identified and strengthened in a social group, socio-economic or political system, environmental context or institution. Each of these systems will display greater or lesser resilience to natural or man-made disasters. Disturbance ‘ Resilience to what? ’ These disturbances usually take two forms:  Shocks are sudden events that impact on the vulnerability of the system and its components.  Stresses are long-term trends that undermine the potential of a given system or process and increase the vulnerability of actors within it. These can include natural resource degradation, loss of agricultural production, urbanisation, demographic changes, climate change, political instability and economic decline. Capacity to deal with disturbance The ability of the system or process to deal with the shock or stress is based on the levels of exposure , the levels of sensitivity and adaptive capacities. The other side of resilience is vulnerability - the degree to which a system is susceptible to, or unable to cope with, the adverse effects of shocks and stresses. Reaction to disturbance In the best case, the reaction to a shock or stress might be a ‘bounce back better’ for the system or process concerned.
  • Rainfall Run-off Bare Mulched Ghana 49.80% 1.40% Cote d’Ivoire 36.40% 0.33% 29.00% 0.10% Nigeria 42.10% 2.40% 69.00% 2.00% Source: Aina, P.O., Dept of Soil Science, Obafemi Awolowi University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, in Soil Tillage in Africa: Needs and Challenges, FAO Retaining Plant Nutrients in the Weathered Soils Soil texture CEC (meq/100g soil) Sands (light-colored) 3-5 Sands (dark-colored) 10-20 Loams 10-15 Silt loams 15-25 Clay and clay loams 20-50 Organic soils 50-100
  • Tony realized in Niger, when he discovered the FMNR approach, that: -- they were not fighting against the desert -- they were fighting for the hearts and minds of the people (not just the local people, but also those in power)
  • The above is a simplified representation of the elements to be considered when examining resilience. Context ‘ Resilience of what? ’ Resilience can be identified and strengthened in a social group, socio-economic or political system, environmental context or institution. Each of these systems will display greater or lesser resilience to natural or man-made disasters. Disturbance ‘ Resilience to what? ’ These disturbances usually take two forms:  Shocks are sudden events that impact on the vulnerability of the system and its components.  Stresses are long-term trends that undermine the potential of a given system or process and increase the vulnerability of actors within it. These can include natural resource degradation, loss of agricultural production, urbanisation, demographic changes, climate change, political instability and economic decline. Capacity to deal with disturbance The ability of the system or process to deal with the shock or stress is based on the levels of exposure , the levels of sensitivity and adaptive capacities. The other side of resilience is vulnerability - the degree to which a system is susceptible to, or unable to cope with, the adverse effects of shocks and stresses. Reaction to disturbance In the best case, the reaction to a shock or stress might be a ‘bounce back better’ for the system or process concerned.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Foundations for Resilient Livelihoods: Soils, Savings and Trees Douglas R. Brown Director, Agriculture and Food Security 11 April 2012 Presentation at the international conference: Beating famine: Sustainable food security through land regeneration in a changing climate , Nairobi, Kenya
    • 2. Some thoughts on hunger and food “but hunger is not a natural disaster. It is a legacy of choices made in the past. It stems from a series of decisions that, in retrospect, appear short-sighted, and were based on a wrong diagnosis of the causes of hunger, leading to incorrect prescriptions to remedy it. The single most important proximate cause of hunger today is that … countries have either not invested sufficiently in agriculture or have invested in the wrong kind of agriculture, with little impact on the reduction in rural poverty.”  Source: de Schutter and Cordes. 2011. Accounting for Hunger. Page 2.
    • 3. Some thoughts on hunger and food “Food is indispensible for humanity. If there is enough to eat and the food supply is sure, then we’ll develop. But if we haven’t enough to eat, then we cannot develop. We must sort out the food problem before we do anything else.”  Source: Yacouba Sawadogo in “The Man who Stopped the Desert”, http://www.1080films.co.uk/Yacoubamovie/
    • 4. Some thoughts on worldview and foodproduction Religion, cultural values and norms  “those worldview beliefs that determine cultural values and individual motivation and behaviour ”  Source: Gary W. Fick. 2008. Food, Farming and Faith A study of the linkage between Judeo-Christian foundations or principles found in the Bible and agricultural sustainability.
    • 5. The heart of the matter Agriculture has two essential parts:  Working the land  Taking care of the land  Source: Genesis 2:15 What do we most often emphasize? What do we neglect?
    • 6. Investing in the AssetBase for ResilientLivelihoods Natural Capital  Soil, water, land Human Capital  Knowledge and skills Social Capital  Institutions  Cultural values and norms Physical Capital Financial Capital  Finances  Market institutions
    • 7. But something is missing too HORN OF AFRICA: Greater food insecurity forecast  Source: IRIN, 5 April 2012, http://www.irinnews.org/Report/95247/HORN-OF-AFRICA-Greater-food Support to resilience is said to be essential – but what is that? Is it?:  Long term investment in education, water and early warning  Provision of drought-resistant seeds, water, education, weather forecasting and scaling up nutrition The question we have been asking:  What will build or restore resilience?
    • 8. Source: DFID. 2011. Defining Disaster Resilience: A DFID Approach Paper.
    • 9. Ecosystem resilience and food security (Conway and Toenniessen, 2003)
    • 10. Ecosystem resilience and food security Increase dryland agricultural productivity (profitability), sustainability and resilience through  Capturing higher percentage of rainfall  Mulch vs bare soil  Contour bunds  Ridge tillage  Other S&WC practices  Increasing soil organic matter content  Improves soil’s capacity to absorb rainfall and retain soil moisture  Increases capacity of soil to retain plant nutrients  Improves fertilizer use efficiency  Incorporate trees into the agropastoral landscape Increase resiliency to climatic and market shocks through more diversified production systems
    • 11. State: State: CWBO1: CWBO2: Resilient Food Parents Nourishe Livelihoo Securit Provide d d y Agricultural Production Household Land Knowledge Resources Food & Skills Consumption (quantity, quality, intrahoushol Income Cultural d allocation, Values, etc.) Labour Norms & Resources Priorities Other Uses of Income Non-Agr. (+ve, -ve) Use of Labour SavingsUnderstanding the system in order to effect change
    • 12. Foundations for Resilient Livelihoods Soils, Savings, Trees (SST)  Soils  Protect, restore soils through good S&WC practices  Savings  Savings groups for all households  Tress  Regeneration of woody vegetation in the landscape These are the foundations for resilience  Accessible to all  Even the poorest and most vulnerable  Other things are good, but these are foundational
    • 13. Development is … People  Wanting things to be better – hopes and aspirations  May feel trapped – need the space and the possibility to change Change  People need to be free to change  People need to want to change  People need to be able to change Helping people to bring about change through  Local participation  Local perceptions  Local knowledge  Local empowerment  Local institutions, cultural values and norms
    • 14. Source:Sahel Working Group. 2011. Escapingthe Hunger Cycle - Pathways-to-Resilience-in-the-Sahel.http://www.groundswellinternational.org/susthttp://www.odi.org.uk/events/details.asp?id=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mTIVdNK

    ×